List of deaths at the Berlin Wall


List of deaths at the Berlin Wall
One of many memorials to those who died at the Berlin Wall

There were numerous deaths at the Berlin Wall, which stood as a barrier between West Berlin and East Germany from 13 August 1961 till 9 November 1989. Before erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961, 3.5 million East Germans circumvented Eastern Bloc emigration restrictions, many by crossing over the border from East Berlin into West Berlin, from where they could then travel to West Germany and other Western European countries. Between 1961 and 1989, the Wall prevented almost all such emigration.[1]

The state-funded Centre for Contemporary History (ZZF) in Potsdam has given the official figure of 136 deaths, including people attempting to escape, border guards, and innocent parties. However, researchers at the Checkpoint Charlie Museum and some others had estimated the death toll to be significantly higher.

The escape attempts claimed the lives of a wide variety of people, from a child as young as one to an 80-year-old woman, and many died due to the accidental or illegal actions of the guards. In numerous legal cases throughout the 1990s several border guards, along with political officials responsible for the defence policies, were found guilty of manslaughter and served probation or were jailed for their role in the Berlin Wall deaths.

Contents

Identifying the death toll

Monument to the Berlin Wall with part of the concrete wall in the background
A section of the Berlin Wall in 1986

Identifying deaths specifically attributable to the Berlin Wall is not straightforward. Although East Germans were aware of deaths on the Wall, due to West German media broadcasts which they were able to receive, reliable information was closely held by the East German authorities. A number of different West German institutions kept their own records. These included the West Berlin police, the Central Registry of State Judicial Administration in Salzgitter (which tracked all border fatalities) and the Arbeitsgruppe 13 August (Working Group 13 August), a West Berlin association. After the fall of the Wall, criminal investigations into border killings were launched by the Investigating Agency for Governmental and Party Crimes (ZERV) and the Berlin public prosecutor's office.[2] Each of these institutions used different criteria to count deaths. For instance, the Salzgitter registry recorded incidents in which "suspicion of a criminal act was justified", while the Arbeitsgruppe 13 August counted "all victims who died in connection with flight and/or the border regime", including deaths by accidents or drowning, or deaths of border soldiers and policemen in suicides or firearms accidents. This gave them the figure of 235 deaths compared to the significantly lower number of 78 according to the Salzgitter registry.[3] The Checkpoint Charlie Museum gives the number at 245 deaths, though this includes suicides by border guards and bodies found in the water even when there was no obvious link to them being an escapee. They also state that the first person to die at the Wall was in fact an East German officer who committed suicide.[4]

In 2005, the Centre for Contemporary History and the Berlin Wall Memorial Site and Documentation Centre established a research project to definitively "establish the number and identities of the individuals who died at the Berlin Wall between 1961 and 1989 and to document their lives and deaths through historical and biographical research". At the time, no reliable or official information was available about the number of fatalities at the Wall. The project found that 136 people had died,[5][6] using the criteria of "either an attempted escape or a temporal and spatial link between the death and the border regime". Not all had died immediately – one fatality occurred years later – and not all were caused by acts of violence. After reviewing 575 deaths, the project team found that at least 136 people died in shootings, were killed in accidents or committed suicide after failing to cross the Wall.[7] These 136 victims fell into five categories:

  • Fugitives shot and killed or fatally injured by East German security forces while trying to cross the Wall;
  • Fugitives who died while attempting to cross the Wall, or who committed suicide when their attempt failed, or who suffered fatal injuries in the course of their attempt;
  • People from East and West who were shot and killed or fatally injured by East German security forces;
  • People from East and West who died or were fatally injured as a result of the actions or inaction of the East German security forces;
  • Members of the East German border troops who were killed or suffered fatal injuries while on duty.[8]

Another 16 cases of drowning could not definitively be connected to the Wall. Many other travellers from East and West Germany and Czechoslovakia died immediately before, during or after passing through checkpoints in Berlin, with a published figure of 251 deaths: most were the result of cardiac arrest.[7]

First and last deaths

When Berlin was a divided city, the Berlin Wall ran along Bernauer Straße. The street itself belonged to the French sector of West Berlin and the East German authorities declared that the windows and doors on that led out onto Bernauer Straße should be bricked up. In the early morning of 22 August 1961, Ida Siekmann became the first of 98 people to die while attempting to escape. She was living on the third floor of number 48, threw bedding and some possessions down onto the street and jumped out of the window of her apartment.[9][10][11] She fell on the sidewalk and was severely injured, dying shortly afterwards on her way to the Lazarus Hospital.[9][12] On 8 March 1989, Winfried Freudenberg became the last person to die in an attempt to escape from East Germany to West Berlin across the Berlin Wall by falling from his balloon.[13][14]

Causes and periods of deaths

East German border guards retrieving a body from the River Spree

The Berlin Wall, like the much longer inner German border between East and West Germany, was designed with two purposes in mind: to obstruct would-be border-crossers and to enable border guards to detect and stop illegal border crossings. In its final form, the 156 km (97 mi) wall consisted of inner and outer concrete walls separated by a "death strip"[7] some 15 m (49 ft) to 150 m (490 ft) wide. It was guarded by around 11,500 Grenztruppen, the Border Troops of the German Democratic Republic who were authorised to use any means necessary, including firearms, to prevent border breaches. The shooting orders, or Schießbefehl, issued to the border guards instructed that people attempting to cross the Wall were criminals, and that the use of deadly force was required to deal with them: "Do not hesitate to use your firearm, not even when the border is breached in the company of women and children, which is a tactic the traitors have often used".[15] Some guards have since claimed that the motto at the time was "a dead refugee is better than an escaped one".[16]

The principal cause of death was shooting. Of the 136 fatalities, 97 (71.3%) were shot dead, not only escapees but also individuals on either side who were not attempting to escape, and East German border guards killed on duty. Ninety-eight of the fatalities were attempted border-crossers, of which all but one were East Germans (the exception was Franciszek Piesik, a Polish citizen). Sixty-seven of them were killed in shootings. Another 30 people died as a result of shootings or fatal accidents sustained while in the vicinity of the Wall but not trying to cross it. Eight East German border soldiers were killed on duty by escapees, escape helpers, fellow soldiers, or the West Berlin police. Three people committed suicide after escape attempts failed.[7]

About half of those who lost their lives on the Wall were killed in the first five years after it was originally installed. Death rates fell from then on, and took a particularly dramatic downturn after 1976. Nearly 87% of the Wall's victims, 118 people, died between 1961 and 1975; between 1976 and 1989 only 18 died. Several factors account for this reduction. The Wall became even more impregnable due to technical improvements carried out in the mid-1970s and more restrictions were put on the area adjoining the Wall, making it more difficult to reach in the first place. The signing of the Helsinki Accords in 1975 led to new opportunities to cross the border legally, resulting in a rise in emigration applications and a corresponding fall in escape attempts.[7]

