Mohair


Mohair

Mohair English pronunciation: /ˈmoʊhɛər/ usually refers to a silk-like fabric or yarn made from the hair of the Angora goat.[1] The word "mohair" was adopted into English before 1570 from the Arabic: مخير mukhayyar,[1] a type of haircloth, literally 'choice', from khayyara, 'he chose'.[2] Mohair fiber is approximately 25-45 microns in diameter.[3] It is one of the oldest textile fibers in use. It is both durable and resilient. It is notable for its high luster and sheen,[2] and is often used in fiber blends to add these qualities to a textile. Mohair also takes dye exceptionally well. Mohair is also warm as it has great insulating properties. It is durable, and resistant to moisture-wicking, stretch, flame and creases. It is considered to be a luxury fiber, like cashmere, angora and silk, and is usually more expensive than most wool that comes from sheep.

Mohair is composed mostly of keratin, a protein found in the hair, wool, horns and skin of all mammals. While it has scales like wool, the scales are not fully developed, merely indicated.[2] Thus, mohair does not felt as wool does.

Mohair increases its diameter with the age of the goat, growing along with the animal. Fine hair from younger animals is used for finer applications such as clothing, and the thicker hair from older animals is more often used for carpets and heavy fabrics intended for outerwear.

The term mohair is sometimes used to describe a type of material used for the folding roof on convertible cars. In this instance, mohair refers to a form of denim-like canvas. Mohair should not be confused with the fur from the angora rabbit, which is called angora wool.

Contents

Production

Mohair is vital to the economy of the Texas Hill Country, including the Real County community of Camp Wood.

Mohair is shorn from the goat without harming the animal. Shearing is done twice a year, in the spring and in the fall. One goat will produce 11 to 17 pounds (5–8 kg) of mohair a year. Shearing is done on a clean swept floor with extra care taken to keep the hair clean and free of debris. The hair is then processed to remove natural grease, dirt and vegetable matter. Mohair grows in uniform locks. Angora is a single-coat breed, and unlike pygora or cashmere, there is no need to dehair a mohair fleece to separate the coarse hair from the down hair.

History

The Angora goat is thought to originate from the mountains of Tibet, making their way to Turkey in the 16th century. However, fabric made of mohair was known in England as early as the 8th century.[2] In about 1820, raw mohair was first exported from Turkey to England, which then became the leading manufacturer of mohair products. The Yorkshire mills spun yarn that was exported to Russia, Germany, Austria, etc., as well as woven directly in Yorkshire.[2]

Until 1849, the Turkish province of Ankara was the sole producer of Angora goats. Charles V is believed to be the first to bring Angora goats to Europe. Due to the great demand for mohair fiber, throughout the 1800s there was a great deal of crossbreeding between Angora goats and common goats. The growing demand for mohair further resulted in attempts on a commercial scale to introduce the goat into South Africa (where it was crossed with the native goat) in 1838, the United States in 1849, Australia from 1856–1875, and later still New Zealand.[2] In 1849, Angora goats made their way to America as a gift from Turkey.

Today, South Africa is the largest mohair producer in the world, with the majority of South African mohair being produced in the Eastern Cape. The United States is the second-largest producer, with the majority of American mohair being produced in Texas.

In December 2006, the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed 2009 to be the International Year of Natural Fibers, so as to raise the profile of mohair and other natural fibers.

Uses

A Merrythought teddy bear made using mohair
Mohair lace scarf, knitted with crochet trim on the ends.

Mohair is used in scarves, winter hats, suits, sweaters, coats, socks and home furnishing. Mohair fiber is also found in carpets, wall fabrics, craft yarns, and many other fabrics, and may be used as a substitute for fur. Because its texture resembles fine human hair, mohair is often used in making high grade doll wigs or in rooting customized dolls.

Mohair is not a soft yarn, when compared with alpaca or cashmere, or synthetic fibers or wools that have been treated and blended with other fibers to enhance softness. On the other hand, mohair is valued for certain unique characteristics: it is warmer than other fibers, even when used to make a light-weight garment, and is often blended with wool for this reason; and mohair fibers have a distinctive luster created by the way they reflect light. Combined with mohair's ability to absorb dyes exceptionally well, pure mohair yarns are usually recognizeable for their vivid saturated colours.

Fibers from young goats are softest and are used to manufacture yarn for clothing. Fibers from mature goats are used to produce such things as rugs and carpets.[4] Mohair is also used in 'climbing skins' for randonnee skiing. The mohair is used in a carpet allowing the skier an appropriate ascension method without sliding downhill.

