- Linda McCartney
name = Linda McCartney
image_size = 180px
birth_date = birth date|mf=yes|1941|9|24
New York, New York, U.S.
death_date = death date|mf=yes|1998|4|17 (aged 56)
Tucson, Arizona, U.S.
John Melvin See Jr.(1962-1965)
Louise Sara Lindner Eastman (née Dryfoos)
James Louis McCartney
Linda Louise McCartney (née Eastman, formerly See, September 24, 1941 – April 17, 1998) was an American
photographer, musicianand animal rights activist. She married Paul McCartneyof The Beatleson March 12, 1969. The McCartneys had four children together: Heather Louise (from her previous marriage, whom Paul McCartney adopted in 1969), Mary Anna, Stella Nina and James Louis. Linda became Lady McCartney when her husband was knighted in 1997.
She authored several
vegetariancookbooks, became a business entrepreneur (starting the Linda McCartney Foods company) and was a professional photographer, publishing "Linda McCartney's Sixties: Portrait of an Era". She was a member of Wings.
McCartney was diagnosed with
breast cancerin 1995, and died at the age of 56 on April 17, 1998 at the McCartney family ranch in Tucson, Arizona. She left her entire estate to her husband through a Qualified Domestic Trust Fund.
Early years and photography
McCartney was born Linda Louise Eastman, the second-eldest of four children, to
Jewish-Americanparents in New York City. She had one brother, John (July 10, 1939) and two sisters, Laura (b. 1947) and Louise Jr. (b. 1950). She grew up in the wealthy Scarsdale area of Westchester County, New Yorkand graduated from Scarsdale High Schoolin 1960.cite web |first=d&a, dera and associates, inc. |last= |url=http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist6/lindabio.html |title=Linda McCartney |publisher=The Virtual Museum of San Francisco |accessdate=2008-01-26] Her father, Lee Eastman, was the son of Jewish-Russian immigrants. He changed his name from Leopold Vail Epstein to Lee Eastman, but was not related to the Eastman Kodakfamily.cite web |first= |last= |url=http://www.geocities.com/helenwheels_99/pup.html |title=When I Was A Pup |publisher=Geocities |accessdate=2008-01-28] He was songwriter Jack Lawrence's attorney, and at his request, Lawrence wrote a song called, "Linda", in honour of the five-year-old, which was recorded by Buddy Clarkin 1947. Her mother was Louise Sara Lindner Eastman—heiress to the Lindner Department Store fortune—who died in the crash of American Airlines Flight 1in Queens, New York, in 1962.cite web |first= |last= |url=http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19620301-0 |title=Accident description |publisher=Aviation Safety Network |date=1996|accessdate=2008-01-28] cite web |first=Nigel |last=Slater |url=http://shopping.guardian.co.uk/food/story/0,,2068978,00.html |title=When the McCartneys came for lunch |publisher= The Guardian|date= 2007-04-29|accessdate=2008-01-28] McCartney later said that because of her mother's death, she hated travelling in airplanes. McCartney studied for a Fine Artmajor at the University of Arizona. Her first marriage was to John Melvin See Jr., whom she met at college. They married on June 18, 1962, and their daughter Heather Louise was born on December 31, 1962. They were divorced in June 1965. McCartney later commented that See was a "nice man, a geologist, an Ernest Hemingwaytype". (See committed suicide with a self-inflicted gunshot wound on March 19, 2000, at his home in Tucson).cite web |first=Jill |last=Smolowe |url=http://www.people.com/people/archive/article/0,,20130865,00.html |title=Starting Over |publisher=PEOPLE (Time Inc) |date= 2000-03-03|accessdate=2008-07-27]
McCartney started work as a receptionist for the "Town & Country" magazine, and was the only unofficial photographer on board the "SS Sea Panther" yacht on the