Deaths by year

1960s
Year   Number of deaths
1960
0
1961
12
1962
22
1963
10
1964
10
1965
12
1966
12
1967
2
1968
7
1969
3
1970s
Year   Number of deaths
1970
8
1971
4
1972
4
1973
5
1974
3
1975
4
1976
0
1977
2
1978
0
1979
0
1980s
Year   Number of deaths
1980
2
1981
3
1982
1
1983
1
1984
1
1985
0
1986
4
1987
1
1988
0
1989
3

Locations, demographics and motivations of the victims

Map showing the location of the Berlin Wall and the legal crossing points in use from 1963

Around two-thirds of the victims were killed in inner Berlin, accounting for 90 of the 136. Berlin-Mitte and Treptow were the inner city districts with the most fatalities; nearly half of the 64 escapees who died on the sector border lost their lives in those two districts. The remaining third died on the city's outskirts where the suburbs of West Berlin intersected with towns and villages in East Germany.[7] Several victims, including most of the children, drowned in the Spree or the Havel.

Most of those who died (comprising 78% of the fugitive victims) were young men aged between 16 and 30. Married men accounted for 20% of the deaths while only 8% were women. Nine children younger than 16 years old died, whereas 67 victims were aged between 21 and 30.[17] The overwhelming majority came from East Berlin and the surrounding area.[7]

Their motives for escaping evolved over time. Those who fled in the years shortly after the Wall was built had experienced the formerly open border first-hand and often had relatives in the West or had travelled there. By contrast, later escapees had grown up with the closed border, desired greater freedom and were dissatisfied with conditions in East Germany. Their attempts to escape were often triggered by specific events such as a wish to avoid conscription, repression by the authorities or the refusal of a request to emigrate. Many escapees had previously clashed with the state authorities and had been imprisoned for political offences, often related to earlier unsuccessful escape attempts.[7]

Deaths by population demographic

Age
Range Number of deaths
80+
1
70–79
0
60–69
3
50–59
2
40–49
7
30–39
15
20–29
76
10–19
25
0–9
6
Unknown
1
Sex
  Number of deaths
Male
128
Female   
8

East German responses to deaths

East German memorial to border guards killed at the Berlin Wall, August 1986. It was demolished following the fall of the Wall.

The use of lethal force on the Berlin Wall was an integral part of the East German state's policy towards its border system. Nonetheless, the East German government was well aware that border killings had undesirable consequences. The West German, US, British and French authorities protested killings when they occurred and the international reputation of East Germany was damaged as a result. It also undermined the East German government's support at home.[18]

The Stasi, East Germany's secret police, adopted a policy of concealing killings as much as possible. In the case of the November 1986 shooting of Michael Bittner at the Wall, a Stasi report commented: "The political sensitivity of the state border to Berlin (West) made it necessary to conceal the incident. Rumours about the incident had to be prevented from circulating, with information passing to West Berlin or the FRG [West Germany]." The Stasi took charge of "corpse cases" and those injured while trying to cross the border, who were transported to hospitals run by the Stasi or the police where they would recuperate before being transferred to Stasi prisons. The Stasi also took sole responsibility for the disposal of the dead and their possessions. Bodies were not returned to relatives but were cremated, usually at the crematorium at Baumschulenweg. Occasionally the cost of the cremations was covered by the victims themselves using money taken from their pockets.[18]

Stasi officers posing as policemen would inform the relatives, though not before trying to obtain "valuable pieces of information on the border violation". Deaths would be stated as being due to "a border provocation of his own causing", "a fatal accident of his own causing" or "drowning in a border waterway". Every border death was investigated in detail to identify how the attempt had been made, whether there were any vulnerabilities in the border system that needed to be remedied and whether anyone else had been involved. If necessary, the family, relatives, friends, colleagues and neighbours were put under surveillance. The reports produced following such cases were sent to the relevant member of the East German Politburo for consideration.[18]

The one exception to the general rule of concealment and obfuscation was that of border guards who died on duty. Most were killed either deliberately or accidentally by escapees or escape helpers. The dead guards were hailed by East German government propaganda as heroes, but West German public opinion was divided about the morality of killing border guards. Some took the view that escapees were entitled to use force in the course of crossing the border, but (as in one case tried in a West Berlin court) others saw the guard's life as taking priority over an escapee's freedom.[7]

Legal cases

Many of those involved in the killings at the Berlin Wall were investigated in a number of legal proceedings. Trials investigated border guards and senior political officials for their responsibility for the killings, some of which were believed to be unlawful.

Members of the National Defence Council, the political group responsible for the policies regarding the Berlin Wall, and the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) were brought to court in the 1990s. In 1997 Egon Krenz, who had in 1989 become the last Communist leader of East Germany, was sentenced to six-and-a-half years in prison for the manslaughter of four Germans who were shot while attempting to cross the Berlin Wall. Other men to be given jail sentences include the Defence Minister at the time, Heinz Kessler, his deputy Fritz Streletz, Günter Schabowski and Günther Kleiber.[19]

Senior political officials jailed for their role in the Berlin Wall deaths

Egon Krenz
Former East German leader Egon Krenz
Heinz Kessler
Defence Minister Heinz Kessler
Fritz Streletz
Deputy Defence Minister Fritz Streletz
Günter Schabowski
SED member Günter Schabowski
Günther Kleiber
SED member Günther Kleiber

In 2009 an interview with Kessler showed that, although he was sad about the deaths, he believed the Wall should never have been removed:

I deplore the fact that East Germans were shot while trying to flee westward, but the Berlin Wall served a useful purpose. It contributed to a polarisation between the two blocs, but it also gave a certain stability to their relationship. While the Wall was standing, there was peace. Today there's hardly a place that isn't in flames. Were you ever in East Germany? It was a wonderful country![20]

Two other key members of the National Defence Council, chairman Erich Honecker and Stasi leader Erich Mielke, were also investigated. However, during the trial both men were seriously ill and the court controversially decided to drop the cases.[19] Honecker died in 1994 and Mielke, who had served some time in jail for the 1931 murder of two police captains, died in 2000.

Senior political officials who escaped conviction through ill health

Erich Honecker
National Defence Council chairman Erich Honecker
Erich Mielke
Stasi leader Erich Mielke

Many guards were themselves investigated for their actions, with the final case closing on 12 February 2004. In some of the cases there was insufficient evidence to identify which guard had fired the fatal shot and thus no prosecution could be made. Others were sentenced to probation for their role in the shootings.[16] Only the guard who shot Walter Kittel was charged for manslaughter and sentenced to 10 years in prison. Numerous guards were the same ones who had been awarded a Medal for Exemplary Border Service or another award for the killing.[21][22][23][24]


Deaths

The Centre for Contemporary History and the Berlin Wall Memorial Site and Documentation Centre identified 136 people who died at the Berlin Wall. They detailed the event surrounding each death, stating where possible the role of the person. This is listed here as:

  • Escapee – a person who had clear signs of attempting to escape
  • No intention – a person who showed no obvious intent to cross the border
  • Guard – a border guard on duty
  • Suicide – a person who approached the guards with the intention of being killed

Note: Some deaths occurred days or even years after the event at the Berlin Wall, with all the victims later dying in hospital.

# Name Date of birth Date of death Age Role Event details Image
&100000000000000010000001 Siekmann, IdaIda Siekmann
[9][10][11][12]
01902-08-2323 August 1902 01961-08-2222 August 1961 58 Escapee Jumped out the window of her apartment Image of memorial to Ida Siekmann
&100000000000000020000002 Litfin, GünterGünter Litfin
[25]
01937-01-1919 January 1937 01961-08-2424 August 1961 24 Escapee Shot in Humboldt Harbour Image of memorial to Günter Litfin
&100000000000000030000003 Hoff, RolandRoland Hoff
[26]
01934-03-1919 March 1934 01961-08-2929 August 1961 27 Escapee Shot in the Teltow Canal
&100000000000000040000004 Urban, RudolfRudolf Urban
[27]
01914-06-066 June 1914 01961-09-1717 September 1961 47 Escapee Fell while climbing out the window of his apartment and died of pneumonia in hospitala
&100000000000000050000005 Segler, OlgaOlga Segler
[28]
01881-07-3131 July 1881 01961-09-2626 September 1961 80 Escapee Jumped from her home at 34 Bernauer Straße and died a day later from internal injuries Image of memorial to Olga Segler
&100000000000000060000006 Lünser, BerndBernd Lünser
[29]
01939-03-1111 March 1939 01961-10-044 October 1961 22 Escapee Jumped from the roof of his home at 44 Bernauer Straße Image of memorial to Bernd Lünser
&100000000000000070000007 Düllick, UdoUdo Düllick
[30]
01936-03-088 March 1936 01961-10-055 October 1961 25 Escapee Drowned in the Spree
&100000000000000080000008 Probst, WernerWerner Probst
[31]
01936-06-1818 June 1936 01961-10-1414 October 1961 25 Escapee Shot in the Spree
&100000000000000090000009 Lehmann, LotharLothar Lehmann
[32]
01942-01-2828 January 1942 01961-11-2626 November 1961 19 Escapee Drowned in the Havel
&1000000000000001000000010 Wohlfahrt, DieterDieter Wohlfahrt
[33]
01941-05-2727 May 1941 01961-12-099 December 1961 20 Escapee Shot while helping others to escape Image of memorial to Dieter Wohlfahrt
&1000000000000001100000011 Krüger, IngoIngo Krüger
[34]
01940-01-3131 January 1940 01961-12-1010 December 1961 21 Escapee Drowned in the Spree – defective diving equipment
&1000000000000001200000012 Feldhahn, GeorgGeorg Feldhahn
[35]
01941-08-1212 August 1941 01961-12-1919 December 1961 20 No intention Drowned in the Spree after desertion; body found on 11 March 1962
&1000000000000001300000013 Schmiel, DoritDorit Schmiel
[36]
01941-04-2525 April 1941 01962-02-1919 February 1962 20 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000001400000014 Jercha, HeinzHeinz Jercha
[37]
01937-07-011 July 1937 01962-03-2727 March 1962 24 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000001500000015 Held, PhilippPhilipp Held
[38]
01942-05-022 May 1942 01962-04-01April 1962 19 Escapee Drowned in the Spree on or after 8 April; body found on 22 April
&1000000000000001600000016 Brueske, KlausKlaus Brueske
[39]
01938-09-1414 September 1938 01962-04-1818 April 1962 23 Escapee Suffocatedb
&1000000000000001700000017 Böhme, PeterPeter Böhme
[40]
01942-08-1717 August 1942 01962-04-1818 April 1962 19 Escapee Shot in a fire-fight
&1000000000000001800000018 Schmidtchen, JörgenJörgen Schmidtchen
[41]
01941-06-2828 June 1941 01962-04-1818 April 1962 20 Guard Shot by escapee Peter Böhme
&1000000000000001900000019 Frank, HorstHorst Frank
[42]
01942-05-077 May 1942 01962-04-2929 April 1962 19 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000002000000020 Göring, PeterPeter Göring
[7][43]
01940-12-2828 December 1940 01962-05-2323 May 1962 21 Guard Shot; stray bullet from West Berlin police Image of newspaper story about Peter Göring
&1000000000000002100000021 Haberlandt, LutzLutz Haberlandt
[44]
01938-04-2929 April 1938 01962-05-2727 May 1962 24 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000002200000022 Hannemann, AxelAxel Hannemann
[45]
01945-04-2727 April 1945 01962-06-055 June 1962 17 Escapee Shot in the Spree
&1000000000000002300000023 Kelm, ErnaErna Kelm
[46]
01908-07-2121 July 1908 01962-06-1111 June 1962 53 Escapee Drowned in the Havel
&1000000000000002400000024 Glöde, WolfgangWolfgang Glöde
[47]
01949-02-011 February 1949 01962-06-1111 June 1962 13 No intention Shot accidentally by a guard showing him his AK-47
&1000000000000002500000025 Huhn, ReinholdReinhold Huhn
[48]
01942-03-088 March 1942 01962-06-1818 June 1962 20 Guard Shot by escapees
&1000000000000002600000026 Noffke, SiegfriedSiegfried Noffke
[49]