Mohair industry worldwide

As of 2009, world output of mohair was estimated at around 5 000 tonnes a year, down from a high of 25 000 tonnes in the 1990s. South Africa accounts for 60% of total production. South African mohair is generally exported raw or semi-processed to textile makers in Europe, the UK and the Far East.[5]Prices for adult mohair declined in 2010 while prices for kid mohair remained the same. An emerging market for mohair producers has been China. [6]

US subsidies for mohair production

During World War II, U.S. soldiers wore uniforms made of wool. Worried that domestic producers could not supply enough for future wars, Congress enacted loan and price support programs for wool and mohair in the National Wool Act of 1954 as part of the 1954 Farm Bill.[7] Despite these subsidies, wool and mohair production declined. The strategic importance declined as well; the US Military adopted uniforms made of synthetic fibers, such as dacron, and officially removed wool from the list of strategic materials in 1960.[8] Nevertheless, the U.S. government continued to provide subsidies to mohair producers until 1995, when the subsidies were "eliminated effective with the marketing year ending December 31, 1995."[7] In The Future of Freedom: Illiberal Democracy at Home and Abroad[9] Fareed Zakaria points out that the subsidies were reinstated a few years later, due in large part to the lobbying on behalf of the special interests of the subsidy recipients. By 2000, Congress had appropriated $20 million for goat and sheep producers.[10] As of 2002, mohair producers were still able to receive special assistance loans from the U.S. Government, after an amendment to eliminate the subsidy was defeated.[11] This program is widely cited as "pork barrel" legislation.[10]

Further reading

References

  1. ^ a b "Mohaire." The Oxford English Dictionary.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Mohair." The Encyclopædia Britannica. 11th ed. 1911.
  3. ^ Beula Williams (2007-04-17). "Llama Fiber". International Llama Association. http://www.llama.org/llama_fiber.htm. 
  4. ^ "Mohair". United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. http://www.naturalfibres2009.org/en/fibres/mohair.html. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  5. ^ "Mohair". United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. http://www.naturalfibres2009.org/en/fibres/mohair.html. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  6. ^ "Strong demand for adult mohair in 2011". Wool News. http://www.woolnews.net/news/strong-demand-for-adult-mohair-in-2011/. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b USDA Mohair Council of America Agreement
  8. ^ Department of Agriculture
  9. ^ Illiberal Democracy on google.books
  10. ^ a b NY Times: Public Interests; The Comeback Goats
  11. ^ H.R. 2330 [107th] - Amendments: Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2002 (GovTrack.us)

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • mohair — [ mɔɛr ] n. m. • 1860; mot angl.; ar. mukhayyar « choix », par attract. de l angl. hair « poil » → moire ♦ Poil de chèvre angora, long, droit, fin et soyeux, dont on fait des étoffes légères et des laines à tricoter. Pull en mohair. Adjt Laine… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • mohair — MOHAÍR, mohairuri, s.n. Păr de capră angora, folosit în industria textilă pentru stofe, covoare, fetru etc.; p. ext. postav sau stofă ţesută din lână amestecată cu păr de capră angora (sau cu fire de mătase). [pr.: ha ir] – Din fr. mohair. Trimis …   Dicționar Român

  • Mohair — Жанр инди рок Годы 2000 2007 Страна …   Википедия

  • Mohair — Sm Angorawolle per. Wortschatz fach. (19. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus ne. mohair, dieses aus arab. muḫaiyar Stoff aus Ziegenhaar . Eine ältere Entlehnung ist Macheier (< 16. Jh., mndd. 14. Jh.) ohne englisches Zwischenglied; auch Moor, Mohr… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • Mohair — (nach neuer deutscher Rechtschreibung auch Mohär geschrieben) werden die Haare der Angoraziege genannt. Diese Naturfaser ist die spezifisch leichteste Textilfaser. Der Ausdruck „Mohair“ entstammt der arabischen Sprache, in der er einen Stoff aus… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • mohair — (del inglés; pronunciamos moer ) sustantivo masculino 1. (no contable) Hilo elaborado con pelo de la cabra de Angora, o lana o tejido hechos con estos hilos: una bufanda de mohair. Celia tiene un echarpe de mohair precioso …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • Mohair —    Mohair is an animal fiber derived from the hair of the Angora goat, which originated in Turkey several thousands of years ago and today is also farmed in Texas and South Africa. Mohair fiber, which is a long and lustrous fiber, is much… …   Historical Dictionary of the Fashion Industry

  • mohair — (n.) 1610s, earlier mocayre, 1560s, fine hair of the Angora goat, also a fabric made from this, from M.Fr. mocayart (16c.), It. mocaiarro, both from Arabic mukhayyar cloth of goat hair, lit. selected, choice, from khayyara he chose. Spelling… …   Etymology dictionary

  • mohair — [mō′her΄] n. [altered (by assoc. with HAIR) < earlier mocayare < OIt mocajarro < Ar mukhayyar, fine cloth, lit., choice < pp. of khayyara, to select] 1. the long, silky hair of the Angora goat 2. yarn, or any of several fabrics for… …   English World dictionary

  • Mohair — Mo hair , n. [F. moire, perh. from Ar. mukhayyar a kind of coarse camelot or haircloth; but prob. fr. L. marmoreus of marble, resembling marble. Cf. {Moire}, {Marble}.] The long silky hair or wool of the Angora goat of Asia Minor; also, a fabric… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Mohair — 1) das Haar der Angoraziege od. Kämelhaar, s. Kämelziege; 2) (M. Plüsch), sammetartiges kammwollenes Gewebe: Unterkette aus Leinen od. Baumwolle, Schuß aus Baumwolle, Flor aus Kämelgarn (vgl. Manchester); besitzt mehr Glanz, als der wollene… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon