- Daylight saving time by country
Daylight saving time around the world, showing usage and a short history by location in alphabetic order, grouped by continent. Most areas of North America and Europe observe daylight saving time (DST), while most areas of Africa and Asia do not. South America is mixed, with most countries in the warmer north of the continent near the equator not observing DST, while Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay and parts of southern Brazil do. Oceania is also mixed, with New Zealand and parts of southern Australia observing DST, while most islands do not.
- 1 Oceania
- 2 Asia
- 3 Europe
- 4 Africa
- 5 Americas
- 5.1 North America
- 5.2 Central America
- 5.3 South America
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
- Present situation
Currently, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Australian Capital Territory and South Australia apply DST each year, from the first Sunday in October to the first Sunday in April. The Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia do not observe DST.
Daylight saving was first used in Australia during World War I, and was applied in all states. It was used again during the Second World War. A drought in Tasmania in 1967 led to the reintroduction of daylight saving in that state during the summer, and this was repeated every summer since then. In 1971, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, and the Australian Capital Territory followed Tasmania by observing daylight saving. Western Australia and the Northern Territory did not. Queensland abandoned daylight saving time in 1972.
Originally Tasmania alone commenced daylight saving on the first Sunday in October, while the other states began on the last Sunday in October and finished on the last Sunday in March, until 2008. From 2008/09 daylight saving has been extended another four weeks in NSW, Victoria, SA and the ACT, in addition to Tasmania, from the first Sunday in October to the first Sunday in April.
Queensland again trialled daylight saving, for three years between 1989 and 1992, with a referendum on daylight saving held on 22 February 1992, which was defeated with a 54.5% ‘no’ vote - with regional and rural areas strongly opposed, while those in the metropolitan South East Queensland were in favour.
In December 2008, the Daylight Saving for South East Queensland (DS4SEQ) political party was officially registered, advocating the implementation of a dual-time zone arrangement for Daylight Saving in South East Queensland while the rest of the state maintains standard time. The party contested the March 2009 Queensland State election with 32 candidates and received around one percent of the state-wide primary vote, equating to around 2.5% across the 32 electorates contested.
On 14 April 2010, and after being approached by the Daylight Saving for South East Queensland (DS4SEQ) political party, Queensland Independent member Peter Wellington, introduced the Daylight Saving for South East Queensland Referendum Bill 2010 into Queensland Parliament, calling for a referendum to be held at the next State election on the introduction of daylight saving into South East Queensland under a dual-time zone arrangement. The Bill was defeated in Queensland Parliament on 15 June 2011.
In Western Australia, four referendums in 1975, 1984, 1992 and 2009 have rejected DST. In 2006, the Parliament of Western Australia approved a three-year daylight saving trial to be followed by a referendum to decide whether DST should be put in place permanently. However, public opposition mounted during the first year of the trial, and the WA Nationals announced a public campaign to bring the referendum forward to 2007. The trial continued until the referendum, held on 16 May 2009. The result was another rejection of DST, by a larger margin compared to the three previous referendums. Although as previously the suburbs of the state capital, Perth, supported the proposal, it was by a much narrower margin than before with significant swings against it in several areas, most notably in the East Metropolitan region. As a result, the Premier of Western Australia has said that the DST issue should not be considered for at least another 20 years.
The Northern Territory experimented with daylight saving in the early part of the 20th century. It was last used in 1944.
Because of Hawaii's tropical latitude, there is not a large variation in daylight length between winter and summer. Furthermore, most of the inhabited islands are located close to the west end of the Hawaii-Aleutian time zone, and Oahu, Kauai and Niihau are located more than 7 degrees west of the Hawaii-Aleutian time zone's meridian and should, theoretically, be located in the next time zone to the west. Therefore advancing the clock in Hawaii would make sunrise times close to 7:00 a.m. even in June.
Hawaii did experiment with DST for three weeks between April 30, 1933 and May 21, 1933; there are no known official records as to why it was implemented or discontinued.[unreliable source?] Hawaii has never observed daylight saving time under the Uniform Time Act, having opted out of the Act's provisions in 1967.
From 30 April 2007, DST begins at 02:00 NZST on the last Sunday in September each year, and ends at 03:00 NZDT (or 02:00 NZST as defined in the Time Act 1974) on the first Sunday in April.
New Zealand time, including DST, is used by several Antarctic bases that are supplied from New Zealand. This results in the oddity that the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station sets its clocks an hour further ahead during the southern summer, when the sun is constantly above the horizon, than in the southern winter, when the sun is constantly below the horizon. The extreme geographic position of the base means that no possible adjustment of the daily activity cycle can have any effect on the amount of sunlight received during those activities. However, the arrangement presumably makes real time communications with New Zealand more practical, particularly in dealing with offices.
Samoa starts with DST in 2010, starting on the last Sunday in September and ending on first Sunday in April.
DST is for 2011 used the following Asian countries:
- Territories governed by the Palestinian National Authority
Bangladesh introduced the use of a Daylight Saving Time (DST) in 2009 starting on 19 June 2009. Clocks were advanced by an hour making the local time seven hours ahead of UTC, i.e., UTC+7. Clocks were reverted back on 31 December 2009, thereby returning local time to UTC+6.
In 2010, DST would be used between 1 April and 31 October 2010, but it was cancelled.
China, People's Republic of
The People's Republic of China experimented with DST from 1986, but abandoned DST from 1992 onwards. The PRC now uses one time zone (UTC+8) for the whole country.
Hong Kong used DST beginning in 1948, but abandoned it from 1980 onwards.
The Republic of India used Daylight Saving Time (DST) briefly during wartime.[which?] Currently, India does not observe DST.
Before 1979, DST was observed in Iran. Thereafter it was abandoned until 1989, when it started on the first day of Farvardin (20–21 March) in the Iranian calendar and ended on the last day of Shahrivar (20–21 September). In the Spring of 2006, the government of Iran ceased observing DST.[dead link] In September 2007, however, the Majlis (Iranian parliament) passed a law restoring daylight saving time beginning from the spring of 2008, despite opposition by the contemporary government.
Israel observes DST starting on the last Friday before April 2 and ending at 02:00 on the Sunday between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. Until 2005, the schedule was variable: the only requirement was that there be at least 150 days per year of DST, and the dates were set out each year by the Ministry of the Interior.
In territories controlled by the Palestinian National Authority, DST ends later, which can lead to some confusion. On September 5, 1999, terrorists were transporting two bombs that they mistakenly thought were set to go off at 17:30 Israel Standard Time; they were actually set for 17:30 Palestinian Daylight Time, which was an hour ahead. As a result, the bombs went off while being transported, killing the terrorists.
From 1948-51, Japan observed DST between May and September every year under an initiative of the U.S.-led occupation army. The unpopularity of DST, for which people complained about sleep disruption and longer daytime labor (some workers had to work from early morning till dusk) caused Japan to abandon DST in 1952, shortly after its sovereignty was restored upon the coming into effect of the San Francisco Peace Treaty. Since then, DST has never been officially implemented nationwide in Japan.
Starting in the late 1990s, a movement to reinstate DST in Japan gained some popularity, aiming at saving energy and increasing recreational time. The Hokkaido region is particularly in favor of this movement because daylight starts as early as 03:30 (in standard time) there in summer due to its high latitude and its location near the eastern edge of the time zone. In the early 2000s, a few local governments and commerce departments promoted unmandated hour-earlier work schedule experiments during the summer without officially resetting clocks.
The Council on Economic and Fiscal Policy is expected to propose that the Japanese government begin studying DST in an attempt to help combat global warming. The former Japanese PM Shinzo Abe made a significant effort to introduce daylight saving time, but was ultimately unsuccessful. However, it is not clear that DST would conserve energy in Japan. A 2007 simulation estimated that introducing DST to Japan would increase energy use in Osaka residences by 0.13%, with a 0.02% saving due to lighting more than outweighed by a 0.15% increase due to cooling costs; the simulation did not examine non-residential buildings.
Jordan UTC+2 observes daylight saving time from the last Friday of March to the last Friday of October.
Kyrgyzstan voted to stop observing DST in 2005 and remain on UTC+6 as Standard Time (which used to be Kyrgyzstan Summer Time), thus still saving energy.
Lebanon has the same rules as the EU Countries, starting on the last Sunday of March and finishing on the last Sunday in October.
Malaysia used DST from January 1, 1933, but discontinued on December 31, 1981 to replace Malaysian Standard Time.
Pakistan experimented with DST in 2002, going from +5:00 to +6:00 on the first Sunday in April at 00:00 to the first Sunday in October at 00:00. Pakistan implemented DST again from June 1, 2008 to August 31, 2008, to meet the annual shortfall of 4 gigawatts of electricity instead of enforcing daily power cuts in households and factories. This had the counterintuitive effect of making Pakistan half an hour ahead of India, though Pakistan is generally located west of India. The government later extended the schedule to October 31, which also included the holy month of Ramadan, which began in early September. Pakistan used DST again in 2009 then abandoned the practice; as a result, Pakistan no longer uses DST.
The Philippines experimented with DST for short periods during the presidencies of Corazon Aquino (1986 to 1992) and Fidel Ramos (1992 to 1998). DST was primarily intended to help deal with the country's energy crisis by minimizing the number of hours during which electric lighting was needed. On April 2006, the Philippine Department of Trade and Industry again proposed that DST be implemented to help deal with rising oil prices.
South Korea observed DST from 1948-51, from 1955-60, and from 1987-88. South Korea does not currently observe DST.
Syria observed DST at UTC+3, in 2006 from 30 March until 21 September (a change from 30 September). Now, DST is observed from the last Friday of March to the last Friday of October.
No DST in Asia
These countries or regions do not use daylight saving time:
- East Timor
- Hong Kong
- Macau (aka Macao)
- Myanmar (aka Burma)
- North Korea
- Papua New Guinea
- Saudi Arabia
- South Korea
- United Arab Emirates
All countries in Europe except Belarus, Iceland, and Russia observe DST, and most change on the same date and time, starting on the last Sunday in March and ending on the last Sunday in October. In the West European (UTC), Central European (CET, UTC+1), and East European (UTC+2) time zones the change is simultaneous: on both dates the clocks are changed everywhere at 01:00 UTC, i.e. from local times of 01:00/02:00/03:00 to 02:00/03:00/04:00 in March, and vice versa in October. See also: European Summer Time and British Summer Time which includes a description of Double Summer Time.