01939-12-099 December 1939 01962-06-2828 June 1962 22 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000002700000027 Fechter, PeterPeter Fechter
[50]
01944-01-1414 January 1944 01962-08-1717 August 1962 18 Escapee Shot Image of Peter Fechter
&1000000000000002800000028 Wesa, Hans-DieterHans-Dieter Wesa
[51]
01943-01-1010 January 1943 01962-08-2323 August 1962 19 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000002900000029 Mundt, ErnstErnst Mundt
[52]
01921-12-022 December 1921 01962-09-044 September 1962 40 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000003000000030 Seling, GünterGünter Seling
[53]
01940-04-2828 April 1940 01962-09-3030 September 1962 22 Guard Shot by accident
&1000000000000003100000031 Walzer, AntonAnton Walzer
[54]
01902-04-2727 April 1902 01962-10-088 October 1962 60 Escapee Shot in the Spree
&1000000000000003200000032 Plischke, HorstHorst Plischke
[55]
01932-07-1212 July 1932 01962-11-1919 November 1962 30 Escapee Drowned in the Spree; body found on 10 March 1963
&1000000000000003300000033 Reck, OtfriedOtfried Reck
[56]
01944-12-1414 December 1944 01962-11-2727 November 1962 17 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000003400000034 Wiedenhöft, GünterGünter Wiedenhöft
[57]
01942-02-1414 February 1942 01962-12-055 December 1962 20 Escapee Drowned
&1000000000000003500000035 Räwel, HansHans Räwel
[58]
01942-12-1111 December 1942 01963-01-011 January 1963 20 Escapee Shot in the Spree
&1000000000000003600000036 Kutscher, HorstHorst Kutscher
[59]
01931-07-055 July 1931 01963-01-1515 January 1963 31 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000003700000037 Kreitlow, PeterPeter Kreitlow
[60]
01943-01-1515 January 1943 01963-01-2424 January 1963 20 Escapee Shot by Soviet troops
&1000000000000003800000038 Muszynski, Wolf-OlafWolf-Olaf Muszynski
[61]
01947-02-011 February 1947 01963-02-01February 1963/ 01963-03-01March 1963 16 Escapee Drowned in the Spree
&1000000000000003900000039 Mädler, PeterPeter Mädler
[24]
01943-07-1010 July 1943 01963-04-2626 April 1963 19 Escapee Shot in the Teltow Canal
&1000000000000004000000040 Widera, SiegfriedSiegfried Widera
[62]
01941-02-1212 February 1941 01963-09-088 September 1963 22 Guard Bludgeoned with a metal rod on 23 August 1963
&1000000000000004100000041 Schröter, KlausKlaus Schröter
[63]
01940-02-2121 February 1940 01963-11-044 November 1963 23 Escapee Drowned in the Spree after being shot
&1000000000000004200000042 Schulz, DietmarDietmar Schulz
[64]
01939-10-2121 October 1939 01963-11-2525 November 1963 24 Escapee Hit by a train
&1000000000000004300000043 Berger, DieterDieter Berger
[65]
01939-10-2727 October 1939 01963-12-1313 December 1963 24 No intention Shot while drunkenly climbing the fence
&1000000000000004400000044 Schultz, PaulPaul Schultz
[66]
01945-10-022 October 1945 01963-12-2525 December 1963 18 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000004500000045 Hayn, WalterWalter Hayn
[67]
01939-01-3131 January 1939 01964-02-2727 February 1964 25 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000004600000046 Philipp, AdolfAdolf Philipp
[68]
01943-08-1313 August 1943 01964-05-055 May 1964 20 No intention Shot after threatening the border guards with a gun
&1000000000000004700000047 Heike, WalterWalter Heike
[69]
01934-09-2020 September 1934 01964-06-2222 June 1964 29 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000004800000048 Wolscht, NorbertNorbert Wolscht
[70]
01943-10-2727 October 1943 01964-07-2828 July 1964 20 Escapee Drowned in the Havel
&1000000000000004900000049 Gneiser, RainerRainer Gneiser
[71]
01944-11-1010 November 1944 01964-07-2828 July 1964 19 Escapee Drowned in the Havel
&1000000000000005000000050 Trabant, HildegardHildegard Trabant
[72]
01927-06-1212 June 1927 01964-08-1818 August 1964 37 Escapee Shot while fleeing away from the wall after a failed escape attempt
&1000000000000005100000051 Mispelhorn, WernhardWernhard Mispelhorn
[73]
01945-11-1010 November 1945 01964-08-2020 August 1964 18 Escapee Shot on 18 August 1964
&1000000000000005200000052 Schultz, EgonEgon Schultz
[74]
01943-01-044 January 1943 01964-10-055 October 1964 21 Guard Shot accidentally in a fire-fight Image of Egon Schultz
&1000000000000005300000053 Wolf, Hans-JoachimHans-Joachim Wolf
[75]
01944-08-088 August 1944 01964-11-2626 November 1964 20 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000005400000054 Mehr, JoachimJoachim Mehr
[76]
01945-04-033 April 1945 01964-12-033 December 1964 19 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000005500000055 Unidentified man
[77]
Unknown 01965-01-1919 January 1965 Unknown Escapee Drowned in the Spree
&1000000000000005600000056 Buttkus, ChristianChristian Buttkus
[78]
01944-02-2121 February 1944 01965-03-044 March 1965 21 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000005700000057 Krzemien, UlrichUlrich Krzemien
[79]
01940-09-1313 September 1940 01965-03-2525 March 1965 24 Unclear Drowned in the Spree
&1000000000000005800000058 Hauptmann, Hans-PeterHans-Peter Hauptmann
[80]
01939-03-2020 March 1939 01965-05-033 May 1965 26 No intention Shot on 25 April 1965 during an argument with border guards
&1000000000000005900000059 Döbler, HermannHermann Döbler
[81]
01922-10-2828 October 1922 01965-06-1515 June 1965 42 No intention Shot after unintentionally piloting his boat too close to the border along the Teltow Canal
&1000000000000006000000060 Kratzel, KlausKlaus Kratzel
[82]
01940-03-033 March 1940 01965-08-088 August 1965 25 Escapee Hit by a train
&1000000000000006100000061 Garten, KlausKlaus Garten
[83]
01941-07-1919 July 1941 01965-08-1818 August 1965 24 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000006200000062 Kittel, WalterWalter Kittel
[84]