Hudson Riverwho was allowed to take photographs of The Rolling Stonesduring a record promotion party.cite web |first=Linda |last=McCartney |url=http://www.ackland.org/art/exhibitions/mccartney/b.html |title=The Rolling Stones aboard SS Panther on the Hudson, 1966 |publisher=The Estate of Linda McCartney |accessdate=2008-01-28] cite web |first=Danny |last=Fields |url=http://www.wingspan.ru/bookseng/linda/01.html |title=Linda McCartney “The Biography” Chapter 1 |publisher=Wingspan Russia |accessdate=2008-01-28] Although she had previously only studied the photography of horses in Arizonaat an arts centre with a teacher, Hazel Archer, she was asked to be the house photographer at the Fillmore Eastconcert hall.cite web |first=Danny |last=Fields |url=http://www.wingspan.ru/bookseng/linda/02.html |title=Linda McCartney “The Biography” Chapter 2 |publisher=Wingspan Russia |accessdate=2008-02-01] She photographed artists such as Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Bob Dylan, Janis Joplin, Eric Clapton, Simon and Garfunkel, The Who, and The Doors.cite web |first=Linda |last=McCartney|url=http://www.ackland.org/art/exhibitions/mccartney/e.html |title=Aretha Franklin - black and white photograph |publisher=The Estate of Linda McCartney |accessdate=2008-01-28] She photographed Clapton for " Rolling Stone" magazine, becoming the first woman to have a photo featured on the front cover (May 11, 1968). McCartney and her husband also appeared on the cover of " Rolling Stone" on January 31, 1974, making her the only person both to have taken a photo for and to have been photographed for the magazine cover. Her photographs were later exhibited in more than 50 galleries internationally, as well as at the Victoria and Albert Museumin London. A collection of photographs from that time, "Linda McCartney's Sixties: Portrait of an Era", was published in 1993.cite web |first= |last= |url=http://archer2000.tripod.com/lindaremembered/wingsphotos.html |title=Light From Within |publisher=Archer & Valerie Productions/MPL Communications, Ltd. |date=2001|accessdate=2008-01-28] cite web |first= |last= |url=http://www.amazon.com/Linda-McCartneys-Sixties-Portrait-Era/dp/082122056X/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1201487438&sr=1-1 |title=Linda McCartney's Sixties: Portrait of an Era |publisher=Amazon |accessdate=2008-01-28]
On May 15, 1967, the then Linda Eastman met Paul McCartney at a
Georgie Fameconcert at , all of whom were born after her death: Mary's three sons Arthur Alistair Donald (born April 3, 1999), Elliot Donald (born August 1, 2002), and Sam Aboud (born August 11, 2008), and Stella's children, Miller Alasdhair James Willis (born February 25, 2005), [ [http://marriage.about.com/od/entertainmen1/p/paulmccartney.htm Sir Paul and Lady Heather McCartney Marriage Profile] Retrieved: 29 January 2007 ] daughter Bailey Linda Olwyn Willis (born December 8, 2006), [ [http://www.teengossipblog.com/teengossipblog/teengossipblog.php/2006/12/13/stella_mccartney_has_a_baby_girl Stella McCartney has a baby girl] Retrieved: 27 January 2007] and Beckett Robert Lee Willis (born January 8, 2008).
Linda made an uncredited vocal contribution to the Beatles' title song of "Let It Be" in January 1969.cite web |first=Paul |last=Gambaccini |url= http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/paulmccartney/articles/story/9359339/the_rs_interview_paul_mccartney?source=paulmccartney_rssfeed |title=The Rolling Stone Interview: Paul McCartney |publisher= |date=
1974-01-31|accessdate=2008-01-28] After the breakup of the Beatles in 1970, McCartney taught her to play keyboards, and permanently included her in the lineup for his new group Wings.cite web |first=Ray |last=Bonici |url=http://beatles.ncf.ca/mpl.html |title=Paul McCartney Wings it alone |publisher=Music Express" (Canada) issue #56 (GG70470) |date=1982|accessdate=2008-01-28] The group garnered several Grammy Awards, becoming one of the most successful bands of the 1970s, but had to endure jibes like, "What do you call a cowwith wings? Linda McCartney."cite web |first=Germaine |last=Greer |url=http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/commentators/germaine-greer-pop-bitch-479025.html |title=Germaine Greer: Pop bitch |publisher=The Independent |date= 2006-05-21|accessdate=2008-01-28] Linda later admitted that the early accusations about her singing out of tune in the early days with Wings were true.