Before 1996, DST ended on the last Sunday in September in most European countries; however in the United Kingdom and Ireland DST ended on the fourth (which some years is not the last) Sunday in October.
DST was introduced in Bulgaria in 1979 by a regulation of the Bulgarian Council of Ministers. Bulgaria observes the European Union rules for DST.
Although DST has been observed in Denmark for the past few decades and its observance will continue in accordance with EU orders, a national association against DST (Landsforeningen mod Sommertid) still exists.
DST was introduced in Hungary first in 1916 and it was observed until 1919. After that DST was in use between 1941-1949 and 1954-1957. DST has been in use again since 1980.
In its history Italy adopted DST several times on and off, beginning in 1916 till 1920, then again between 1944 and 1948 during and after WWII. A law approved in 1965, and entered into force the following year, made the application of DST mandatory in the whole country. Since 1996 DST is coordinated with the European Union .
In Norway, DST (locally known by the expression "summer-time") was introduced in 1916, 1940–45, and 1959-65. The arrangement was controversial, and in 1965 the Norwegian parliament (Stortinget) voted to discontinue the practice. However, in 1980 DST was reintroduced, and at present (2010) Norway follows the European Union in this matter.
In Portugal, DST (locally known by "Hora de Verão" (summer-time)) was introduced in 1916. In the years 1922, 1923, 1925, 1930, 1933 and from 1967 to 1975 the DST was not applied. For many years the official hour in the Madeira Islands was Lisbon hour -1 and in the Azores Islands was Lisbon hour -2. Today, in the Madeira Islands the official hour is the same of Lisbon and in the Azores Islands is Lisbon hour -1.
DST was originally introduced in Romania in 1932 (between May 22 and October 2). Between 1933 and 1940 DST started on the first Sunday in April and ended on the first Sunday in October. The DST was abandoned in 1941, to be reintroduced in 1979. Until 1996, with few exceptions, the DST started at the end of March and ended at the end of September. Since 1997, DST has started in the last Sunday in March and ended on the last Sunday in October, per European Summer Time.
In Russia, daylight saving time was originally introduced on July 1, 1917 by a decree of the Russian Provisional Government, and clocks were moved one hour forward. It was abandoned by a Decree of the Soviet government five months later, clocks being moved one hour back again on December 27.
Daylight saving time was reintroduced in the USSR (Moscow Summer Time) on April 1, 1981, by a decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, and its practice continued into post-Soviet times. The changeover dates in Russia were the same as for other European countries, but clocks were moved forward or back at 02:00 local time in all zones. Thus in Moscow (local time = UTC+3 in winter, UTC+4 in summer), DST commenced at 23:00 UTC on the day before the last Sunday in March, and ended at 23:00 UTC on the day before the last Sunday in October (note that "day before last Sunday" is not the same as "last Saturday" in a month where the last day is a Saturday).
On February 8, 2011, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev announced the cancellation of DST in Russia. An hour was added in March 2011 for the last time, and clocks will not move back again in the fall. It may be noted that after this reform many Russian cities have a standard time two hours more than would be suggested by their locations.
In former Czechoslovakia Daylight Saving Time (locally known as "Letný čas") was with occasional breaks introduced in early 40's. The annual summer time, however, was only implemented in 1979. After several years, Slovakia has established the rule that summer time begins the last weekend of March (the night from Saturday to Sunday) and ending on the last weekend of September. Since 1996, daylight saving time has been prolonged about one month by means that DST lasts until the last weekend in October.
Slovenia introduced DST (locally known as "Poletni čas") on 16.11.1982 when it was one of the Yugoslavia republics. Same law was valid until 1996 when the end of DST was changed from first Sunday in October to last Sunday in October. In 2006, the European Union standard was adopted and is still used today.
In Sweden daylight saving time was originally introduced on May 15, 1916. It proved unpopular at the time, and on September 30 in the same year, Sweden returned to year-round standard time. This situation continued for more than half a century.
On April 6, 1980, Sweden again introduced daylight saving time, and since then DST has been observed every summer in Sweden. Except for the introduction year 1980, daylight saving time has always started on the last Sunday in March. It ended on the last Sunday in September during the years 1980-1995, and on the last Sunday in October from 1996 onwards, following a unification of start/end dates of DST within the EU as well as in several European countries then outside the EU.
Five days before the reintroduction of DST in 1980, a major Swedish newspaper took the opportunity to publish an April Fool's Day joke on April 1, 1980. The joke claimed that DST had been introduced almost in secret with nearly no public information, that everybody was late everywhere, that hardly anyone really knew what the time was, and that there was chaos everywhere.
The last country in Europe to adopt DST in 1981 was Switzerland, because of the stiff opposition of the influential Swiss farmers' lobby, who repeatedly stalled attempts by the Federal Assembly to legislate on the matter, and subsequently sponsored referendums to abrogate it. Since 1996 Swiss DST follows EU regulations.
DST (also locally known by the expression "summer-time") was introduced in Turkey in 1947, but suspended from 1965 through 1972. Since 1974, Turkey follows European Summer Time.
In 2008, the Turkish Ministry of Energy proposed that Turkey should abolish daylight saving time while at the same time switching to GMT +2.5, originally from 2009 onwards, but when this appeared infeasible, to start in 2011. The plan has not been heard of since.
For the year 2011, Turkey switched to European Summer Time at 3:00 am in the night from Sunday March 27 to Monday March 28, one day later than the rest of Europe, to avoid disrupting the national university-entrance examinations held on March 27.
European Countries Without DST
These countries or regions do not use daylight saving time:
- Belarus, ended its last DST switching after moving the clocks forward in Spring 2011, and is now observing UTC+03:00 all year round.
- Iceland, observing UTC all year round despite being at a longitude which would indicate UTC-1, the country may be thought of as being on continuous DST. Iceland's high latitude means that sunset and sunrise times change by many hours over the year, and the effect of changing the clock by one hour would, in comparison, be small.
- Russia, ended its last DST switching after moving the clocks forward in Spring 2011, and is now observing the time that formerly was DST, all year round. Many areas have its time two hours ahead of the mean solar time. Moscow has UTC+04:00.
The only African countries and regions which use daylight saving time are:
- Canary Islands, Ceuta and Melilla (Spain) From the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October and UTC+1.
- Madeira (Portugal) From the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October and UTC.
- Morocco From 31st of July to 2nd of April and UTC+1.
- Namibia From the first Sunday in September to the first Sunday in April and UTC+2.
The British first instituted daylight saving time in Egypt during the Second World War, specifically between 1940 and 1945. The practice was stopped after the war, but resumed 12 years later, in 1957. Egypt normally observed daylight saving time between the last Thursday in April and the last Thursday in September when the clocks were three hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (UTC+3). The change was at midnight (local time); i.e. on the last Thursday of April, one second after 23:59:59 became 1:00:00 on Friday. Daylight saving time ended on the last Thursday of September; on that Thursday, one second after 23:59:59 became 23:00:00. The date did not change when the first 00:00 midnight occurred; for all practical purposes, midnight did not occur until after the second 23:59:59. An exception was made for Ramadan; in 2006 the end of DST took place one week earlier, on September 21, 2006, which took place before the start of the holy month of Ramadan. The same practice recurred in 2007 and 2008, to avoid having longer days in Ramadan. In 2009, summer time ended on Thursday, August 20, 5 weeks before the nominal end on the last Thursday in September. In 2010, the DST started on April 30, and ended on October 1, but between August 6 and September 10, DST was cancelled because of Ramadan. The previous government was planning to take a decision to abolish it in 2011 before the revolution. The transitional government abolished the daylight saving time on April 20, 2011.
Mauritius's DST period started on the last Sunday in October, and ended on the last Sunday in March.
Mauritius did not repeat DST since 2009.
In 2011, DST began on the 2nd of April at midnight and ended at midnight on the 31st of July.
For the year 2008, DST began on June 1, and ended on September 1. This was the first time Morocco had used daylight saving time since 1978. In 2009, DST began on June 1 and ended on August 21. In 2010, DST starts on May 2 and ends on August 8, just before Ramadan, as has been the case in recent years.
DST begins on the first Sunday in September, and ends on the first Sunday in April.
Tunisia adopted daylight saving time for the first time in 2005 starting 1 May 2005 and following EU time schedules thereafter. This comes as a move by the government to promote saving of energy. In 2009 the government of Tunisia canceled DST and kept the standard time all year round.
Countries not using DST in Africa
These countries or regions do not use daylight saving time, although some have in the past:
- Burkina Faso
- Cape Verde
- Central African Republic
- Democratic Republic of Congo
- Equatorial Guinea
- Ivory Coast
- Republic of the Congo
- Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
- São Tomé and Príncipe
- Sierra Leone
- South Africa
- South Sudan
North America generally follows the same procedure, with each time zone switching at 02:00 LST (local standard time) to 03:00 LDT (local daylight time) on the second Sunday in March, and back from 02:00 LDT to 01:00 LST on the first Sunday in November since 2007. Previously, daylight saving time was four to five weeks shorter (see below).
The Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador is an exception in that the time changes take place at 00:01 local standard time and 00:01 local daylight time respectively. Also, in 1988, they experimented with double daylight saving time, when the clocks went ahead by two hours, instead of the usual one hour.
Barbados in the western Atlantic no longer observes Daylight Saving Time, like many Caribbean nations. The last observance of a daylight savings related time clock adjustment was between Sunday, 20 April 1980 at 2:00 AM – Thursday, 25 September 1980 at 2:00 AM. On 25 September the clock was shifted -3:00 – -4:00 where it has remained since.
In Canada, time is under provincial and territorial jurisdiction, not federal. Since at least the 1970s, all provinces and territories have matched their DST start and end dates to those used in the United States, and when the U.S. Congress changed the rules effective 2007 the provinces and territories (except Saskatchewan) changed their time legislation to match. Since 2007, DST in Canada starts on the second Sunday in March, and returns to standard time on the first Sunday of November, to coincide with the U.S. dates. As noted below, most of Saskatchewan does not technically observe DST but rather observes a skewed 'standard time' that has been advanced one hour forward permanently (that is, observing what is sometimes known as 'year-round DST').
Part of the Peace River Regional District of BC (including the communities of Chetwynd, Dawson Creek, Hudson's Hope, Fort St. John, Taylor and Tumbler Ridge) is on Mountain Time and does not observe DST. This means that the region would be on the same time as Mountain Time in the winter, and Pacific Time in the summer.
The East Kootenay region of south-eastern BC (including the communities of Cranbrook, Fernie, Golden and Invermere) is on Mountain Time and observes DST. This means that the region is always on the same time as Edmonton, Alberta. One exception in this region is Creston, which observes MST year round. Time in Creston is therefore the same as Edmonton in the winter, and Vancouver in the summer.
Most of Ontario uses DST. Pickle Lake, New Osnaburgh, and Atikokan, three communities located within the Central Time Zone in Northwestern Ontario, all observe Daylight saving time all year long. (This has the effect of having them on Central Time during the summer tourist season, and Eastern Time during the winter—without ever changing their clocks.)
Most of Quebec observes DST. However, the eastern reaches of Quebec's North Shore, east of 63° west longitude, are in the Atlantic Time Zone, but do not observe DST (see exception, below). The effect is that in summer their clocks match those of the rest of the province, while in November, their clocks are rejoined by their Atlantic Standard Time neighbours. Although places east of 63° west are officially on Atlantic Time, local custom is to use Eastern Time as far east as the Natashquan River. Those communities observe DST, including all of Anticosti Island, which is bisected by the 63rd meridian.
Although the entire province is geographically within the MST (UTC-7) zone, the province is officially part of the Central time zone (UTC-6) but does not observe Daylight Saving Time. This time zone designation was implemented in 1966, when the Saskatchewan Time Act was passed in order to standardize time province-wide.
The charter of the city of Lloydminster, which is bisected by the Saskatchewan–Alberta boundary, gives it a special exemption. Lloydminster and the immediately surrounding region in Saskatchewan observe the same time as Alberta: Mountain Standard Time with officially sanctioned seasonal daylight saving. Along the Manitoba border, the small, remote Saskatchewan towns of Denare Beach and Creighton unofficially observe DST in the central time zone, thereby keeping the same time as larger neighboring Manitoba communities.
Cuba normally observes DST from March to October although the precise dates vary. For two years in the mid-2000s, Cuba stayed on DST throughout the year. In 2009 it was on DST from the second Sunday in March to the last Sunday of October. In 2011, it was be on DST from the third Sunday in March to the second sunday in November.
Dominica in the Caribbean does not observe Daylight Saving Time, like several other Caribbean nations.
Greenland (excluding two minor areas at Danmarkshavn and Pituffik) observes DST and uses the European convention (DST begins 01:00 UTC last Sunday in March and ends 01:00 UTC last Sunday in October). Most populated places in the country are in the UTC-3 zone in the winter (UTC-2 in the summer).
Mexico adopted DST nationwide in 1996, even in its tropical regions, because of its increasing economic ties to the United States. Although the United States has changed the schedule for DST beginning in 2007, most of Mexico did not go along with it. DST has often been a contentious issue in Mexico and is not likely to be extended. Daylight saving time for Mexico begins the first Sunday of April, and ends last Sunday of October; and is usually referred to as the "Summer Schedule" (Horario de Verano).
In December 2009, the Mexican Congress gave permission to ten northern border cities to synchronize their time to that of their US counterparts, resulting in these cities joining and leaving DST at the same time as the United States, relieving some border problems and confusion.
Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas
Anáhuac, Nuevo León
Piedras Negras, Coahuila
Mexicali, Baja California
Tijuana, Baja California
The state of Baja California has observed daylight saving time from several decades ago and until 1996 was the only Mexican state to observe it. Since 2010 it follows the extended schedule (beginning second Sunday of March, ending first Sunday of November) that has been used in the United States; this is mainly due to its close economic ties with the US state of California. The rest of Mexico will continue to use the old USA/Canada DST schedule (beginning first Sunday of April, ending last Sunday of October).
The Marías Islands and the Revillagigedo Archipelago do not observe DST. The westernmost island of the Revillagigedo Archipelago, Clarion Island, uses UTC-8 (PST) all the time; thus, during DST, Mexico has 4 different time zones.
United States of America
Most areas of the United States currently observe daylight saving time. The exceptions are Arizona, Hawaii, and the territories of Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands. In Arizona, the Navajo Nation observes daylight saving time.
From 1987 to 2006, daylight saving time in the United States began on the first Sunday of April and ended on the last Sunday of October. The time is adjusted at 2:00 a.m. (02:00) local time.
By the Energy Policy Act of 2005, daylight saving time (DST) was extended in the United States beginning in 2007. DST currently starts on the second Sunday of March, which is three or four weeks earlier than in the past, and it ends on the first Sunday of November, one week later than in years past. The time is adjusted at 2:00 a.m. (02:00) local time. This change resulted in a new DST period that is four weeks (five in years when March has five Sundays) longer than in previous years.
Recent daylight saving time start and end dates are:
Year DST Starts DST Ends 2010 March 14 November 7 2011 March 13 November 6 2012 March 11 November 4 2013 March 10 November 3
Time zones within the United States are:
Time Zone Standard Time Daylight Saving Time Eastern Time Zone EST (UTC-5) EDT (UTC-4) Central Time Zone CST (UTC-6) CDT (UTC-5) Mountain Time Zone MST (UTC-7) MDT (UTC-6) Pacific Time Zone PST (UTC-8) PDT (UTC-7) Alaska Time Zone AKST (UTC-9) AKDT (UTC-8) Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone HAST (UTC-10) HADT (UTC-9) *
*Hawaii does not observe DST
Guatemala has used DST from time to time due to energy problems. The last time it used DST was on April 30, 2006, ending on October 1, 2006. However DST was not observed in 2007-09.
