Use of capital punishment by country


Use of capital punishment by country

The following is a summary of the use of capital punishment by country.

Contents

Capital Punishment In The World

Capital punishment has been used in almost every part of the globe, but in the last few decades many countries have abolished it. Usage of capital punishment is usually broken into the four categories set out below.

  • 58 (29%) maintain the death penalty in both law and practice.
  • 96 (49%) have abolished it.
  • 9 (5%) retain it for crimes committed in exceptional circumstances (such as in time of war).
  • 34 (17%) permit its use for ordinary crimes, but have not used it for at least 10 years and are believed to have a policy or established practice of not carrying out executions, or it is under a moratorium.

The information above is accurate as of 14 Feb 2011 when Gabon announced the abolition of capital punishment.[1]

Legend
  Abolished for all crimes
  Abolished for crimes but under exceptional/special circumstances (such as crimes committed in times of wars)
  Abolished in practice i.e. haven't used capital punishment or the death penalty in at least 10 years
  Retainers of capital punishment or the death penalty
  • 2010 - The following 23 countries carried out executions in 2010: Bahrain (1), Bangladesh (9+), Belarus (2), Botswana (1), China (2000+), Egypt (4), Equatorial Guinea (4), Iran (252+), Iraq (1+), Japan (2), Libya (18+), Malaysia (1+), North Korea (60+), Palestinian Authority (5), Saudi Arabia (27+), Singapore (1+), Somalia (8+), Sudan (6+), Syria (17+), Taiwan (4), USA (46+), Vietnam (1+), Yemen (53+).[2]
  • 2011 - As of 5 May 2011 executions have been reported in the following 9 countries during 2011: Bangladesh, China, Iran, North Korea, the Palestinian Authority, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, UAE, USA.
  • Child Execution - Since 2009 Iran and Saudi Arabia have executed offenders who were under the age of 18 at the time the crime was committed,[3]
  • Public Execution - Since 2009 public executions have reportedly been carried out by the governments of Iran, North Korea, the Palestinian Authority, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Syria, and Yemen.
  • Extrajudicial Execution- In some countries the practice of extrajudicial execution sporadically or systematically outside their own formal legal frameworks occurs. Information on this is not covered in this article.

The continental tables below contain the ten unrecognized states with de facto control over their territory which are not included in the above numbers. Of these 3 maintain the death penalty in law and practice (Palestinian Authority, Somaliland, & Taiwan), 2 have abolished the death penalty (Kosovo, & Sahrawi Rep.), and the remaining 5 have never used capital punishment since declaring independence and are considered de facto abolitionist (Abkhazia, Northern Cyprus, Nagorno-Karabakh, South Ossetia, & Transnistria).[4]

Africa

Of the 54 independent states in Africa that are UN members:

  • 14 (26%) maintain the death penalty in both law and practice.
  • 16 (30%) have abolished it.
  • 0 (0%) retain it for crimes committed in exceptional circumstances (such as in time of war).
  • 24 (44%) permit its use for ordinary crimes, but have not used it for at least 10 years and are believed to have a policy or established practice of not carrying out executions, or it is under a moratorium.

Of the two African limited recognition states not included in the above numbers - Somaliland maintains the death penalty in law and practice and Sahrawi Rep has abolished it.

The information above is accurate as of 14 Feb 2011 when Gabon announced the abolition of capital punishment.[5]

  • Libya is Africa`s leading executioner. There have been recent moves toward abolitionism with 4 states prohibiting the death penalty in the last few years Rwanda (2007), Burundi (2009), Togo (2009), and Gabon (2010). Following the Jasmine Revolution of 2011 Tunisia is moving towards abolition.

Executions in 2010: Botswana (1), Egypt (4), Equatorial Guinea (4), Libya (18+), Somalia (8+), Sudan (6+).[2]

Note: The tables can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the Sort none.gif icon.

Key Country Year of Last Execution Executions 2010 Year Abolished Notes
 Algeria 1993 n/a Death penalty for Treason; espionage; attempts to change the regime or actions aimed at incitement; destruction of territory; sabotage to public and economic utilities; massacres and slaughters; participation in armed bands or in insurrectionary movements; counterfeiting; Terrorism; acts of torture or cruelty; kidnapping; aggravated theft, currently under a moratorium.

A project of abolition is being tabled in Parliament in Algeria by Louisa Hanoune and Ahmed Ouyahia since the summer of 2008.

 Angola None since independence 1992 Abolished in 1992 by Constitution.
 Benin 1987 n/a Death penalty for Armed robbery;[6] Murder;[7] traffickers involved in "labor exploitation"[8] Current steps are being taken for abolition.[9]
 Botswana 2010 [10] 1 n/a Death penalty for murder; treason; attempt on the life of the head of state; mutiny; desertion in the face of the enemy
 Burkina Faso 1988 n/a Death penalty for treason[11]
 Burundi 2000[12] 2009[13]
 Cameroon 1997[14] n/a Death penalty for Secession; espionage; incitement to war[15]
 Cape Verde None since independence 1981 Last execution when a colony of Portugal was 1835. Abolished in 1981 by Constitution.
 Central African Republic 1981 n/a Death penalty for Treason; espionage; charlatanism; witchcraft; assassination; murder[16]
 Chad 2003 [17] n/a Death penalty for murder
 Comoros 1997[18] n/a
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 2003 [19] n/a
 Congo 1982 n/a
 Côte d'Ivoire None since independence[20] 2000
 Djibouti None since independence 1995
 Egypt 2010 [21] 4 n/a Death penalty for Rape, if accompanied by kidnapping of the victim; murder; treason; organized drug trafficking
 Equatorial Guinea 2010[22] 4 n/a
 Eritrea None since independence n/a Last execution when part of Ethiopia was 1989.
 Ethiopia 2007 [23] n/a Death penalty for murder, Treason, armed conspiracy, genocide, outrages against the constitution
 Gabon 1981[24] 2010[25] Abolition was made in Feb 2010, according to Hands Off Cain press release of 15 Feb 2011
 Gambia 1981 n/a Death penalty for treason. Abolished 1993 but was reinstated by Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council in August 1995[26]
 Ghana 1993 n/a Death penalty for murder; treason; armed robbery[26]
 Guinea-Bissau 1986 1993 Abolished 1993 by constitution.
 Guinea 2001[27] n/a Death penalty for murder
 Kenya 1987 n/a Death penalty for murder, armed robbery,[28] treason. On August 3, 2009, the death sentences of all 4,000 death row inmates were commuted to life imprisonment, and government studies were ordered to determine if the death penalty has any impact on crime.
 Lesotho 1984 n/a
 Liberia 1995[26] n/a Death penalty for armed robbery, terrorism, hijacking. On 16 September 2005, Liberia acceded to the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, abolishing the death penalty, but re-introduced elements of it in July, 2008.[29]
 Libya 2010 [30] 18+ n/a Libya executed more people (18) in 2010 than any other African state. Current laws allow capital punishment for high treason; attempt to forcibly change the form of government; premeditated murder[31]
 Madagascar None since independence n/a Last execution when a colony of France was in 1958.
 Malawi 1992[32] n/a
 Mali 1980 n/a
 Mauritania 1987 n/a Death penalty for Sodomy;[33] apostasy[34] (no recorded executions).
 Mauritius 1987 1995
 Morocco 1993 n/a Death penalty for Terrorism.[28] An abolition law project is being presented to the Parliament of Morocco in spring 2007. (see Human rights in Morocco#Capital punishment)
 Mozambique 1986 1990 Abolished Nov 1990 by Constitution.
 Namibia None since independence 1990 Last execution when occupied by South Africa was in 1988. Abolished Mar 1990 by Constitution.
 Niger 1976 n/a
 Nigeria 2002 [35] n/a Death penalty for sodomy,[36] kidnapping. Each of the 36 states has its own laws. In the north of the country, Sharia (Islamic law) is used. In Imo State, a bill that provided capital punishment for kidnapping was signed into law.
 Rwanda 1998 2007[37] Since some of the perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide fled to countries that refuse to extradite suspects to countries that use capital punishment, the Rwandan parliament voted to abolish capital punishment in 2007.
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic None since independence 1991 The Constitution of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic outlaws the death penalty: Article 13 from the 1991 revision reads "The death penalty is banned" (translated into English from the Arabic.)[38]
 São Tomé and Príncipe None since independence 1990 Abolished Sep 1990 by Constitution.
 Senegal 1967 2004
 Seychelles None since independence 1993 Abolished Jun 1993 by Constitution.
 Sierra Leone 1998 n/a Death penalty for treason;[39] Murder; aggravated robbery. Under the Special Court for Sierra Leone the death penalty is not a punishment for war crimes
 Somalia 2011 [40] 8+ n/a Somalia is the only African state that continues to carry out public executions. The Transitional Federal Government laws allow for execution (in the limited area of the country it controls) for murder and adultery.
 Somaliland 2006 n/a
 South Africa 1989 1995[41] The last execution by the South African government was on 14 November 1989. An execution occurred in the internationally unrecognised "homeland" of Venda in 1991.[14] Capital punishment was declared unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court on 6 June 1995 in the case of S v Makwanyane and Another. In 1997 the Criminal Law Amendment Act formally removed the invalidated provisions from the statute-book, and made provision for the resentencing of prisoners previously sentenced to death.[42] On 25 May 2005 the Constitutional Court ordered that all remaining death sentences in the country be set aside and the prisoners resentenced as soon as possible.[43]
 South Sudan None since independence n/a In Sudan, the death penalty could be given for sodomy;[44] Waging war against the state;[45] apostasy;[34] prostitution; treason; acts that may endanger the independence or unity of the state; murder; armed robbery; weapons possession and smuggling
 Sudan 2010 [46] 6+ n/a Death penalty for sodomy;[47] Waging war against the state;[48] apostasy;[34] prostitution; treason; acts that may endanger the independence or unity of the state; murder; armed robbery; weapons possession and smuggling
 Swaziland 1983[49] n/a Death penalty for murder;[50] treason
 Tanzania 1994 n/a Death penalty for murder; treason
 Togo 1978[51] 2009[52]
 Tunisia 1991 n/a Death penalty for murder; violence and aggression; attacks against the internal security of the state; attacks against the external security of the state. Following the Jasmine Revolution the new interim government announced on 01 Feb 2011 that it would ratify the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, including the Second Optional Protocol regarding the abolition of the death penalty.[53]
 Uganda 2005[54] n/a On June 14, 2005 the Constitutional court ruled that although the death penalty was constitutional, its use as a mandatory punishment for certain crimes was not.[55]
 Zambia 1997 n/a Death penalty for murder; aggravated robbery; high treason. President Levy Mwanawasa stated in 2004 that "For as long as I remain President, I will not execute a death warrant."[32]
 Zimbabwe 2003[56] n/a Current capital crimes are drug trafficking; treason; murder; mutiny.[57]

The Americas

Of the 35 independent states in the Americas that are UN members:

  • 3 (9%) maintain the death penalty in both law and practice.
  • 15 (43%) have abolished it.
  • 4 (11%) retain it for crimes committed in exceptional circumstances (such as in time of war).
  • 13 (37%) permit its use for ordinary crimes, but have not used it for at least 10 years and are believed to have a policy or established practice of not carrying out executions, or it is under a moratorium.

The information above is accurate as of 2010 when both Guatemala and the Bahamas became de facto abolitionist states by not having carried out executions for ten years.

  • The United States carries out more executions than any other liberal democracy (as defined by Freedom House) in the world. The only other countries in the Americas which practice capital punishment are Cuba and St. Kitts and Nevis.

Executions in 2010: United States (46).[2]

Note: The tables can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the Sort none.gif icon.

Key Country Year Last Execution Executions 2010 Year Abolished Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda 1991 n/a Death penalty for murder
 Argentina 1916 2009 Constitution states "The penalty of death for political offences, all kinds of torture, and flogging, are forever abolished."[58] The Military Code of Justice (including the death penalty) was abolished on 6 August 2008 and into law six months later.[59]
 Bahamas 2000 n/a Death penalty for treason; Piracy; Murder
 Barbados 1984[14] n/a Death penalty for murder; Treason. Presently under review before the IACHR despite strong national support.[60][61]
 Belize 1985 [14] n/a Death penalty for murder, except where extenuating circumstances can be proved[62]
 Bolivia 1974 1997 Other Crimes Abolished for civil crimes 1997. Legal for certain military crimes committed during wartime such as genocide, crimes against humanity, treason, terrorism, and war crimes

(Article 15).

 Brazil 1876 n/a The last execution happened in 1885 in Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, when Manuel da Mota Coqueiro was convicted of an allegedly committed murder and hanged.[63] Brazil has always maintained the death penalty as part of its military code but capital punishment for civil offenses was abolished after Brazil became a republic in 1889, then reinstated and abolished again twice (1938–53 and 1969–78).[64][65][66][67] Only one person was ever sentenced to death during the Republican period, in 1969, and the execution was not carried out.[68]

The current Constitution of Brazil (1988) expressly forbids the use of capital punishment by the civil penal justice system.[69] For more information see Capital punishment in Brazil.

 Canada 1962 1976 Abolished in 1976

For more information see Capital punishment in Canada

 Chile 1985 n/a Abolished from civil justice in 2001.
 Colombia 1909 1910 Abolished in 1910
(by Constitutional reform)

Prohibited by the Colombian Constitution of 1991: "The right to life is inviolable. There will be no death penalty."

 Costa Rica 1859[70] 1877 Abolished 1877 by Constitution.
 Cuba 2003 [71] n/a In 2008 all but three of the existing death sentences were commuted to prison sentences.[72]
 Dominica 1986 n/a
 Dominican Republic 1966 1966 Abolished in 1966 by Constitution.
 Ecuador 1884 1906 Abolished 1906
(by Constitution)

For more information see Capital punishment in Ecuador.

 El Salvador 1973 n/a May be imposed only in cases provided by military laws during a state of international war.[73] Abolished for other crimes 1983.
 Grenada 1978 n/a
 Guatemala 2000[74] n/a
 Haiti 1972 1987 Abolished 1987 by Constitution.
 Guyana 1997 n/a Death penalty for terrorist acts;[75] Murder; mass murder; rape; willful murder; treason; torture. The constitution states that it must not be a mandatory punishment.
 Honduras 1940 1956 Abolished 1956 by Constitution.
 Jamaica 1988[76] n/a Death penalty for murder[77]
 Mexico 1961 2005 Death penalty abolished by Constitution in 1917 except for military crimes, 2005 all crimes. Since the kidnap and murder of 14-year-old Fernando Martí in July 2008 at the hands of an organized group of criminals that included police officers, there had been social pressure to reinstate capital punishment (including from the Green Party) and the issue was brought up in Congress, but Congress refused to reinstate it. In 2009 the Green Party used its pro-death penalty position in an ineffective attempt to garner-up votes on the cheap. Additionally, as Mexico is a member of the Organization of American States (OAS), it is prohibited from reinstating the death penalty after it had been abolished.[78][79]

See Capital punishment in Mexico.

