- Heavy crude oil
Heavy crude oil or Extra Heavy oil is any type of
crude oilwhich does not flow easily. It is referred to as "heavy" because its densityor specific gravityis higher than of light crude oil. Heavy crude oil has been defined as any liquid petroleum with an API gravityless than 20°,cite conference
first = M.B.
last = Dusseault
title = Comparing Venezuelan and Canadian Heavy Oil and Tar Sands
publisher = Canadian International Petroleum Conference
date = June 12-14, 2001
location = Calgary, Canada
url = http://www.energy.gov.ab.ca/OilSands/pdfs/RPT_Chops_app3.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-05] meaning that its specific gravity is greater than 0.933.
Production, transportation, and refining of heavy crude oil present special challenges compared to light crude oil. The largest reserves of heavy oil in the world are located north of the
Orinoco riverin Venezuela[Energy Information Administration (2001) "Venezuela Offers Full Market Value to Encourage Foreign Investment in Oil" [http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/finance/usi&to/upstream/venezuela.html] ] , the same amount as the conventional oilreserves of Saudi Arabia[M. Talwani, "The Orinoco heavy oil belt in Venezuela (Or heavy oil to the rescue?)" [http://cohesion.rice.edu/naturalsciences/earthscience/research.cfm?doc_id=2819] ] , but 30 or more countries are known to have reserves. Heavy crude oil is closely related to tar sands, the main difference being that tar sands generally do not flow at all. Canadahas large reserves of tar sands, located north and northeast of Edmonton, Alberta.
Physical properties that distinguish heavy crudes from lighter ones include higher
viscosityand specific gravity, as well as heavier molecular composition. Extra heavy oil from the Orinoco region has a viscosityof over 10,000 centipoiseFact|date=April 2008 and 10° API gravity[Rodriguez H. A., Vaca P., Gonzalez O., and De Mirabal M. C., "Integrated study of a heavy oil reservoir in the Orinoco Belt : A field case simulation" [http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=6242344] ] . Generally a diluentis added at regular distances in a pipeline carrying heavy crude to facilitate its flow.
Heavy crude oils provide an interesting situation for the economics of petroleum development. The Resources of Heavy oil in the world are more than twice of those conventional light crude oil. On one hand, due to increased
refiningcosts and high sulfur content, heavy crudes are often priced at a discount to lighter ones. The increased viscosity and density also makes production more difficult (see: reservoir engineering). On the other hand, large quantities of heavy crudes have been discovered in the Americas including Canada, Venezuelaand Northern California. The relatively shallow depth of heavy oil fieldsFact|date=April 2008 (often less than 3000 feet) contributes to lower drilling costs.
Heavy oil is
asphaltic. It is "heavy" (dense and viscous) due to the high ratio of naphthenes to paraffin(linear alkanes). Heavy oil has over 60 carbon atoms and hence a high boiling point and molecular weight. For example, the viscosityof Venezuela's Orinoco extra-heavy crude oil lies in the range 1000-5000 cP, while Canadian extra-heavy crude has a viscosity in the range 5000-10,000 cP, about the same as molasses, and higher (up to 100,000 cP for the most viscous commercially exploitable deposits).A definition from the Chevron PhillipsChemical company is as follows:
The "heaviness" of heavy oil is primarily the result of a relatively high proportion of a mixed bag of complex, high molecular weight, non-paraffinic compounds and a low proportion of volatile, low molecular weight compounds. Heavy oils typically contain very little paraffin and may or may not contain high levels of asphaltenes. [ [http://www.cpchem.com/enu/docs_drilling/heavyoils.pdf "What causes heavy oil if they don't have asphaltene or paraffin problems?"] -
As a rule, heavy crudes have a more severe environmental impact than light ones. With more difficult production comes the employment of a variety of
enhanced oil recoverytechniques, including steam flooding and tighter well spacing, often as close as one well per acre. Heavy crudes also carry contaminants. For example, Orinoco extra heavy oil contains 3.5% sulfuras well as vanadiumand nickel. [http://www.worldenergy.org/wec-geis/publications/default/tech_papers/17th_congress/3_1_04.asp] Heavy crude oils contain more carbon in relation to hydrogen, thus releasing more carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) per amount of usable energy when burned.
Advanced technologies are mitigating the environmental impact via horizontal wells and increased energy efficiency, but, barrel for barrel, heavy crudes will likely always be more environmentally damaging than light crudes.
Most geologists agree that crude becomes "heavy" as a result of
biodegradation, in which lighter ends are preferentially consumed by bacterial activity in the reservoir, leaving heavier hydrocarbons behind. This hypothesis leans heavily on the techniques of petroleum geochemistry.
Steam injection (oil industry)
* [http://www.lloydminsterheavyoil.com OTS Heavy Oil Science Centre]
* [http://www.heavyoilinfo.com/blog-posts/worldwide-heavy-oil-reserves-by-country/ Schlumberger map of global heavy oil resources]
* [http://www.uic.edu/~mansoori/HOD_html Molecular Basis of Heavy Organics in Petroleum and Heavy Oil]
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