01942-05-2121 May 1942 01965-10-1818 October 1965 23 Escapee Shot after surrenderingc
&1000000000000006300000063 Cyrus, HeinzHeinz Cyrus
[85]
01936-06-055 June 1936 01965-11-1111 November 1965 29 Escapee Fell from the fourth floor of a building he fled to
&1000000000000006400000064 Sokolowski, HeinzHeinz Sokolowski
[86]
01917-12-1717 December 1917 01965-11-2525 November 1965 47 Escapee Shot Image of memorial to Heinz Sokolowski
&1000000000000006500000065 Kühn, ErichErich Kühn
[87]
01903-02-2727 February 1903 01965-12-033 December 1965 62 Escapee Peritonitis after being shot
&1000000000000006600000066 Schöneberger, HeinzHeinz Schöneberger
[88]
01938-06-077 June 1938 01965-12-2626 December 1965 27 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000006700000067 Brandes, DieterDieter Brandes
[89]
01946-10-2323 October 1946 01966-01-1111 January 1966 19 Escapee Circulatory failure after being shot on 9 June 1965
&1000000000000006800000068 Block, WilliWilli Block
[90]
01934-06-055 June 1934 01966-02-077 February 1966 31 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000006900000069 Schleusener, LotharLothar Schleusener
[91]
01953-01-1414 January 1953 01966-03-1414 March 1966 13 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000007000000070 Hartmann, JörgJörg Hartmann
[92]
01955-10-2727 October 1955 01966-03-1414 March 1966 10 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000007100000071 Marzahn, WilliWilli Marzahn
[93]
01944-06-033 June 1944 01966-03-1919 March 1966 21 Escapee Shot in a fire-fight Image of memorial to Willi Marzahn
&1000000000000007200000072 Schulz, EberhardEberhard Schulz
[94]
01946-03-1111 March 1946 01966-03-3030 March 1966 20 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000007300000073 Kollender, MichaelMichael Kollenderd
[22]
01945-02-1919 February 1945 01966-04-2525 April 1966 21 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000007400000074 Stretz, PaulPaul Stretz
[95]
01935-02-2828 February 1935 01966-04-2929 April 1966 31 No intention Shot while bathing in the Berlin-Spandau Ship Canal; he had been drinking earlier in the evening.
&1000000000000007500000075 Wroblewski, EduardEduard Wroblewski
[96]
01933-03-033 March 1933 01966-07-2626 July 1966 33 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000007600000076 Schmidt, HeinzHeinz Schmidt
[23]
01919-10-2626 October 1919 01966-08-2929 August 1966 46 Escapee Shot in the Berlin-Spandau Ship Canal
&1000000000000007700000077 Senk, AndreasAndreas Senk
[97]
01960 1960 01966-09-1313 September 1966 6 No intention Drowned in the Spreee
&1000000000000007800000078 Kube, Karl-HeinzKarl-Heinz Kube
[98]
01949-04-1010 April 1949 01966-12-1616 December 1966 17 Escapee Shot Image of memorial to Karl-Heinz Kube
&1000000000000007900000079 Sahmland, MaxMax Sahmland
[99]
01929-03-2828 March 1929 01967-01-2727 January 1967 37 Escapee Shot; body discovered on 8 March 1967
&1000000000000008000000080 Piesik, FranciszekFranciszek Piesik
[100]
01942-11-2323 November 1942 01967-10-1717 October 1967 24 Escapee Drowned
&1000000000000008100000081 Weckeiser, ElkeElke Weckeiser
[101]
01945-10-3131 October 1945 01968-02-1818 February 1968 22 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000008200000082 Weckeiser, DieterDieter Weckeiser
[101]
01943-02-1515 February 1943 01968-02-1919 February 1968 25 Escapee Shot on 18 February 1968
&1000000000000008300000083 Mende, HerbertHerbert Mende
[102]
01939-02-099 February 1939 01968-03-1010 March 1968 29 No intention Shot on 7 July 1962f
&1000000000000008400000084 Lehmann, BerndBernd Lehmann
[103]
01949-07-3131 July 1949 01968-05-2828 May 1968 18 Escapee Drowned in the Spree
&1000000000000008500000085 Krug, SiegfriedSiegfried Krug
[104]
01939-07-2222 July 1939 01968-07-066 July 1968 28 No intention Shot when he tried to surrender
&1000000000000008600000086 Körner, HorstHorst Körner
[105]
01947-07-1212 July 1947 01968-11-1515 November 1968 21 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000008700000087 Henniger, RolfRolf Henniger
[106]
01941-11-3030 November 1941 01968-11-1515 November 1968 26 Guard Shot by escapee Horst Körner Image of Rolf Henniger
&1000000000000008800000088 Lange, JohannesJohannes Lange
[107]
01940-12-1717 December 1940 01969-04-099 April 1969 28 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000008900000089 Kluge, Klaus-JürgenKlaus-Jürgen Kluge
[108]
01948-07-2525 July 1948 01969-09-1313 September 1969 21 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000009000000090 Lis, LeoLeo Lis
[109]
01924-05-1010 May 1924 01969-09-2020 September 1969 45 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000009100000091 Wehage, EckhardEckhard Wehage
[110]
01948-07-088 July 1948 01970-03-1010 March 1970 21 Escapee Suicideg
&1000000000000009200000092 Wehage, ChristelChristel Wehage
[110]
01946-12-1515 December 1946 01970-03-1010 March 1970 23 Escapee Suicideg
&1000000000000009300000093 Müller, HeinzHeinz Müller
[111]
01943-05-1616 May 1943 01970-06-1919 June 1970 27 No intention Shot after he fell into the water
&1000000000000009400000094 Born, WilliWilli Born
[112]
01950-07-1919 July 1950 01970-07-077 July 1970 19 Escapee Suicide; failed escape attempt
&1000000000000009500000095 Ehrlich, FriedhelmFriedhelm Ehrlich
[113]
01950-07-1111 July 1950 01970-08-022 August 1970 20 No intention Shot after simulating the shooting of a gun to a guard
&1000000000000009600000096 Thiem, GeraldGerald Thiem
[114]
01928-09-066 September 1928 01970-08-077 August 1970 41 Unclear Shot
&1000000000000009700000097 Kliem, HelmutHelmut Kliem
[115]
01939-06-022 June 1939 01970-11-1313 November 1970 31 No intention Shot after mistakenly driving up to the border on a motorbike
&1000000000000009800000098 Friese, Christian PeterChristian Peter Friese
[116]
01948-08-055 August 1948 01970-12-2525 December 1970 22 Escapee Shot
&1000000000000009900000099 Kabelitz, Rolf-DieterRolf-Dieter Kabelitz
[117]
01951-06-2323 June 1951 01971-01-3030 January 1971 19 Escapee Shot
&10000000000000100000000100 Hoffmann, WolfgangWolfgang Hoffmann
[118]
01942-09-011 September 1942 01971-07-1515 July 1971 28 No intention Jumped out of a police station window
&10000000000000101000000101 Kühl, WernerWerner Kühl
[119]
01949-01-1010 January 1949 01971-07-2424 July 1971 22 Escapee Shot
&10000000000000102000000102 Beilig, DieterDieter Beilig
[120]
01941-09-055 September 1941 01971-10-022 October 1971 30 No intention Shot; trying to escape through a window after being arrested
&10000000000000103000000103 Kullack, HorstHorst Kullack
[121]
01948-11-2020 November 1948 01972-01-2121 January 1972 23 Escapee Shot on 1 January 1972
&10000000000000104000000104 Weylandt, ManfredManfred Weylandt
[122]
01942-07-1212 July 1942 01972-02-1414 February 1972 29 Escapee Drowned in the Spree after being shot
&10000000000000105000000105 Schulze, KlausKlaus Schulze
[123]
01952-10-1313 October 1952 01972-03-077 March 1972 19 Escapee Shot
&10000000000000106000000106 Katrancı, CengaverCengaver Katrancı
[124]
01963 1963 01972-10-3030 October 1972 9 No intention Drowned in the Spreee
&10000000000000107000000107 H., HolgerHolger H.
[125]
01971 1971 01973-01-2222 January 1973 1 Escapee Suffocationh
&10000000000000108000000108 Frommann, VolkerVolker Frommann
[126]
01944-04-2323 April 1944 01973-03-055 March 1973 29 Escapee Jumped from a train on 1 March 1973
&10000000000000109000000109 Einsiedel, HorstHorst Einsiedel
[127]
01940-02-088 February 1940 01973-03-1515 March 1973 33 Escapee Shot
&10000000000000110000000110 Gertzki, ManfredManfred Gertzki
[128]
01942-05-1717 May 1942 01973-04-2727 April 1973 30 Escapee Shot/drowned in the Spree
&10000000000000111000000111 Kroboth, SiegfriedSiegfried Kroboth
[129]
01968 1968 01973-05-1414 May 1973 5 No intention Drowned in the Spreee
&10000000000000112000000112 Niering, BurkhardBurkhard Niering
[130]
01950-09-011 September 1950 01974-01-055 January 1974 23 Escapee Shot Image of memorial to Buckhard Niering
&10000000000000113000000113 Sprenger, JohannesJohannes Sprenger
[131]
01905-12-033 December 1905 01974-05-1010 May 1974 68 Suicidei Shot
&10000000000000114000000114 Savoca, GiuseppeGiuseppe Savoca
[132]
01968-04-2222 April 1968 01974-06-1515 June 1974 6 No intention Drowned in the Spreee
&10000000000000115000000115 Halli, HerbertHerbert Halli
[133]
01953-11-2424 November 1953 01975-04-033 April 1975 21 Escapee Shot
&10000000000000116000000116 Mert, ÇetinÇetin Mert
[134]
01970-05-1111 May 1970 01975-05-1111 May 1975 5 No intention Drowned in the Spreee
&10000000000000117000000117 Kiebler, HerbertHerbert Kiebler
[135]
01952-03-2424 March 1952 01975-06-2727 June 1975 23 Escapee Shot
&10000000000000118000000118 Hennig, LotharLothar Hennig
[136]
01954-06-3030 June 1954 01975-11-055 November 1975 21 No intention Shot near to the border while running home
&10000000000000119000000119 Schwietzer, DietmarDietmar Schwietzer
[137]
01958-02-2121 February 1958 01977-02-1616 February 1977 18 Escapee Shot Image of Dietmar Schwietzer
&10000000000000120000000120 Weise, HenriHenri Weise
[138]
01954-07-1313 July 1954 01977-05-01May 1977 22 Escapee Drowned in the Spree; body found on 27 July 1977
&10000000000000121000000121 Steinhauer, UlrichUlrich Steinhauer
[139]
01956-03-1313 March 1956 01980-11-044 November 1980 24 Guard Shot by a deserting colleague
&10000000000000122000000122 Jirkowsky, MarienettaMarienetta Jirkowsky
[140]
01962-08-2525 August 1962 01980-11-2222 November 1980 18 Escapee Shot Image of Marienetta Jirkowski
&10000000000000123000000123 Muschol, JohannesJohannes Muschol
[141]
01949-05-3131 May 1949 01981-03-1616 March 1981 31 Unclear Shot
&10000000000000124000000124 Starrost, Hans-JürgenHans-Jürgen Starrost
[142]
01954-06-2424 June 1954 01981-04-1616 April 1981 26 Escapee Shot
&10000000000000125000000125 Taubmann, ThomasThomas Taubmann
[143]
01955-07-2222 July 1955 01981-12-1212 December 1981 26 Escapee Jumped from a train
&10000000000000126000000126 Freie, Lothar FritzLothar Fritz Freie
[144]
01955-02-088 February 1955 01982-06-066 June 1982 27 No intention Shot; found in a restricted area
&10000000000000127000000127 Proksch, SilvioSilvio Proksch
[145]
01962-03-033 March 1962 01983-12-2525 December 1983 21 Escapee Shot
&10000000000000128000000128 Schmidt, MichaelMichael Schmidt
[146]
01964-10-2020 October 1964 01984-12-011 December 1984 20 Escapee Shot
&10000000000000129000000129 Liebeke, RainerRainer Liebeke
[147]
01951-09-1111 September 1951 01986-09-033 September 1986 34 Escapee Drowned in the Sacrower See
&10000000000000130000000130 Mäder, ManfredManfred Mäder
[148]
01948-08-2323 August 1948 01986-11-2121 November 1986 38 Escapee Shot alongside René Groß
&10000000000000131000000131 Groß, RenéRené Groß
[149]
01964-05-011 May 1964 01986-11-2121 November 1986 22 Escapee Shot alongside Manfred Mäder
&10000000000000132000000132 Bittner, MichaelMichael Bittner
[150]
01961-08-3131 August 1961 01986-11-2424 November 1986 25 Escapee Shot
&10000000000000133000000133 Schmidt, LutzLutz Schmidt
[151]
01962-07-088 July 1962 01987-02-1212 February 1987 24 Escapee Shot
&10000000000000134000000134 Diederichs, IngolfIngolf Diederichs
[152]
01964-04-1313 April 1964 01989-01-1313 January 1989 24 Escapee Jumped from a train
&10000000000000135000000135 Gueffroy, ChrisChris Gueffroy
[14][153]
01968-06-2121 June 1968 01989-02-055 February 1989 20 Escapee Shot Image of memorial to Chris Gueffroy
&10000000000000136000000136 Freudenberg, WinfriedWinfried Freudenberg
[13][14]
01956-08-2929 August 1956 01989-03-088 March 1989 32 Escapee Balloon crash