Honduras adopted DST once, from May 1994 until September 1994 but then abandoned it. On May 7, 2006 it again used DST; however it ended on August 7, 2006, making this the shortest use of DST in the northern hemisphere as it was only applied for 3 months. The government decided not to use DST in 2007.
Nicaragua observed DST from January 1, 1992 until February 20, 1994 but it was stopped. On April 10, 2005 until October 2, 2005 DST was implemented, and the following year the period was similar, beginning on April 30, 2006 and ending on October 1, 2006; this measure was for energy conservation. In 2007, the government of Nicaragua decided to stop observing daylight saving time.
Since 2009, Argentina is not observing DST and the entire country stays on UTC-3.
San Luis province, which was previously in a different time zone than most of the country and which formerly observed DST, decided in April 2010 not to change its clocks back and to stay on UTC-3 all year round.
The most recent history of Argentina observing DTS dates from 2007 to 2009. After a period of not observing DST, Argentina observed DST in some provinces in an attempt to save energy. For each period, the executive branch of the government set the specific start and end dates for DST, i.e. there was no fixed annual schedule.
Since 2011, Bolivia was going to apply the time change from September 1 for the first time in its history, advancing the clock 60 minutes throughout the national territory, in order to offset their energy problems. The schedule change would take place every year between September and March, corresponding to the spring and summer of the South American country. However, the August 31, 2011 (eve of the failed schedule change), the national government of that country indefinitely suspended the summer time, due to opposition from experts in electricity, neighborhood and school leaders and the people themselves put.
Brazil adopted DST (called horário de verão—"summer time"—in Portuguese) for the first time in 1931, and it was in effect across the entire country. The duration and regional applicability of DST has varied over the years (see Portuguese Wikipedia page for details). As of 2011, DST is used only in the southern region (the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná), the southeast region (the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais), the central-west region (the state of Goiás and the Distrito Federal, and the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul), and in Bahia.ç+
Formerly, starting and ending dates were variable, but in 2008, a decree (No. 6558 of 9 September 2008) established a permanent rule: DST starts at 00:00 on the third Sunday in October and ends at 00:00 on the third Sunday in February—unless the latter falls during Carnaval: in this case, the end of DST is postponed by one week. The next six times in which the end of DST is scheduled to be postponed are 2012, 2015, 2023, 2026, 2034 and 2037.
Chile observes DST from the second Saturday in October to the second Saturday in March, but it may vary (see Time in Chile). In 2008, for example, the time was adjusted on Sunday, March 30, at 12 midnight. In 2010, because of the Earthquake, DST remained in effect until April 3. In 2011, in order to prevent energy shortages after a dry summer, DST was first extended until April 2  and then until May 7.
From February 1992 until March 1993, Colombia suffered rolling blackouts of up to 10 hours a day due to a particularly strong El Niño season, which dried the reservoirs in hydroelectric plants in a country deriving 70% of its energy output from hydroelectric sources; consequently, the government decided to use DST to help save electricity. The experiment failed to deliver the intended results, possibly due to Colombia's low latitude, and the DST experiment was discontinued.
President Sixto Durán Ballén imposed daylight saving time in 1992 in an energy-saving effort. It was poorly received by the populace and did not last long.
DST is observed from the first Sunday of September to the third Sunday of April.
The Islands will in 2011 try all year round "summer time"/DST (GMT-3): official clocks will not go back on April 17, 2011. For 2012 it is planned to go back to standard time during the southern hemisphere winter.
However, people in Camp (the countryside areas outside the main settlement, Stanley) do not tend to observe "summer time"/DST and keep their clocks on "Camp time" (GMT-4). Or they use summer time (GMT-3) all year to get more daylight for farming, depending on which source one reads.
Paraguay observes DST under decree 1867 of March 5, 2004. DST ends on the second Sunday of March and starts on the third Sunday of October.
In 2007, DST started on October 15, 2006 and ended on March 11, 2007.
In 2010, Paraguay changed its own DST rules because of the energy crisis, ending DST on the second Sunday in April, a month later than previous years. The start date remains unchanged.
No DST in South America
These countries or regions do not use daylight saving time:
- French Guiana
- The following states of Brazil: Acre, Alagoas, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, Maranhão, Pará, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondônia, Roraima, Sergipe, and Tocantins.
- ^ "Current time in Suva, Fiji - daylight savings time 2011 dates, Suva clock.". 24TimeZones.com. http://24timezones.com/world_directory/current_suva_time.php. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- ^ "Current time in Apia, Samoa - daylight savings time 2011 dates, Apia clock.". 24TimeZones.com. http://24timezones.com/world_directory/current_apia_time.php. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- ^ Daylight Saving Act 1971 No. 8159 (Vic.) for the summer of 1971/72; Summer Time Act 1972 No. 8297 (Vic.) since summer 1972
- ^ Australian Government - Bureau of Meteorology. "Daylight Saving Time - Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia". http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml. Retrieved 2010-07-27.
- ^ "1992 Queensland Daylight Saving Referendum" (PDF). http://www.ecq.qld.gov.au/WorkArea/linkit.aspx?LinkIdentifier=id&ItemID=74. Retrieved 2010-07-25.