 Nicaragua 1930 1979 Abolished 1979 by Constitution
 Panama None since independence 1903 Abolished 1903 by Constitution.
 Paraguay 1928 1992 Abolished 1992
(by Constitution)
 Peru 1979 n/a Death penalty for treason,Terrorism,Espionage,Genocide,Mutiny,Desertion in times of war.[73] Abolished for other crimes 1979.
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 2008 [80] n/a Death penalty for murder
 Saint Lucia 1995 n/a Death penalty for murder; Treason
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1995 n/a Death penalty for murder; Treason
 Suriname 1982 n/a The last execution in 1982, was arbitrary, by military firing squad and without due process. The perpetrators are presently being tried. The death penalty is de facto, but not de jure abolished by signing the treaty of San Jose in 1987. Aggravated or premeditated murder; treason[81] For more information see Capital punishment in Suriname
 Trinidad and Tobago 1999 n/a Death penalty for murder; Treason[82]
 United States 2011 [83] 46 n/a Capital punishment was suspended in the United States from 1972 through 1976. Currently Federal law provides the death penalty for many homicide-related crimes; espionage; treason;[84] As of 2011, 34 of the 50 US states still exercise the death penalty. The 16 states who have abolished capital punishment are (with abolition date): Michigan (1846), Wisconsin (1853), Maine (1887), Minnesota (1911), Hawaii (1948), Alaska (1957), Vermont (1964), Iowa (1965), West Virginia (1965), North Dakota (1973), Rhode Island (1979), Massachusetts (1984 - de facto judicial abolition, retains statute), New York (2004 - de facto judicial abolition, retains statute), New Jersey (2007), New Mexico (2009), and Illinois (2011).[85] As of 17 Apr 2011 bills proposing death penalty abolition are being considered by the legislatures of Connecticut, Florida, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas - bills proposing the reinstatement of the death penalty are being considered by the legislatures of Hawaii, Illinois, Massachusetts,and New Jersey.[86] Oregon re-introduced the death penalty which occurred in 1978 after abolition in 1964. Delaware re-introduced the death penalty on December 18, 1961 after having abolished it on April 2, 1958. Of the US non-state entities US Samoa still has capital punishment as a local statute.[87] The remaining non-state entities have abolished the death penalty, Puerto Rico (1929), Washington DC (1981), Mariana Is (never a local statute), Guam, US Virgin Is. In practice the death penalty is used only for murder; conspiracy to commit murder. Sentences of death may be handed down by a jury or a judge (upon a bench trial or a guilty plea). For more information see Capital punishment in the United States.
 Uruguay 1905 1907 Abolished 1907
(by Constitution)
 Venezuela None since independence 1863 Abolished in 1863
by Constitution

Asia-Pacific

Of the 55 independent states in the Asia-Pacific region that are UN members:

  • 24 (44%) maintain the death penalty in both law and practice.
  • 18 (33%) have abolished it.
  • 2 (4%) retain it for crimes committed in exceptional circumstances (such as in time of war).
  • 11 (20%) permit its use for ordinary crimes, but have not used it for at least 10 years and are believed to have a policy or established practice of not carrying out executions, or it is under a moratorium.

Of the 2 Asian limited recognition states not included in the above numbers - both the Taiwan and the Palestinian Authority maintain the death penalty in law and practice.

The information above is accurate as of 14 Jan 2010 when Mongolia announced a moratorium on capital punishment.

  • Asia has the worlds four leading practitioners of capital punishment - China, Iran, North Korea and Yemen.

Executions in 2010: Bahrain (1), Bangladesh (9+), China (2000+), Iran (252+), Iraq (1+), Japan (2), Saudi Arabia (27+), Singapore (1+), Palestinian Authority (5), Syria (17+), Taiwan (ROC) (4), Malaysia (1+), North Korea (60+), Yemen (53+), Vietnam (1+).[2]

Note: The tables can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the Sort none.gif icon.

Key Country Year of Last Execution Executions 2010 Year Abolished Notes
 Afghanistan 2008 [88] n/a Current laws allow capital punishment for apostasy,[89] homosexuality, and murder.
 Australia 1967[90] 1985 Capital punishment was abolished in Queensland in 1922, Tasmania in 1968, The Northern Territory; Australian Capital Territory and the Commonwealth in 1973, Victoria in 1975, South Australia in 1976, Western Australia in 1984 and New South Wales in 1985. For more information see Capital punishment in Australia.
 Bahrain 2010 [91] 1+ n/a Death penalty for premeditated murder; plotting to topple the regime; collaborating with a foreign hostile country; threatening the life of the Emir; defiance of military orders in time of war or martial law
 Bangladesh 2011 [92] 9+ n/a Death penalty for murder;[93] drug offences;[94] Trafficking in children for immoral or illegal purposes; trafficking in women for purposes of prostitution[95]
 Bhutan 1974[32] 2004
 Brunei None since independence n/a Last execution when a protectorate of Britain was in 1957. Death penalty for murder; unlawful possession of firearms and explosives; possession of heroin or morphine of more than 15 grams, cocaine of more than 30 grams, cannabis of more than 500 grams, syabu or methamphetamine of more than 50 grams, or opium of more than 1.2 kg[96]
 Cambodia 1989 1989 Abolished in 1989 by Constitution.
 China 2011 [97] 2000+ n/a China carries out far more executions than all of the rest of the world combined, and is notable as the only country in the world that regularly executes thousands of people every year.[98] On 25 Feb 2011 China's newly revised Criminal Law reduced the number of crimes punishable by death by 13 to 55.[99] Among these are embezzlement; rape of children; fraud; bombing; people trafficking; piracy; rape; corruption; arson; murder; poaching; endangerment of national security; terrorism[100] (see Capital punishment in the People's Republic of China)

Hong Kong and Macau, have separate legal systems and have abolished the death penalty. In Hong Kong it was abolished in 1993 by the then British colonial government, and last used in 1966 (see Capital punishment in Hong Kong). In Macau it was last used in 19th Century and abolished in 1976 when Portugal abolished the death penalty on all its territories (see Capital punishment in Macau).

 Fiji None since independence n/a Last execution when a colony of Britain was in 1964. Death penalty for only for crimes under the Republic of Fiji Military Forces Act. Abolished for other crimes 1979.
 India 2004[101] n/a Death penalty for Murder; instigating a child's suicide; treason; acts of terrorism; a second conviction for drug trafficking. For more information see Capital punishment in India
 Indonesia 2008 [102] n/a Death penalty for murder; Drug trafficking;[103] Terrorism;[104]

Capital punishment is regulated by state Law No. 2/1964, which stipulates that death sentences should be carried out by firing squad.[105]

 Iran 2011[106] 252+ n/a Iran is second only to China in the number of executions it carries out - regularly killing hundreds every year (many in public)[98] Currently the death penalty can be given for murder; armed robbery; drug trafficking; kidnapping; rape; paedophilia; homosexuality; espionage; terrorism; apostasy (no recorded excecutions)
 Iraq 2010[107] 1+ n/a Death penalty for murder; endangering national security; distributing drugs; rape; attacks on transport convoys; financing and execution of terrorism.[108] Suspended in June 2003 after 2003 invasion; reinstated August 2004.[109]
 Israel 1962 n/a Death penalty for crimes against humanity,[110] high treason, genocide, crimes against the Jewish people, terrorism. Only two executions: accused traitor Meir Tobiansky (posthumously acquitted) and high-ranking Nazi Adolf Eichmann. Abolished for other crimes 1954.
 Japan 2010 [111] 2 n/a Prosecutors push for the death penalty only in the case of multiple murders, or single murder with aggravating circumstances.[112] Judges usually impose death penalty in case of multiple homicides. Between 1946 and 2003 766 people were sentenced to death, 608 of whom were executed. For 40 months from 1989 to 1993 successive ministers of justice refused to authorise executions, which amounted to an informal moratorium. (See Capital punishment in Japan)
 Jordan 2006 [113] n/a Death penalty for murder[114]
 North Korea 2011[115] 60+ n/a North Korea performs public executions. Current laws allow the death penalty for prostitution;[116] “drug transactions”; plots against national sovereignty; terrorism; treason against the Motherland by citizens; treason against the people; murder[117]
 South Korea 1997[118] n/a Death penalty for murder.[119] There has been an unofficial moratorium on executions since President Kim Dae-jung took office in February 1998.[120] However, a man was recently sentenced to death, a sentence which had not been carried out as of April 2009 [121]
 Kiribati None since independence 1979
 Kuwait 2007 [122] n/a Death penalty for drug trafficking; rape; murder
 Kyrgyzstan None since independence 2007 Kyrgyz authorities had extended a moratorium on executions each year since 1998. Abolished by constitution in 2007[123][124]
 Laos 1989 n/a Death penalty for drugs trafficking[125]
 Lebanon 2004 [126] n/a Death penalty for murder[127]
 Malaysia 2010[128] 1+ n/a Death penalty mandatory for trafficking in dangerous drugs; discharging a firearm in the commission of a scheduled offence; accomplices in case of discharge of firearm; offences against the Yang di-Pertuan Agong’s person; murder. Discretionary for kidnapping; consorting with a person carrying or having possession of arms or explosives; waging or attempting to wage war or abetting the waging of war against the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, a Ruler or Yang di-Pertua Negeri[129]
 Maldives None since independence n/a Last execution when a colony of Britain was in 1952. Death penalty for murder[130]
 Marshall Islands None since independence 1986 Abolished in 1986
by Constitution
 Mongolia 2008 n/a Death penalty for terrorist acts committed for political purposes; terrorist acts against representatives of a foreign State for political purposes; sabotage; premeditated murder committed with aggravating circumstances; rape with aggravating circumstances; armed robbery.[131] According to Amnesty International, executions were carried out in secret and there are no official statistics[132] On January 14, 2010, President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj announced that he would, henceforth, systematically use his prerogative to pardon all persons sentenced to death. He stated that most countries in the world had abolished the death penalty, and that Mongolia should follow their example; he suggested that it be replaced with a thirty year prison sentence.[133] As of Jan 2011 a bill to ratify the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), aiming at the abolition of the death penalty, is awaiting a final vote in the State Great Khural (parliament).[134]