Footnotes

^a Rudolf Urban and his wife both tried to climb out from a window at their home of 1 Bernauer Straße on 19 August 1961 while trying to escape but fell to the ground and were injured. They both went to hospital with their injuries.
^b Tried to break through the border crossing in a truck filled with sand and gravel; he was shot several times and suffocated in the sand that entered the cab after the truck crashed.
^c Had surrendered when he was shot; the border guard responsible was found guilty of manslaughter in 1992.
^d National People's Army soldier who had deserted
e ^1 ^2 ^3 ^4 ^5 In these five cases the guards were accused of obstructing the rescue of those who were drowning.
^f After an evening of dancing on 7 July 1962 Mende was escorted to a guard house for not having sufficient identification. Believing the matter over, he ran towards the bus home and was shot. He died nearly six years later.
g ^1 ^2 Married couple Eckhardt and Christel committed suicide after a failed plane hijacking.
^h Was hiding with his parents in the crates in the back of a truck crossing the border when he began to cry. His mother held his mouth and he died of suffocation.
^i Ruled as a suicide by a court in Berlin, Sprenger was shot as he approached a watchtower. He had been diagnosed with lung cancer and had told his wife that he would return in a coffin.

See also

References

  1. ^ Church, George. Freedom! The Berlin Wall. Time, 20 November 1989. Accessed 3 September 2011.
  2. ^ Hertle, Hans-Hermann; Nooke, Maria (2011). The Victims at the Berlin Wall, 1961–1989: A Biographical Handbook. Ch. Links Verlag. p. 14. ISBN 9783861536321. 
  3. ^ Hertle & Nooke (2011), p. 15
  4. ^ Hecht, Patricia. Schlegel, Matthias. Geschichte Unterschiedliche Ergebnisse: Wieviele Opfer gab es an der Mauer? (History of Differing Results: How many victims there were on the wall?). 11 August 2009. Accessed 25 August 2011. (German)
  5. ^ Fatalities at the Berlin Wall, 1961–1989. Berlin.de. Accessed 23 August 2011.
  6. ^ Todesopfer an der Berliner Mauer (Deaths at the Berlin Wall). Centre for Contemporary History. 23 August 2011. (German)
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Nooke, Maria. The Victims at the Berlin Wall, 1961–1989: Findings of a Research Project by the Centre for Research on Contemporary History Potsdam and the Berlin Wall Memorial Site and Documentation Centre. Gedenkstätte Berliner Mauer, Zentrum für Zeithistorische Forschung Potsdam. July 2011. Accessed 1 September 2011.
  8. ^ Hertle & Nooke (2011), p. 17
  9. ^ a b c Sprung in den Tod (Jumping to his Death), Deutschlandradio Kultur. 9 November 2009. Accessed 1 September 2011. (German)
  10. ^ a b Grewe, Meike. Die Berliner Mauer (The Berlin Wall) Focus. 19 October 2009. Accessed 1 September 2011. (German)
  11. ^ a b Forscher korrigieren in neuer Studie Zahl der Mauertoten (Researchers correct number of deaths at the Berlin Wall) Berliner Morgenpost. 8 August 2008. Accessed 1 September 2011. (German)
  12. ^ a b Kellerhoff, Sven Felix. Die Erste und der Letzte (The First and the Last) Die Welt. 13 August 2010. Accessed 1 September 2011. (German)
  13. ^ a b Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Winfried Freudenberg, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  14. ^ a b c Berlin Pays Tribute to Last Person Shot Crossing Wall, Spiegel Online International. 2 June 2009. Accessed 1 September 2011.
  15. ^ E German 'licence to kill' found. BBC News. 12 August 2007. Accessed 1 September 2011.
  16. ^ a b Berlin Wall Guards Found Guilty of Manslaughter. Deutsche Welle. 12 February 2004. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  17. ^ Hertle & Nooke (2011), p. 17
  18. ^ a b c Hertle & Nooke (2011), pp. 23–24
  19. ^ a b Quint, Peter. Judging the past: the prosecution of East German border guards and the GDR chain of command, The Review of Politics. 22 March 1999. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  20. ^ Hall, Allan. Berlin Wall anniversary: former Stasi man 'sickened' by collapse of communism. The Telegraph. 9 November 2009. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  21. ^ Rühmland, Ulrich. Die NVA in Stichworten (The NVA in brief). 1978 Bonner Druck- und Verlagsgesellschaft, Bonn-Röttgen. (German)
  22. ^ a b Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Michael Kollender, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  23. ^ a b Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Heinz Schmidt, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  24. ^ a b Dollmann, Lydia. Peter Mädler, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  25. ^ Brecht, Christine. Günter Litfin, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  26. ^ Brecht, Christine. Roland Hoff, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  27. ^ Brecht, Christine. Rudolph Urban, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  28. ^ Brecht, Christine. Olga Segler, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  29. ^ Brecht, Christine. Bernd Lünser, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  30. ^ Brecht, Christine. Udo Düllick, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  31. ^ Brecht, Christine. Werner Probst, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  32. ^ Brecht, Christine. Lothat Lehmann, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  33. ^ Brecht, Christine. Dieter Wohlfahrt, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  34. ^ Brecht, Christine. Ingo Krüger, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  35. ^ Brecht, Christine. Georg Feldhahn, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  36. ^ Brecht, Christine. Dorit Schmiel, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  37. ^ Brecht, Christine. Heinz Jercha, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  38. ^ Brecht, Christine. Philipp Held, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  39. ^ Brecht, Christine. Klaus Brueske, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  40. ^ Brecht, Christine. Peter Böhme, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  41. ^ Brecht, Christine. Jörgen Schmidtchen, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  42. ^ Brecht, Christine. Horst Frank, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  43. ^ Brecht, Christine. Peter Göring, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  44. ^ Brecht, Christine. Lutz Haberlandt, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  45. ^ Brecht, Christine. Alex Hannemann, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  46. ^ Brecht, Christine. Erna Kelm, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  47. ^ Brecht, Christine. Wolfgang Glöde, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  48. ^ Brecht, Christine. Nooke, Maria . Reinhold Huhn, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  49. ^ Brecht, Christine. Siegfried Noffke, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  50. ^ Brecht, Christine. Peter Fechter, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  51. ^ Brecht, Christine. Hans-Dieter Wesa, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  52. ^ Brecht, Christine. Ernst Mundt, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  53. ^ Brecht, Christine. Günter Seling, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  54. ^ Brecht, Christine. Anton Walzer, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  55. ^ Brecht, Christine. Horst Plischke, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  56. ^ Brecht, Christine. Otfried Reck, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  57. ^ Brecht, Christine. Günter Wiedenhöft, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  58. ^ Brecht, Christine. Hans Räwel, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  59. ^ Dollmann, Lydia. Horst Kutscher, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  60. ^ Brecht, Christine. Peter Kreitlow, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  61. ^ Brecht, Christine. Wolf-Olaf Muszynski, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  62. ^ Brecht, Christine. Siegfried Widera, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  63. ^ Brecht, Christine. Klaus Schröter, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  64. ^ Brecht, Christine. Dietmar Schulz, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  65. ^ Brecht, Christine. Dieter Berger, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  66. ^ Brecht, Christine. Paul Schultz, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  67. ^ Brecht, Christine. Walter Hayn, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  68. ^ Brecht, Christine. Adolf Philipp, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  69. ^ Brecht, Christine. Walter Heike, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  70. ^ Brecht, Christine. Norbert Wolscht, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  71. ^ Brecht, Christine. Rainer Gneiser, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  72. ^ Brecht, Christine. Hildegard Trabant, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  73. ^ Brecht, Christine. Wernhard Mispelhorn, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  74. ^ Nooke, Maria. Egon Schultz, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  75. ^ Dollmann, Lydia. Hans-Joachim Wolf, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  76. ^ Brecht, Christine. Joachim Mehr, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  77. ^ Brecht, Christine. Unidentified Fugitive, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  78. ^ Dollmann, Lydia. Christian Buttkus, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  79. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Ulrich Krzemien, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  80. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Peter Hauptmann, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  81. ^ Brecht, Christine. Hermann Döbler, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  82. ^ Brecht, Christine. Klaus Kratzel, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  83. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Klaus Garten, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  84. ^ Dollmann, Lydia. Walter Kittel, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  85. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Heinz Cyrus, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  86. ^ Brecht, Christine. Heinz Sokolowski, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  87. ^ Brecht, Christine. Erich Kühn, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  88. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Heinz Schöneberger, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  89. ^ Brecht, Christine. Dieter Brandes, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  90. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Willi Block, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  91. ^ Brecht, Christine. Lothar Schleusener, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  92. ^ Brecht, Christine. Jörg Hartmann, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  93. ^ Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Willi Marzahn, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  94. ^ Baron, Udo. Eberhard Schulz, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  95. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Paul Stretz, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  96. ^ Brecht, Christine. Eduard Wroblewski, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  97. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Andreas Senk, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  98. ^ Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Karl-Heinz Kube, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  99. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Max Sahmland, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  100. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Franciszek Piesik, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  101. ^ a b Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Elke and Dieter Weckeiser, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  102. ^ Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Herbert Mende, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  103. ^ Dollmann, Lydia. Bernd Lehmann, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  104. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Siegfried Krug, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  105. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Horst Körner, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  106. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Rolf Henniger, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  107. ^ Baron, Udo. Johannes Lange, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  108. ^ Baron, Udo. Klaus-Jürgen Kluge, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  109. ^ Baron, Udo. Leo Lis, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  110. ^ a b Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Christel and Eckhard Wehage, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  111. ^ Baron, Udo. Heinz Müller, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  112. ^ Baron, Udo. Nooke, Maria. Willi Born, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  113. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Friedhelm Ehrlich, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  114. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Gerald Thiem, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  115. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Helmut Kliem, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  116. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Christian Peter Friese, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  117. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Rolf-Dieter Kabelitz, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  118. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Wolfgang Hoffmann, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  119. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Werner Kühl, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  120. ^ Brecht, Christine. Dieter Beilig, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  121. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Horst Kullack, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  122. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Manfred Weylandt, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  123. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Klaus Schulze, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  124. ^ Baron, Udo. Cengaver Katrancı, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  125. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Holger H., Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  126. ^ Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Volker Frommann, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  127. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Horst Einsiedel, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  128. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Manfred Gertzki, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  129. ^ Baron, Udo. Siegfried Kroboth, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  130. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Burkhard Niering, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  131. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Johannes Sprenger, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  132. ^ Baron, Udo. Giuseppe Savoca, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  133. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Herbert Halli, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  134. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Cetin Mert, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  135. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Herbert Kiebler, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  136. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Nooke, Maria. Lothar Hennig, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  137. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Dietmar Schqietzer, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  138. ^ Dollmann, Lydia. Henri Weise, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  139. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Ulrich Steinhauer, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  140. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Marinetta Jirkowsky, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  141. ^ Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Dr. Johannes Muschol, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  142. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Hans-Jürgen Starrost, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  143. ^ Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Thomas Taubmann, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  144. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Lothar Fritz Freie, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  145. ^ Baron, Udo. Silvio Proksch, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  146. ^ Baron, Udo. Michael Schmidt, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  147. ^ Baron, Udo. Rainer Liebeke, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  148. ^ Baron, Udo. Manfred Mäder, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  149. ^ Baron, Udo. René Groß, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  150. ^ Baron, Udo. Michael Bittner, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  151. ^ Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Lutz Schmidt, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  152. ^ Ahrends, Martin. Baron, Udo. Ingolf Diederichs, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.
  153. ^ Baron, Udo. Hertle, Hans-Hermann. Chris Gueffroy, Berlin Wall Memorial. Accessed 30 August 2011.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Berlin Wall — For the chess opening variation, sometimes known as Berlin Wall, see Berlin Defence. View from the West Berlin side of graffiti art on the wall in 1986. The wall s infa …   Wikipedia