- ^ "Daylight Saving group launched as new Qld political party". ABC News. 2008-12-14. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/12/14/2445953.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-25.
- ^ "Total Candidates Nominated for Election by Party – 2009 State Election". Electoral Commission of Queensland (ECQ). http://www.ecq.qld.gov.au/elections/state/state2009/results/summary.html#16. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
- ^ "Daylight Saving for South East Queensland Referendum Bill 2010". 14 April 2010. http://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/Bills/53PDF/2010/DaySavSEQRB10_P.pdf. Retrieved 2010-07-25.
- ^ "Daylight saving silence 'deafening'". 16 June 2011. http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/queensland/daylight-saving-silence-deafening-20110616-1g4k6.html. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
- ^ Western Australian Electoral Commission (2005). "Referendums/Referendum Results". Archived from the original on November 29, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061129232106/http://www.waec.wa.gov.au/state/factSheet18.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-03.
- ^ Jessica Strutt (24 March 2007). "Daylight saving support sinks". The West Australian. http://www.thewest.com.au/default.aspx?ContentID=24298.
- ^ Brendon Grylls (27 February 2007). "The Nationals give Parliament notice of daylight saving Bill" (PDF). Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070928204918/http://www.nationalswa.com/pdf/070227+the+nationals+give+parliament+notice+of+daylight+saving+bill.pdf. Retrieved 2007-03-03.
- ^ ABC News (2009). "WA to vote on daylight saving". http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/01/27/2475596.htm?section=justin. Retrieved 2009-01-30.
- ^ The West Australian (2009). "Daylight saving issue dead for next 20 years: Premier". http://www.thewest.com.au/default.aspx?MenuID=77&ContentID=142031. Retrieved 2009-05-17. [dead link]
- ^ http://www.webcitation.org/5ntBV6wWh
- ^ "and". Aa.usno.navy.mil. http://aa.usno.navy.mil. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
- ^ HawaiiAnswers.com: Has Hawaii ever been on daylight saving time, even for a very short time? If yes, when? The page cites The American Atlas, 5th ed., by Thomas G. Shanks. It is also worth noting that at one time Hawaii Standard Time was UTC-10:30.
- ^ "Hawaii Revised Statutes, §1-31". Capitol.hawaii.gov. http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/hrscurrent/Vol01_Ch0001-0042F/HRS0001/HRS_0001-0031.HTM. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
- ^ "Hong Kong Observatory: Hong Kong Summer Time". Hong Kong Observatory. 2009-10-02. http://www.weather.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
- ^ "Time zone in Iran". Timeanddate.com. http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=246. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
- ^ Elham: Cabinet nullifies the decision on daylight saving time[dead link]
- ^ "Cabinet cancels DST". Iraq Updates. 2008-03-05. http://www.iraqupdates.com/p_articles.php/article/28189. Retrieved 2008-03-16. "The Iraqi cabinet decided on Tuesday to cancel daylight saving time (DST) as of this year, the advisor for the prime minister for media affairs said. ‘The cabinet decided during its session today to cancel DST without mentioning the reasons behind the decision,’ Yassin Majid told Aswat al-Iraq — Voices of Iraq - (VOI)."
- ^ "Daylight Saving Time in Middle East". Webexhibits.org. http://webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/g.html#i. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
- ^ "Living on Zionist Time — 1999 Darwin Awards". Darwinawards.com. 2007-01-03. http://darwinawards.com/darwin/darwin1999-38.html. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
- ^ Hongo, Jun, "Daylight saving: Is it finally time to convert?", Japan Times, 28 June 2011, p. 3.
- ^ "Panel to call for daylight saving time". Yomiuri Shimbun. 2007-06-02. Archived from the original on June 6, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070606121904/http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/20070602TDY01005.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-02.
- ^ Yoshiyuki Shimoda; Takahiro Asahia; Ayako Taniguchia; Minoru Mizuno (2007). "Evaluation of city-scale impact of residential energy conservation measures using the detailed end-use simulation model". Energy 32 (9): 1617–1633. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2007.01.007.
- ^ "Kazakhstan abolishes daylight saving time". Kazakhstan Society in the UK. 2005-03-21. http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-28.
- ^ "Pakistan goes in for Daylight Saving Time". Rediff.com. http://www.rediff.com/news/2008/jun/02pak1.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
- ^ "DST in the works". Manila Standard Today. 2006-04-26. http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/?page=politics02_april26_2006. Retrieved 2006-09-10.
- ^ "NPCC: Don't hike prices on account of oil". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 2006-04-25. http://money.inq7.net/topstories/view_topstories.php?yyyy=2006&mon=04&dd=26&file=11. Retrieved 2006-09-10.
- ^ "Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements". eur-lex.europa.eu. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT. Retrieved 2010-09-26.
- ^ "Landsforeningen mod Sommertid" (in Danish). http://ikkesommertid.info/. Retrieved 2007-10-27.
- ^ http://asztro.net/daylights.php
- ^ "Hva er sommertid?" (in Norwegian). Forskning.no. http://www.forskning.no/Artikler/2002/oktober/1035454427.68. Retrieved 2007-10-27.
- ^ "Hora Legal desde 1911 (Legal Hour since 1911)" (in Portuguese). http://www.oal.ul.pt/download/dadosoutros/HoraLegaldesde1911.pdf.
- ^ "Observatorul Astronomic - Ora de vara" (in Romanian). http://www.astro-urseanu.ro/ora_vara.html. Retrieved 2008-11-15. Contains tables with all historical DST start and end dates since 1932.
- ^ http://lenta.ru/news/2011/02/08/zimynebudet/
- ^ "Turkey to abandon daylight saving time in 2011". Turkish Daily News (Worldtimezone.com). 19 August 2008. http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_turkey02.html. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
- ^ "Turkey switches to summer time one day later". World Bulletin. 10 March 2011. http://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
- ^ Although these regions politically belong to Spain in Europe, they are geographically part of or lying off the coast of Africa. They have DST schedules according to EU rules.
- ^ Although Madeira politically belongs to Portugal in Europe, they are geographically part and lying off the coast of Africa. They have DST schedules according to EU rules.
- ^ "Egypt to cancel daylight saving time". http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/407168.
- ^ "L'heure légale au Maroc sera avancée de 60 mn à partir de dimanche prochain". Map.ma. http://www.map.ma/fr/sections/accueil/l_heure_legale_au_ma/view. Retrieved 2011-03-31.
- ^ "Morocco revives daylight saving schedule in 2008". Timeanddate.com. http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-daylight-saving.html. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
- ^ "Morocco’s Daylight Saving Time Starts June 1, 2009". Timeanddate.com. http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2009.html. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
- ^ "Morocco Starts Daylight Saving Time May 2, 2010". Timeanddate.com. http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2010.html. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
- ^ a b Newfoundland and Labrador Amendment to the Standard Time Act, passed November 20, 2006
- ^ Prereau, David (2006). Seize the Daylight: The Curious and Contentious Story of Daylight Saving Time. Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 1-56-025796-2.
- ^ "When do I change my clocks this year?—Law & legislation—Subject index—Alberta Justice". Justice.gov.ab.ca. http://www.justice.gov.ab.ca/law/default.aspx?id=4318. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
- ^ "Ontario to Change Daylight Saving Time in 2007". Attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca. 2005-10-20. http://www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/english/news/2005/20051020-dst.asp. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
- ^ (which in the summer, puts it in sync with the rest of Saskatchewan). Time System in Saskatchewan
- ^ "Regirá el horario de verano desde el próximo domingo 16 de marzo". Granma.cubaweb.cu. Archived from the original on June 22, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080622215420/http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2008/03/13/nacional/artic10.html. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
- ^ "Regirá horario de verano desde el próximo domingo 13". Granma.cubaweb.cu. http://www.radiorebelde.cu/noticia/regresa-horario-normal-partir-13-noviembre-20111029/. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
- ^ a b "Daylight Saving Time Around the World 2010". Timeanddate.com. http://timeanddate.com/time/dst2010.html. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
- ^ Miriam de Regil. Inicia el domingo el Horario de Verano. El Financiero, Viernes, 31 de marzo de 2006.
- ^ "Arizona Time Zone". Timetemperature.com. http://www.timetemperature.com/tzus/arizona_time_zone.shtml. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
- ^ Douma, Michael (2008). "Daylight Saving Time - When do we change our clocks?". Institute for Dynamic Educational Advancement. http://webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/b.html. Retrieved 2008-03-08.
- ^ "Daylight Time". Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. http://www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/astronomical-applications/astronomical-information-center/daylight-time. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
- ^ "Time zone in Guatemala". Time and Date.com. http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=94. Retrieved 2009-05-24.
- ^ "Gobierno recapacita y suspende adelanto de hora" (in Spanish). La Prensa. 2007-03-30. http://www.laprensahn.com/pais_nota.php?id04962=7386.
- ^ Desde el 1 de septiembre de 2011, los relojes de los bolivianos deberán ser modificados, en una hora. (in spanish)
- ^ Bolivia adelantará la hora por primera vez en septiembre de 2011 (in spanish)
- ^ Se posterga cambio de huso horario en Bolivia (in spanish)
- ^ "DST Spread in Chile By the Earthquake (In Spanish)". Microsoft.com. http://www.microsoft.com/chile/cambiodehora/. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
- ^ "Decreto 163 (In Spanish)". 2011-03-03. http://www.leychile.cl/Navegar?idNorma=1023604&buscar=hora+verano. Retrieved 2011-04-14.
- ^ "Decreto 200 (In Spanish)". 2011-03-28. http://www.leychile.cl/Navegar?idNorma=1024110&buscar=hora+verano. Retrieved 2011-04-14.
- ^ "Time zone changes and daylight saving time start/end dates between year 1990 and 1999 - Bogota, Colombia". timeanddate.com. http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=41&syear=1990. Retrieved 2008-05-09.
- ^ "Time zone and daylight saving time for U.K. - Falkland Islands - Stanley between 2000 and 2009". Timeanddate.com. http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=630&syear=2000. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
- ^ "Mercopress article - Falkland Islands will remain on summer time throughout 2011". Mercopress. http://en.mercopress.com/2011/03/31/falkland-islands-will-remain-on-summer-time-throughout-2011. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
- ^ a b Time zone in Stanley
- ^ Falkland Islands Essentials & FAQ
- ^ The Falkland Islands
- ^ Decreto 1303/06 - Presidencia de la República Oriental del Uruguay
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