McCartney and her husband shared an Oscar nomination for the song "Live and Let Die," which they co-wrote. Linda McCartney's album "
Wide Prairie", which included "Seaside Woman," was released posthumously in 1998.cite web |first= |last= |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/163837.stm |title=Linda's lone effort to be released |publisher= BBC|date= 1998-09-03|accessdate=2008-01-28] Paul McCartney worked with the help of the Beatles' engineer, Geoff Emerick, to finish the album.cite web |first= |last= |url=http://archer2000.tripod.com/lindaremembered/prairie2.html |title=Wide Prairie |publisher=2000 Archer & Valerie Productions |date=2007|accessdate=2008-01-28] Along with eight other British composers, he contributed to the choral album " A Garland for Linda", and dedicated his classical album, " Ecce Cor Meum", to his late wife.cite web |first= |last= |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/345875.stm |title=A Garland for Linda |publisher= BBC|date= 1999-05-17|accessdate=2008-01-28] In January 1999, "The Light Comes From Within" single from the "Wide Prairie" album was banned by TV and radio stations in the UK. Paul McCartney placed advertisements in English national newspapers asking parents to give "guidance" as to whether their children could be "morally corrupted" by the song lyrics, which included the lines, "You say I'm simple, you say I'm a hick, You're fucking no-one, you stupid dick."cite web |first= |last= |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/262450.stm |title=Linda's last song 'banned' |publisher= BBC|date= 1999-01-25|accessdate=2008-01-28]
Vegetarianism, activism and lifestyle
McCartney introduced her husband to
vegetarianismin 1975, and promoted a vegetarian diet through her cookbooks: "Linda McCartney’s Home Cooking" (1989) "Linda’s Kitchen" and "Simple and Inspiring Recipes for Meatless Meals". She explained her change to vegetarianism by saying that she did not "eat anything with a face", and if " slaughterhouseshad glass walls the whole world would be vegetarian".cite web |first= |last= |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/80494.stm |title=Obituary: Linda McCartney |publisher= BBC|date= 1998-04-19|accessdate=2008-01-28] cite web |first=Linda |last=McCartney |url=http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/l/linda_mccartney.html |title=Linda McCartney Quotes |publisher=Brainy Media |accessdate=2008-01-28] In 1991, she introduced a line of frozen vegetarian meals under the Linda McCartney Foods name, which made her wealthy independently of her husband.cite web |first= |last= |url=http://www.linda-mccartney.com/about-us/linda.php |title=About Linda |publisher=The Hain Celestial Group, Inc |date=2007|accessdate=2008-01-28] In 1995, McCartney appeared in animated form with her husband in " The Simpsons" episode " Lisa the Vegetarian". The " Trash of the Titans" episode was dedicated to her memory. The H. J. Heinz Companyacquired Linda McCartney Foods in March 2000, and the Hain Celestial Groupbought it in 2007.
McCartney was a strong advocate for
animal rights, and lent her support to many organizations like PETA(People For The Ethical Treatment of Animals) as well as The Council For The Protection of Rural England, Friends Of The Earth, and was a patron of the League Against Cruel Sports. Before her death, she narrated a TV advertisement for PETA, in which she said: "Have you ever seen a fishgasping for breath when you take it out of the water? They’re saying, ‘Thanks a lot for killing me. It feels great, you know.’ No! It hurts!"cite web |first= |last= |url=http://www.fishinghurts.com/feat/linda/ |title=PETA’s Fish Empathy Ad Hits the Airwaves |publisher=Fishing Hurts |accessdate=2008-01-28] After her death, PETA created the Linda McCartney Memorial Award.cite web |first= |last= |url=http://archer2000.tripod.com/lindaremembered/lindabio.html |title=Linda McCartney Remembered |publisher=Archer & Valerie Productions |date=1998-2008|accessdate=2008-01-28]
McCartney was arrested in
Los Angelesfor possession of marijuanain 1975, although all charges were later dropped.cite web |first=Harry |last=Wasserman |url=http://www.taima.org/en/hemplib3.htm#mccartney |title=Paul's Pot-Bust Shocker Makes Him A Jailhouse Rocker |publisher=High Times |date= 1980-07-06|accessdate=2008-01-28] In 1984, the McCartneys were arrested in Barbadosfor possession of marijuana and were fined $100 each. They flew to Heathrow Airport, London, where Linda McCartney was arrested again on charges of possession. She later commented that hard drugs were disgusting, but marijuana "is pretty lightweight".cite web |first= |last= |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,954120,00.html |title=Arrested: Paul McCartney |publisher= Time Magazine|date= 1984-01-30|accessdate=2008-01-28] cite web |first= |last= |url=http://www.10zenmonkeys.com/2007/01/03/paul-mccartney-on-drugs/ |title=Paul McCartney On Drugs |publisher=10 Zen Monkeys |accessdate=2008-01-28]
McCartney was diagnosed with breast cancer in 1995, and her condition soon grew worse as it spread to her
liver. [cite news |last=Saffian, Sarah |title=Untimely deaths haunt extended Beatles family | work=US Magazine Company |page=37 |date=December 17, 2001 | accessdate=2006-11-10 ] Paul's last words to her were: "You're up on your beautiful Appaloosastallion. It's a fine spring day. We're riding through the woods. The bluebells are all out, and the sky is clear-blue". Linda McCartney died at age 56 on April 17, 1998, at the McCartney family ranch in Tucson, Arizona.cite web |first=Richard |last=Skanse |url=http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/wings/articles/story/5926813/linda_mccartney_dies_at_56 |title=Linda McCartney Dies at 56 |publisher= Rolling Stone|date= 1998-04-20|accessdate=2008-01-26] She was cremated in Tucson, and her ashes were scattered at McCartney's farm in Sussex.cite web |first= |last= |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/82362.stm |title=Linda McCartney suicide claims dismissed|publisher= BBC|date= 1998-04-23|accessdate=2008-01-28] Paul later suggested that fans remember her by donating to breast cancer research charities that do not support animal testing, "or the best tribute — go veggie". Memorial services were held for her at St. Martin-in-the-Fieldsin London, which was attended by George Harrison, David Gilmourand Ringo Starr. A memorial service was also held at Riverside Churchin Manhattan, two months after her death.
Talking later about the medication used to treat her breast cancer, Paul said: "If a drug has got to be used on humans then legally it has to be finally tested on an animal ... This was difficult for Linda when she was undergoing her treatment."cite web |first= |last= |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/199457.stm |title= Paul's dilemma over animal testing |publisher=
BBC|date= 1998-10-23|accessdate=2008-01-28] He also claimed that she was unsure if the drugs she took had been tested on animals: "During the treatment, a nice answer is a nice answer and if they (the doctors) say, `It's OK to have this because we didn't test it on animals', you are going to believe them." She left her entire fortune to her husband in a special trust, known as a Qualified Domestic Trust, which allows deferral of estate taxes due on her assets until after his death.cite web |first=Stephen C. |last=Gruber |url=http://www.ca-trusts.com/qdt.html |title=Qualified Domestic Trust (QDT) Living Trusts for Non-Citizens |publisher=Stephen C. Gruber, Attorney at Law |accessdate=2008-01-28] cite