  • Berlin Crisis of 1961 — History of Berlin This article is part of a series Weimar Republic (1919–33) …   Wikipedia

  • The Tunnel (2001 film) — Template:Form Der Tunnel Der Tunnel DVD cover Directed by Roland Suso Richter Produced by …   Wikipedia

  • List of conspiracy theories — The list of conspiracy theories is a collection of the most popular unproven theories related but not limited to clandestine government plans, elaborate murder plots, suppression of secret technology and knowledge, and other supposed schemes… …   Wikipedia

  • List of last occurrences — The following is a list of last occurrences. It can consist of last events, such as the last sending of a Western Union telegram; the last monarch of a monarchy (by either death or abdication); or the death of the last member of a group of people …   Wikipedia

  • List of minor Chuck characters — Chuck is an American television series developed by writer/producers Josh Schwartz and Chris Fedak and is broadcast by NBC. The titular character of the series is Chuck Bartowski (Zachary Levi), an affable and anxious Nerd Herd associate at Buy… …   Wikipedia

  • List of pipeline accidents — The following is a list of pipeline accidents: This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. Contents 1 Bel …   Wikipedia

  • List of Russian explorers — The Russian Empire at its peak in 1866, including the spheres of influence; this territorial expansion largely corresponds to the extent of contiguous exploration by Russians. This is a list of explorers from the Russian Federation, Soviet Union …   Wikipedia

  • The Holocaust — Holocaust and Shoah redirect here. For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). Selection on …   Wikipedia

  • List of Heroes characters — From left to right: Micah, Niki, Nathan, Peter, Noah, Claire, Hiro, Mohinder, Matt, Sylar This is a list of fictional characters in the television series Heroes …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.