(See: Capital punishment in Mongolia)

 Federated States of Micronesia None since independence 1986 Abolished in 1986
by Constitution
 Myanmar 1993 n/a Death penalty for high treason[135]
 Nauru None since independence n/a Death penalty for treason; Piracy; Murder
 Nepal 1979 1997 Abolished 1997 by Constitution.
 New Zealand 1957 2007 Abolished in New Zealand in 1989. In 2007 the Cook Islands became the last of New Zealand`s overseas territories to abolish capital punishment. For more information see Capital punishment in New Zealand
 Oman 2001[136] n/a Death penalty for murder; Drug trafficking[137]
 Pakistan 2008 [138] n/a Death penalty for murder,drug smuggling,terrorism,rape,unlawful asslembly and blasphemy;. (See Capital punishment in Pakistan)
 Palau None since independence 1994
 Palestinian National Authority 2011[139] 5 n/a The Palestinian Authority performs public executions. Current laws allow the death penalty for murder, rape, collaborating with Israeli forces.[140][141] There are a total of 17 offenses in the West Bank and 15 in the Gaza Strip for which the death penalty can be imposed under the Palestinian Penal Code.[5] There had been an unofficial moratorium since 2002 after President Yasser Arafat stopped authorising executions. The Hamas Islamic court has sentenced people to death for murder.[6]
 Papua New Guinea None since independence[142] n/a Last execution when a colony of Britain was in Nov 1954. Treason; Piracy; Attempted piracy; willful murder. For more information, see Capital punishment in Papua New Guinea.
 Philippines 2000 2006 Abolished in 1987 under the present constitution, re-introduced in 1993, re-abolished on 24 June 2006 under Republic Act No. 9346.
 Qatar 2003[143] n/a Death penalty for espionage;[144] Threat to national security;[145] Apostasy[34](no recorded executions)
 Samoa None since independence 2004[146]
 Saudi Arabia 2011 [147] 27+ n/a Saudi Arabia performs public executions. Current laws allow the death penalty for many violent and nonviolent offenses, including murder; apostasy (no recorded excecutions); drug trafficking; rape and armed robbery[148] drug offenses; witchcraft; sexual misconduct.[149] Method most often used is beheading by a sword
 Singapore 2010 [128] 1+ n/a Death penalty for murder; kidnapping; treason; certain firearm offenses; trafficking in more than 15 grams of heroin or morphine, 30 grams of cocaine or 500 grams of cannabis[150] (see capital punishment in Singapore)
 Solomon Islands None since independence 1978
 Sri Lanka 1976 n/a Death penalty for murder; perjury causing an innocent person to be executed; rape; drug trafficking. Moratorium since 1976.
 Syria 2010 [128] 17+ n/a Syria performs public executions. Current laws allow the death penalty for treason; murder; political acts such as bearing arms against Syria in the ranks of the enemy, desertion of the armed forces to the enemy and acts of incitement under martial law or in wartime; violent robbery; rape; verbal opposition to the government; membership of the Muslim Brotherhood
 Taiwan 2011 [151] 4 n/a Between 2004-2010 death sentences were not carried out Capital punishment in the Republic of China. Executions resumed in 2010. On March 4, 2011, five people executed. On 3 May 2011 Taiwan removed the death penalty clauses from its Military Law statutes[152]
 Tajikistan 2004 n/a Death penalty for murder with aggravating circumstances; rape with aggravating circumstances; terrorism; biocide; genocide.[153] Moratorium introduced 30 April 2004 by President Emomalii Rahmon
 Thailand 2009[154] n/a Death penalty for regicide; sedition or rebellion; offences committed against the external security of Thailand; murder or attempted murder of a foreign head of state; bribery; arson; rape; murder with intent; kidnapping; robbery resulting in death. For a full list see here (PDF)
 Timor-Leste None since independence 2002.[155] Death penalty suspended following UN administration in 1999 when still a province of Indonesia. Capital Punishment abolished by constitution 2002.[155]
 Tonga 1982[156] n/a Death penalty for treason, Murder; For more information see Capital punishment in Tonga
 Turkmenistan 1997 1999 Abolished 1999 by Constitution.
 Tuvalu None since independence 1978
 United Arab Emirates 2011[157] n/a Death penalty for murder; Drug offences;[158] Rape; treason; aggravated robbery; terrorism
 Uzbekistan 2005[159] 2008 President Islam Karimov signed a decree on 1 August 2005 that replaced the death penalty with life imprisonment on 1 January 2008[160][161]
 Vanuatu None since independence 1980
 Vietnam 2010[162] 1+ n/a Death penalty for treason; taking action to overthrow the government; espionage; rebellion; banditry; terrorism; sabotage; hijacking; destruction of national security projects; undermining peace; war crimes; crimes against humanity; manufacturing, concealing and trafficking in narcotic substances; murder; rape; robbery; embezzlement; fraud[163]
 Yemen 2010 [164] 53+ n/a Yemen performs public executions. Current laws allow the death penalty for murder;[165] Adultery;[166] homosexuality;[167][168] Apostasy[34] (no recorded executions)

Europe

Of the 50 independent states in Europe that are UN members or have UN Observer status:

  • 1 (2%) maintains the death penalty in both law and practice.
  • 46 (92%) have abolished it.
  • 2 (4%) retain it for crimes committed in exceptional circumstances (such as in time of war).
  • 1 (2%) permit its use for ordinary crimes, but have not used it for at least 10 years and are believed to have a policy or established practice of not carrying out executions, or it is under a moratorium.

Of the 6 European limited recognition states not included in the above numbers - Kossovo has abolished capital punishment and the remaining 5 are considered de facto abolitionist -Abkhazia, Northern Cyprus, Nagorno-Karabakh, South Ossetia, & Transnistria.

The information above is accurate as of 2010 when the last Netherlands overseas territory announced the abolition of capital punishment.[169]

  • Belarus is the only country in Europe to still carry out executions. 2009 is the only year in recorded history when Europe was completely free of executions.

Executions in 2010: Belarus (2).[2]

Note: The tables can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the Sort none.gif icon.

Key Country Year Last Execution Executions 2010 Year Abolished Notes
 Abkhazia None since independence n/a
 Albania 1995[170] 2007 Ratification of Protocol No. 13 of ECHR took place on 6 February 2007, in effect by 1 June 2007.[171]
 Andorra 1943 1990 Abolished 1990 by Constitution
 Armenia None since independence 1998 Abolished in 1998 by Constitution
 Austria 1950 1968 Abolished in peacetime 1950. Completely abolished in 1968 by Constitution.
 Azerbaijan 1993 1998
 Belarus 2011 2 n/a Belarus is the last remaining country in Europe to practice the death penalty. Current laws allow capital punishment for acts of aggression; murder of a representative of a foreign state or international organization with the intention to provoke international tension or war; international terrorism; genocide; crimes against the security of humanity; murder with aggravating circumstances; terrorism; terrorist acts; treason that results in loss of life; conspiracy to seize power; sabotage; murder of a police officer; use of weapons of mass destruction; and violations of the laws and customs of war[172] (see Capital punishment in Belarus)
 Belgium 1950 1996 Last execution for common law crimes was in 1863. Last execution for war crimes was in 1950. Abolished 1996 by Constitution.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina None since independence 1998 Last execution when part of Yugoslavia was in 1975. Abolished 1998 by Constitution
 Bulgaria 1989 1998
 Cyprus 1962 2002 Capital punishment for murder abolished in 1983.
 Croatia None since independence 1991 Last execution when part of Yugoslavia was in 1973.[170] Abolished in 1990 for the Croatian Yugoslav Republic by the Constitution. Upon declaration of independence in 1991 Croatia removed itself from the jurisdiction of the Federal Yugoslav capital punishment statutes effectively achieving complete abolition.

Death penalty is prohibited by the article 21 of the Croatian Constitution.[173]

 Czech Republic None since independence 1990 Last execution when part of Czechoslovakia was in Jun 1989. For more info see Capital punishment in the Czech Republic.Abolished 1990 by Constitution
 Denmark 1950 1978 Last execution for common law crimes 1892. Last execution for war crimes 1950. Capital punishment was retroactively carried out 1945-50 for crimes related to the German occupation in World War II, repealed in 1951 and confirmed in 1993. A similar rule was active 1952-1978 in the civil penalty law for war crimes committed under extreme circumstances. See Capital punishment in Denmark.
 Estonia 1991 1998
 Finland 1944 1972 Last peacetime execution 1825. Last wartime execution 1944. Capital punishment was abolished on civilian crimes 1949 (all existing sentences commuted to life imprisonment) and on all crimes 1972. 1984 death penalty was outlawed in the Finnish Constitution.
 France 1977 1981 The death penalty was initially abolished by the Directory in 1795 but re-introduced by Napoleon in 1810. It was re-abolished in law in 1981 and by Constitution in 2007. For more info see Capital punishment in France
 Georgia 1995[170] 2006 The death penalty was abolished for most offenses in 1997, but the constitution stated that the Supreme Court had the power to impose the death penalty in exceptionally serious cases of "crimes against life". On 27 December 2006, President Mikheil Saakashvili signed into a law a new constitutional amendment totally abolishing the death penalty in all circumstances
 Germany 1949 1949 Last execution by German staat´s authorities 1949. US military authorities carried out an execution on FRG territory in 1956. The now defunct GDR`S last execution in East Germany was in 1981. Prohibited by the Basic Law since 1949. In GDR was forbiden since 1988 and (West-)Berlin forbidden since the reunification 1990.
 Greece 1972 2001 Abolished in 1994 (Law 2207/1994) except for high treason in time of war; abolished completely with the Constitutional amendment of 2001
 Hungary 1988 1990 Capital punishment was abolished in 1990 and the last execution was of Vadász Ernő on the 14th of July 1988 for murder.
 Iceland None since independence 1928 Last execution when a colony of Denmark was in 1830. Abolished in 1928; reintroduction made unconstitutional in 1995 by unanimous vote of parliament
 Ireland 1954 1990 21st Amendment to the Constitution (2001) passed by national referendum made reintroduction unconstitutional without a further constitutional amendment (and referendum). Until 1990 it was still technically lawful to execute the murderer of a police officer; however, in practice this never occurred, likely due to widespread moral objection.
 Italy 1947 1994 On 30 Nov 1786 the Duchy of Tuscany (then independent,now a part of Italy) became the first state in the modern era to completely abolish the death penalty. The short lived Roman Republic of Feb-Jul 1849 abolished the death penalty before being overthrown by French troops. When the Republic of Italy was formed in 1860 all the constituent states except Tuscany allowed capital punishment until it was abolished from the civil code in 1889 - although it was maintained under military and colonial law. In 1926 Mussolini reintroduced the death penalty into civil Italian law. It was re-abolished from the civil code except in time of war in 1948 (by the Constitution). Capital punishment was finally completely abolished by removing it from from the military penal code in 1994. Constitution amended in 2007 to make reintroduction unconstitutional without a further constitutional amendment.See Capital punishment in Italy
 Kazakhstan 2003[174] n/a Currently capital punishment for terrorism and crimes in wartime.[175] Moratorium since 17 December 2003. Abolished on 30 July 2009 for other crimes[176] On 28 Mar 2011 the Presidential Commission for Human Rights in Astana asked the government to abolish capital punishment.[177]
 Kosovo None since independence 2008 Prohibited by 2008 Constitution[178]
 Latvia 1996[170] n/a Death penalty for murder with aggravating circumstances if committed during wartime.[179] Abolished for other crimes 1999.
 Liechtenstein 1785 1987
 Lithuania 1995 1998
 Luxembourg 1949 1979 Abolished by Constitution 1979
 Macedonia None since independence 1991 Last execution when a part of Yugoslavia was in 1988.[170] Abolished by Constitution 1991.
 Malta None since independence 2000 Last execution when a colony of Britain was in 1943. Capital punishment for murder abolished in 1971; part of the military code until 2000.
 Moldova None since independence 2005 Last execution when a part of the USSR was in 1985[170]

. On 23 September 2005 the Moldovan Constitutional Court approved constitutional amendments that abolished the death penalty.[180]

 Monaco 1847 1962 Abolished by Constitution 1962
 Montenegro None since independence 2006 Last execution when a part of Yugoslavia was in 1992. Capital punishment abolished by Yugoslavia Federal Republic in 1995. When Montenegro declared independence in 2006 it became an abolitionist state.
 Netherlands 1952 2010 Last execution for peacetime offences 1860. Abolished for peacetime offences in 1870. Abolished in Netherlands by Constitution 1982. Last Netherlands overseas territory to abolish was Netherlands Antilles in 2010.[169]
 Nagorno-Karabakh Republic None since independence n/a
 Norway 1948 1979 Abolished for peacetime offences in 1902, last execution for peacetime offences 1876. Last executions of wartime offenders conducted on 37 men convicted of treason in WWII in 1947-48.
 Poland 1988 1997 A criminal law reform including reintroduction of death penalty was proposed in 2004 by Prawo i Sprawiedliwość, but lost its first reading vote in the Sejm by 198 to 194 with 14 abstentions). It is said that this was only populism, as Poland was in the European Union and so this initiative hardly had a chance.[32]
 Portugal 1846 1976 Capital Punishment was abolished for civil crimes in 1867. It was completely abolished for all crimes in 1911, but reinstated in 1916 for treasonous offenses in time of war. It was completely abolished again in 1976.[181]
 Romania 1989 1990[182] The last people to be convicted and executed in Romania were the former dictator Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife, Elena, following the Romanian Revolution of 1989. Their accusations ranged from crimes against humanity to high-treason. Abolished in 1990 by Constitution
 Russia 1996 n/a There have been 3 brief periods when Russia has completely abolished the death penalty, 12 Mar 1917 to 12 Jul 1917 following the overthrow of the Tsar, 27 Oct 1917 to 16 Jun 1918 following the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks, and 1947-1950 after the end of the Second World War. Currently the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation envisages the death penalty for five crimes: murder with aggravating circumstances, assassination attempt against a state or public figure, attempt on the life of a person administering justice or preliminary investigations, attempt on the life of a law-enforcement officer, and genocide.[183] On 16 April 1997 Russia signed the Sixth Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, but has yet to ratify it. There has been a moratorium on executions since 1996; no executions in the Russian Federation since August 1996 (except one in 1999 in the Chechen Republic a former limited recognition state). In November 2009, the Constitutional Court of Russia extended the moratorium pending ratification of the Sixth Protocol.
 San Marino 1468 1865 Capital Punishment was abolished for civil crimes in 1848. The Death penalty was completely abolished for all crimes in 1865.
 Serbia 1992 2002 Abolished in 1995 on the federal level (Serbia was the part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). Local (Serbian) legislation was adjusted in 2002[184]
 Slovakia None since independence 1993 Last execution when a part of Czechoslovakia was in 1989. Abolished 1990 by Constitution when still a constituent part of Czechoslovakia. Upon independence on 01 Jan 1993 Slovakia became a new abolitionist state.
 South Ossetia None since independence n/a
 Slovenia None since independence 1991 Last execution when a part of Yugoslavia was in 1959. Abolished in Slovenian Yugoslav Republic 1989 by Constitution. Upon declaration of independence in 1991 Slovenia removed itself from the jurisdiction of the Federal Yugoslav capital punishment statutes effectively achieving complete abolition.
 Spain 1975 1995 Abolished in 1978 by constitution except for military laws during wartime. Abolished from the military penal code in 1995.[185]
 Sweden 1910 1973 Peacetime offences 1921, Wartime offences 1973. Constitutionally prohibited since 1975. See also capital punishment in Sweden.
 Switzerland 1944 1992 Capital Punishment was abolished in 1874, but reinstated in 1879. It was practiced by a few cantons (nine executions up to 1940). Abolished by popular vote in 1938, except for wartime military crimes, for which it was abolished in 1992.
 Transnistria None since independence n/a Death penalty for murder; attempt to murder a state or public official; armed rebellion; attempt to murder a magistrate or investigator; attempt to murder a law enforcement agent; genocide. Moratorium since 1 January 1999
 Turkey 1984 2004 Abolished in 2004 by Constitution
 Northern Cyprus None since independence n/a Death penalty for treason during wartime, acts of terrorism and piracy jure gentium (by the law of nations), and for repeated murders[186]
 Ukraine 1997[187] 2000 Abolished February 2000 after the Constitutional Court ruled the death penalty unconstitutional in December 1999. New criminal code passed in April 2001.
 United Kingdom 1964 1998 Last execution in the UK was in 1964. The last execution on British Overseas Territory occurred in Bermuda in 1977. Abolished for murder in 1969 in Great Britain and 1973 in Northern Ireland. Abolished for all remaining offences (high treason, piracy with violence and offences under military jurisdiction) in UK in 1998. European Convention, Thirteenth Protocol ratified in 2003 confirming total abolition. See Capital punishment in the United Kingdom. The last British Territory or Crown Dependency to completely abolish capital punishment was Jersey on 10 Dec 2006.[188]
 Vatican City 1870 [189] 1969

Abolition Chronology

The table below lists in chronological order the 95 independent states, that are either UN members or have UN observer status, that have completely abolished the death penalty. In the hundred years since Venezuela abolished capital punishment in 1863 only 10 more countries were able to maintain abolition - although more tried but failed to prevent re-instatement after an initial abolition. From the 1960`s there has been a growing momentum towards abolition worldwide. In the 1960`s 4 countries abolished (a record up to that time for any decade), in the 1970`s a limited momentum was achieved when 10 countries abolished, the 1980`s saw a further 9 countries abolish, but it was the fall of Communism in 1989 which turned the trickle into a torrent - no fewer than 34 countries abolished in the 1990`s, the individual years 1990 and 1998 are especially notable because 8 and 7 countries respectively abolished in those single years. This momentum is continuing as a further 26 countries abolished in the first decade of this century. Since 1985 there have been only two years when no country has abolished the death penalty, 1988 & 2003.

Note - Where a country has abolished, re-instated, and abolished again (e.g. Philippines, Switzerland, Portugal) only the later abolition date is included. Countries who have abolished and since reinstated (e.g. Liberia) are not included. The ten limited recognition states are not included in this table, as they are not included in the statistics throughout this article (although they do appear in the continental tables above for information). Non-independent territories are considered to be under the jurisdiction of their parent country - which leads to unexpectedly late abolition dates for the UK, New Zealand and the Netherlands, where Jersey (UK), the Cook Is (NZ), and the Netherlands Antilles, were the last territories of those states to abolish capital punishment, and all were rather later than the more well known abolitions on the respective mainlands. Defunct countries such as the GDR (East Germany), which abolished capital punishment in 1987 but was dissolved in 1990, are also not included. References are in the continental tables above and not repeated here.

Year Abolished Country In-Year Total Running Total
1863  Venezuela 1 1
1865  San Marino 1 2
1877  Costa Rica 1 3
1903  Panama 1 4
1906  Ecuador 1 5
1907  Uruguay 1 6
1910  Colombia 1 7
1928  Iceland 1 8
1949  Germany 1 9
1956  Honduras 1 10
1962  Monaco 1 11
1966  Dominican Republic 1 12
1968  Austria 1 13
1969  Vatican City 1 14
1972  Finland 1 15
1973  Sweden 1 16
1976  Canada  Portugal 2 18
1978  Denmark  Solomon Islands  Tuvalu 3 21
1979  Kiribati  Luxembourg  Nicaragua  Norway 4 25
1980  Vanuatu 1 26
1981  Cape Verde  France 2 28
1985  Australia 1 29
1986  Marshall Islands  Federated States of Micronesia 2 31
1987  Haiti  Liechtenstein 2 33
1989  Cambodia 1 34
1990  Andorra  Czech Republic  Hungary  Ireland  Mozambique

 Namibia  Romania  São Tomé and Príncipe

8 42
1991  Croatia  Macedonia  Slovenia 3 45
1992  Angola  Paraguay  Switzerland 3 48
1993  Guinea-Bissau  Slovakia  Seychelles 3 51
1994  Italy  Palau 2 53
1995  Djibouti  Mauritius  South Africa  Spain 4 57
1996  Belgium 1 58
1997  Nepal  Poland  Bolivia 2 60
1998  Armenia  Azerbaijan  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Bulgaria  Estonia  Lithuania  United Kingdom 7 67
1999  Turkmenistan 1 68
2000  Côte d'Ivoire  Malta  Ukraine 3 71
2001  Greece 1 72
2002  Cyprus  Serbia  Timor-Leste 3 75
2004  Bhutan  Samoa  Senegal  Turkey 4 79
2005  Mexico Moldova 2 81
2006  Georgia  Montenegro  Philippines 3 84
2007  Albania  Kyrgyzstan  New Zealand  Rwanda 4 88
2008  Uzbekistan 1 89
2009  Argentina  Burundi  Togo 4 93
2010  Gabon  Netherlands Antilles 2 95

See also

References

  1. ^ ABOLITIONIST AND RETENTIONIST COUNTRIES
  2. ^ a b c d e http://www.amnesty.org.au/images/uploads/adp/Death%20Sentences%20and%20Executions%202010.pdf
  3. ^ Child executions
  4. ^ http://www.globalissues.org/news/2010/10/07/7188
  5. ^ http://www.handsoffcain.info/news/index.php?iddocumento=15302086
  6. ^ http://www.omct.org/pdf/procedures/2004/joint/s_violence_benin_sum_recom_10_2004.pdf (PDF)
  7. ^ United Nations Human Rights Website - Treaty Bodies Database - Document - Summary Record - Benin
  8. ^ Benin
  9. ^ http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/benin-closer-abolishing-death-penalty-2011-08-19
  10. ^ http://www.handsoffcain.info/archivio_news/201003.php?iddocumento=13303343&mover=0
  11. ^ http://www.politinfo.com/articles/article_2004_04_8_2302.html
  12. ^ Burundi: Imminent resumption of executions or summary trials and executions | Amnesty International
  13. ^ http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/news/burundi-abolishes-death-penalty-but-bans-homosexuality-20090427
  14. ^ a b c d British Commonwealth:
  15. ^ University of Minnesota Template Page
  16. ^ Human Rights Committee Considers The Situation In The Central African Republic
  17. ^ http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/AFR20/001/2003/en
  18. ^ The death penalty: List of abolitionist and retentionist countries (October 1996) | Amnesty International
  19. ^ "Congo death verdict prompts worry". BBC News. 6 May 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/8664155.stm. 
  20. ^ West Africa: Time to abolish the death penalty\n\n | Amnesty International
  21. ^ http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/egyptian-man-executed-amid-questions-over-murder-conviction-2010-03-12
  22. ^ "Eq Guinea executes four coup convicts: Amnesty". Reuters. 24 August 2010. http://af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFJOE67N00T20100824. 
  23. ^ "Ethiopia executes spy boss killer". BBC News. 6 August 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6933849.stm. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  24. ^ Concluding Observations/Comments - Gabon
  25. ^ http://www.handsoffcain.info/archivio_news/index.php?iddocumento=15302086&mover=0#
  26. ^ a b c West Africa: Time to abolish the death penalty\n\n | Amnesty International
  27. ^ http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/AFR29/004/2001/en
  28. ^ a b Document Information | Amnesty International
  29. ^ Armed robbery, terrorism and hijacking capital offenses&Death penalty under fire
  30. ^ http://www.handsoffcain.info/archivio_news/201005.php?iddocumento=13308899&mover=0
  31. ^ The Trial In Libya - Libyan Court System And Criminal Justice
  32. ^ a b c d The death penalty worldwide: developments in 2004 | Amnesty International
  33. ^ Sodomylaws.Org
  34. ^ a b c d e Copyright © 2007 Barnabas Fund | Islamic Teaching on the Consequences of Apostasy from Islam
  35. ^ "Nigeria's first Sharia execution". BBC News. 4 January 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1741789.stm. 
  36. ^ Sodomylaws.Org
  37. ^ "Rwanda's ban on executions helps bring genocide justice - CNN.com". CNN. 27 July 2007. http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/africa/07/27/rwanda.execution.reut/index.html. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  38. ^ Pazzanita, Anthony G. and Hodges, Tony, ed (1994) [1994]. Historical Dictionary of Western Sahara (Second Edition ed.). Metuchen, New Jersey, United States, and London, United Kingdom: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.. pp. 381. ISBN 0-8108-2661-5. 
  39. ^ Sierra Leone: Amnesty International expresses dismay at 10 death sentences for treason | Amnesty International
  40. ^ http://somaliweyn.org/pages/news/Jan_11/15Jan31.html
  41. ^ S v Makwanyane and Another [1995] ZACC 3 at 151, 1995 (3) S.A. 391
  42. ^ Criminal Law Amendment Act, No. 105 of 1997
  43. ^ Sibiya and Others v Director of Public Prosecutions: Johannesburg High Court and Others [2005] ZACC 6, 2005 (5) SA 315 (CC)
  44. ^ Sodomylaws.Org
  45. ^ afrika.no - Sudan: Attorney General expects death penalty for islamist coup plotters
  46. ^ http://www.handsoffcain.info/archivio_news/201003.php?iddocumento=13306887&mover=0
  47. ^ Sodomylaws.Org
  48. ^ afrika.no - Sudan: Attorney General expects death penalty for islamist coup plotters
  49. ^ The Clarion Issue - Column
  50. ^ http://www.cidi.org/humanitarian/irin/safrica/00a/0020.html
  51. ^ Death Penalty News: 2002, September | Amnesty International
  52. ^ Togo abolishes the death penalty
  53. ^ http://www.handsoffcain.info/news/index.php?iddocumento=15301637
  54. ^ http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=35479
  55. ^ http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AFR59/001/2009/en/44962eca-e93e-11dd-8224-a709898295f2/afr590012009eng.html
  56. ^ http://www.zimbabwesituation.com/jun22_2003.html
  57. ^ http://www.handsoffcain.info/news/index.php?iddocumento=15000827
  58. ^ http://www.argentina.gov.ar/argentina/portal/documentos/constitucion_ingles.pdf Section 18
  59. ^ Last Vestiges of Capital Punishment Abolished
  60. ^ "Hang them!". Nation Newspaper. 10 October 2010. http://www.nationnews.com/articles/view/hang-them/. Retrieved 22 December 2010. 
  61. ^ "A Guy's View: To hang or not to hang". The Barbados Advocate. 19 September 2010. http://www.barbadosadvocate.com/newsitem.asp?more=regional&NewsID=12847. Retrieved 22 December 2010. 
  62. ^ Belize: Death Penalty, Gilroy "Hooty" Wade, Oscar "Negro" Catzim Mendez, Glenford Baptist | Amnesty International
  63. ^ "Manuel da Mota Coqueiro". http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_da_Mota_Coqueiro. Retrieved 25 May 2011. 
  64. ^ #refLei 6620
  65. ^ Presidency of Brazil. "Law Decree 431, 18 May 1938" (in Portuguese). http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/Decreto-Lei/1937-1946/Del0431.htm. Retrieved 3 February 2009. 
  66. ^ Presidency of Brazil. "Law 1802, 5 January 1953" (in Portuguese). http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/LEIS/1950-1969/L1802.htm#art47. Retrieved 3 February 2009. 
  67. ^ Presidency of Brazil. "Law Decree 898, 29 September 1969" (in Portuguese). http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil/Decreto-Lei/1965-1988/Del0898.htm. Retrieved 3 February 2009. 
  68. ^ "Teodomiro Romeiro dos Santos". Portuguese-language Wikipedia. http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teodomiro_Romeiro_dos_Santos. Retrieved 3 February 2009. 
  69. ^ Brazilian Embassy in London (2002). "Death penalty in Brazil". http://www.brazil.org.uk/humanrights/deathpenalty.html. Retrieved 3 February 2009. 
  70. ^ http://www.bestwesterncostarica.com/tourist_pura_human.html
  71. ^ "Cuba ferry hijackers executed". BBC News. 11 April 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/2941041.stm. 
  72. ^ Cuba's Raul Castro commutes most death sentences
  73. ^ a b Constitutional prohibitions of the death penalty | Amnesty International
  74. ^ Guatemala: Death Penalty/imminent execution | Amnesty International
  75. ^ Amnesty International
  76. ^ Amnesty International
  77. ^ Comunità di Sant'Egidio - No to the Death Penalty - News
  78. ^ Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/wire/sns-ap-mexico-kidnapping-wave,1,2931150.story. Retrieved 2 May 2010. [dead link]
  79. ^ Kennedy, Duncan (11 August 2008). "Mexican fury grows at kidnappings". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7553633.stm. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  80. ^ http://www.amnestyusa.org/document.php?id=ENGAMR590012008&lang=e
  81. ^ HRC Concluding Observations: SURINAME
  82. ^ Links to documents
  83. ^ http://deathpenaltynews.blogspot.com/2011/02/texas-executes-timothy-wayne-adams.html
  84. ^ Federal Laws Providing for the Death Penalty
  85. ^ http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/states-and-without-death-penalty
  86. ^ http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/recent-legislative-activity#2011
  87. ^ http://www.samoanews.com/viewstory.php?storyid=17649&edition=1281088800&newssection=LocalNews
  88. ^ Farmer, Ben (12 November 2008). "Afghanistan resumes executions". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/afghanistan/3446043/Afghanistan-resumes-executions.html. 
  89. ^ "One-legged Afghan Red Cross worker set to be hanged after converting to Christianity". Daily Mail (London). 7 February 2011. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1354246/One-legged-Afghan-Red-Cross-worker-hanged-converting-Christianity.html. 
  90. ^ Death penalty in Australia
  91. ^ http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/MDE11/003/2010/en
  92. ^ http://deathpenaltynews.blogspot.com/2011/03/bangladesh-man-executed-in-sylhet.html
  93. ^ Zee News - MP murder case: Bangla court awards death penalty to 22
  94. ^ Travel Advice for Bangladesh - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
  95. ^ Bangladesh
  96. ^ Brunei on the U.S Bureau of Consular Affairs
  97. ^ http://www.gmanews.tv/story/216491/pinoyabroad/vp-binay-confirms-death-of-3-drug-mules
  98. ^ a b http://www.handsoffcain.info/bancadati/index.php?tipotema=arg&idtema=15000608
  99. ^ http://www.handsoffcain.info/news/index.php
  100. ^ People's Republic of China: Executed "according to law"? The death penalty in China\n\n | Amnesty International
  101. ^ INDOlink - India General News: Dhananjoy Chatterjee Hanged In Kolkata Jail
  102. ^ "Indonesia confirms execution of three Bali bombers". Reuters. 8 November 2008. http://uk.reuters.com/article/2008/11/08/idUKJAK409889. 
  103. ^ The death penalty worldwide: developments in 2004 | Amnesty International
  104. ^ "Executions spark Indonesia unrest". BBC News. 22 September 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/5368922.stm. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  105. ^ AGO OK's execution of five death row inmates, The Jakarta Post, 26 July 2010, Accessed 26 July 2010
  106. ^ http://deathpenaltynews.blogspot.com/2011/02/2-hanged-in-isfahan-on-february-20.html
  107. ^ "Saddam Hussein's henchman 'Chemical Ali' executed". The Daily Telegraph (London). 25 January 2010. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/iraq/7072155/Saddam-Husseins-henchman-Chemical-Ali-executed.html. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  108. ^ http://newstandardnews.net/content/?action=show_item&itemid=799 http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?sf=2813&art_id=qw1091976122311B262
  109. ^ http://www.amnestyusa.org/document.php?id=ENGNAU200903209818&lang=e
  110. ^ [1][dead link]
  111. ^ http://www.handsoffcain.info/archivio_news/201007.php?iddocumento=13311381&mover=0
  112. ^ The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A11306-2005Jan15?language=printer. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  113. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-119683004.html
  114. ^ [2][dead link]
  115. ^ http://www.handsoffcain.info/archivio_news/201101.php?iddocumento=15300988&mover=0
  116. ^ “Executions in October 2008”, Capital punishment U.K.
  117. ^ Library of Congress Country Study: North Korea:
    Government: The Judiciary · National Security: The Judiciary · National Security: Punishment and the Penal System
  118. ^ “Death Penalty News: December 2002” by Amnesty International
  119. ^ Time Magazine – Asia Edition vol. 171, no. 12 31 March 2008
  120. ^ South Korea: Death penalty abolition - historic opportunity
  121. ^ "Korean killer gets death penalty". BBC News. 22 April 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8011560.stm. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  122. ^ http://english.nessunotocchicaino.it/archivio_news/200705.php?iddocumento=9317282&mover=1
  123. ^ Kyrgyzstan Abolishes Death Penalty - RADIO FREE EUROPE / RADIO LIBERTY
  124. ^ Kyrgyzstan - Abolition of the death penalty by Kyrgyzstan (28 June 2007) - Ministère des Affaires étrangères
  125. ^ Amnesty International
  126. ^ http://www.sundayobserver.lk/2004/01/18/wor05.html
  127. ^ Lebanon: Further Information on Death penalty/imminent execution | Amnesty International
  128. ^ a b c http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ACT50/001/2011/en/ea1b6b25-a62a-4074-927d-ba51e88df2e9/act500012011en.pdf
  129. ^ Malaysia independent news
  130. ^ Maldives - Family demands death penalty for woman's murder
  131. ^ http://www.asiapacificforum.net/activities/annual_meetings/eighth/mongolia_acj.htm http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane.nsf/0/8E61783D9ED31093802568AC0037D5DB?opendocument
  132. ^ Amnesty International
  133. ^ “Le président mongol veut abolir la peine de mort”, Le Monde, January 14, 2009
  134. ^ http://www.amnesty.name/es/library/asset/ASA30/001/2011/en/8174794e-b133-4065-b416-0c4e13af9608/asa300012011en.html
  135. ^ http://www.derechos.org/news/archives/000506.html
  136. ^ Oman: Imminent Execution: Rebecca Thompson (f), aged 44, US citizen\n\n | Amnesty International
  137. ^ Amnesty International
  138. ^ http://www.handsoffcain.info/archivio_news/200808.php?iddocumento=10318713&mover=0
  139. ^ http://www.handsoffcain.info/news/index.php?iddocumento=15305769
  140. ^ Scoop: Palestine Urged Not to Resume Executions
  141. ^ Palestinian woman accused of spying for Israel may face death, Associated Press 07/06/2009
  142. ^ "PNG urged to abandon death penalty", Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 12 November 2007
  143. ^ http://www.handsoffcain.info/bancadati/schedastato.php?idstato=15000104&idcontinente=23
  144. ^ Qatar: Death Penalty, Firas Nassuh Salim Al-Majali | Amnesty International
  145. ^ Journalism.co.uk :: Crusading journalist wins case against Al-Jazeera
  146. ^ Crimes (Abolition of Death Penalty) Amendment Act 2004
  147. ^ http://deathpenaltynews.blogspot.com/2011/03/convicted-killer-beheaded-by-sword-in.html
  148. ^ http://www.news.com.au/breaking-news/women-executed-by-sword-in-saudi-arabia/story-e6frfku0-1226165421702
  149. ^ Sodomylaws.Org
  150. ^ Singapore death penalty shrouded in silence
  151. ^ http://focustaiwan.tw/ShowNews/WebNews_Detail.aspx?Type=aIPL&ID=201103040033
  152. ^ http://www.handsoffcain.info/news/index.php?iddocumento=15305773
  153. ^ Legislationline - free online legislation database
  154. ^ http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/news/thailand-first-executions-six-years-20090826
  155. ^ a b Text of the East Timor Constitution in English
  156. ^ "Capital punishment in the Commonwealth". Capital Punishment U.K. http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/common.html. Retrieved 4 July 2009. 
  157. ^ [3]
  158. ^ United Arab Emirates (UAE): Death penalty | Amnesty International
  159. ^ Uzbekistan: Further information on: Fear of imminent execution/torture and ill-treatment | Amnesty International
  160. ^ [4][dead link]
  161. ^ Presidential Decree on the abolition of the death penalty - Legislationline - free online legislation database
  162. ^ http://vietnamnet.vn/tinnhanh/201010/Tu-hinh-nguoi-bo-hiep-dam-3-con-ruot-938791/
  163. ^ Socialist Republic of Viet Nam: The death penalty - inhumane and ineffective | Amnesty International
  164. ^ http://deathpenaltynews.blogspot.com/2010/07/yemen-man-executed-by-firing-squad-for.html
  165. ^ Yemen: Further information on Imminent execution, Fuad 'Ali Mohsin al-Shahari\n\n | Amnesty International
  166. ^ Yemen: Further Information on: Death by stoning and flogging | Amnesty International
  167. ^ Egypt52
  168. ^ Sodomylaws.Org
  169. ^ a b http://www.thedailyherald.com/islands/1-news/1348-antilles-to-abolish-capital-punishment-.html
  170. ^ a b c d e f http://www.geocities.com/richard.clark32@btinternet.com/europe.html[dead link] Country][dead link]
  171. ^ Amnesty International
  172. ^ Legislationline - free online legislation database
  173. ^ "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". Constitution of Croatia. Narodne Novine. http://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/232289.html. Retrieved 1 May 2011. 
  174. ^ Document Information | Amnesty International
  175. ^ Kazakhstan Set To "Virtually" Abolish Death Penalty
  176. ^ Death Penalty is Abolished in Kazahkstan (source: kazahkstanlive.com, reproduced by santegidio.org)
  177. ^ http://www.handsoffcain.info/news/index.php?iddocumento=15304099#
  178. ^ Wikisource: Constitution of Kosovo
  179. ^ Legislationline - free online legislation database
  180. ^ http://www.tass.ru/eng/level2.html?NewsID=2446740&PageNum=0
  181. ^ http://en.www.mcu.es/patrimonio/MC/PatrimonioEur/Red/Portugal_Abolicion_penademuerte.html
  182. ^ Romanian constitution (In Romanian)
  183. ^ Legislationline - free online legislation database
  184. ^ www.glas-javnosti.rs
  185. ^ http://www.boe.es/aeboe/consultas/bases_datos/doc.php?id=BOE-A-1995-25714
  186. ^ TRNC Public Information Office
  187. ^ http://www.amnesty.org/ailib/aireport/ar99/eur50.htm
  188. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capital_punishment_in_Jersey
  189. ^ Cover story: He executed justice

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Capital punishment — Death penalty and Death sentence redirect here. For other uses, see Death penalty (disambiguation) and Death sentence (disambiguation). Execution and Execute redirect here. For other uses, see Execution (disambiguation) and Execute… …   Wikipedia

  • Capital punishment in Belarus — Part of a series on Capital punishment Issues Debate · …   Wikipedia

  • Capital punishment for drug trafficking — Part of a series on Capital punishment Issues Debate · …   Wikipedia

  • Capital punishment in Iran — Part of a series on Capital punishment Issues Debate · …   Wikipedia

  • Capital punishment in Germany — Part of a series on Capital punishment Issues Debate · …   Wikipedia

  • Capital punishment in France — Part of a series on Capital punishment Issues Debate · …   Wikipedia

  • Capital punishment in Switzerland — Part of a series on Capital punishment Issues Debate · …   Wikipedia

  • Capital punishment in Egypt — Part of a series on Capital punishment Issues Debate · …   Wikipedia

  • Capital Punishment (Death Penalty) —     Capital Punishment     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Capital Punishment     The infliction by due legal process of the penalty of death as a punishment for crime.     The Latins use the word capitalis (from caput, head) to describe that which… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Capital punishment in the People's Republic of China — Capital punishment in China redirects here. For the situation in Taiwan, see Capital punishment in the Republic of China. Part of a series on Capital punishment …   Wikipedia