web |first= |last= |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/676911.stm |title=Linda leaves fortune to Paul |publisher= BBC|date= 2000-03-14|accessdate=2008-01-28] He will have access to any royaltiesfrom books, records and any financial remuneration for the use of his wife's photographs.cite web |first= |last= |url=http://www.courttv.com/people/wills/McCartney.html |title=The Will of Linda McCartney |publisher=2007 Courtroom Television Network LLC |date= 1996-07-04|accessdate=2008-01-28] He has pledged to continue her line of vegetarian food, and to keep it free from genetically modified organisms.cite web |first= |last= |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/365947.stm |title=Sir Paul's GM foods pledge |publisher= BBC|date= 1999-06-10|accessdate=2008-01-28]
"Wide Prairie", a six-minute cartoon
fantasyfilm by Linda McCartney and director Oscar Grillo, was premièred at the Edinburgh International Film Festivalon August 19, 1998. It was shown before the British première of " The Horse Whisperer", starring Robert Redford.cite web |first= |last= |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/133448.stm |title=Linda McCartney's last film set for premiere |publisher= BBC|date= 1998-08-16|accessdate=2008-01-28] cite web |first= |last= |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/154741.stm |title=Linda's last film premières to packed house |publisher= BBC|date= 1998-08-20|accessdate=2008-01-30] On April 10, 1999, Paul McCartney performed at the tribute "Concert for Linda" in the Royal Albert Hall, with numerous artists including George Michael, the Pretenders, Elvis Costelloand Tom Jones.cite web |first= |last= |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/316419.stm |title=Paul McCartney leads Linda tribute |publisher= BBC|date= 1999-04-11|accessdate=2008-01-28] In January 2000, he announced donations in excess of $2,000,000 for cancer research at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centerin New York and the Arizona Cancer Center in Tucson, where Linda received treatment. The centers received $1 million ( £625,000) each. The donations, through the Garland Appeal, were made on the condition no animals would be used for testing purposes.cite web |first= |last= |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/591591.stm |title=Sir Paul's $2m cancer donation |publisher= BBC|date= 2000-01-05|accessdate=2008-01-28] In 2000, The Linda McCartney Centre, a cancer clinic, opened at The Royal Liverpool University Hospital. In November 2002, the Linda McCartney Kintyre Memorial Trust opened a memorial garden in Campbeltown— the main town on the Mull of Kintyre— with the dedication of a bronzestatue of Linda by sculptor Jane Robbins, commissioned and donated by Paul.cite web |first= |last= |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/2384099.stm |title=Scots tribute to Linda McCartney |publisher= BBC|date= 2002-11-01|accessdate=2008-01-28]
Portrayals on screen
Elizabeth Mitchell and Gary Bakewell played Linda and Paul McCartney in the 2000 TV movie "The Linda McCartney Story".. [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0240683/ IMDb entry for "The Linda McCartney Story"] Catherine Strauss had earlier played her (as "Linda Eastman") in the 1985 TV movie "John and Yoko: A Love Story". [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0089380/ IMDb entry for "John and Yoko: A Love Story"] Tamara Blum Cohen appeared as Linda McCartney in a 2007 episode of the TV series "
Final 24" focused on Keith Moon. [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1151590/ IMDb entry for "Final 24" episode "Keith Moon"]
*Fields, Danny] | title=Linda McCartney | publisher=
Time Warner(Paperbacks) | year=2001 | id=ISBN 0-7515-2985-0
*McCartney, Paul. " [http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/music/article3666255.ece Sir Paul McCartney on Linda] ". "
The Times", April 6, 2008.
*Miles, Barry] | title=
Many Years From Now| publisher=Vintage- Random House| year=1998 | id=ISBN 0-7493-8658-4
* [http://www.newfrontier.com/1/foodo795.htm The Path of the Vegetarian] by Linda McCartney
* [http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/l/linda_mccartney.html Linda McCartney quotes]
* [http://www.wingspan.ru/bookseng/linda/contents.html Danny Fields' biography]
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Eastman, Linda
DATE OF BIRTH=September 24, 1941
PLACE OF BIRTH=Scarsdale,
DATE OF DEATH=April 17, 1998
PLACE OF DEATH= Tucson,
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