Proton (rocket)


Proton (rocket)
Proton 8K82K
Launch of a Proton rocket
Launch of a Proton rocket
Function Unmanned launch vehicle
Manufacturer Khrunichev
Country of origin Soviet Union; Russia
Size
Height 53 metres (174 ft)
Diameter 7.4 metres (24 ft)
Mass 693.81 metric tons (1,529,600 lb) (3 stage)
Stages 3 or 4
Capacity
Payload to LEO 20.7 metric tons (46,000 lb)
Payload to
GTO
5 metric tons (11,000 lb)
Launch history
Status Active
Launch sites Baikonur, LC-200 & LC-81
Total launches 369
Successes 326
Failures 43
Maiden flight Proton: 16 July 1965
Proton-K: 10 March 1967
Proton-M: 7 April 2001
Last flight Proton: 6 July 1966
Notable payloads Salyut 6 & Salyut 7
Mir & ISS components
ViaSat-1
First stage
Engines 6 RD-275
Thrust 10.47 MN (1.9 million pounds)
Burn time 2' 6"
Fuel N2O4/UDMH
Second stage
Engines 3 RD-0210 & 1 RD-0211
Thrust 2.399 MN (539,000 lbf)[1]
Burn time 3' 28"
Fuel N2O4/UDMH
Third stage
Engines 1 RD-0212
Thrust 630 kN (140,000 lbf)
Burn time
Fuel N2O4/UDMH
Fourth stage - Block-D/DM
Engines RD-58M
Thrust 83.4 kN (18,700 lbf)
Burn time
Fuel LOX/RP-1

Proton (Прото́н) (formal designation: UR-500) is an expendable launch system used for both commercial and Russian government space launches. The first Proton rocket was launched in 1965 and the launch system is still in use as of 2011, which makes it one of the most successful heavy boosters in the history of spaceflight. All Protons are built at the Khrunichev plant in Moscow, and then transported for launch to the Baikonur Cosmodrome, where they are brought to the launch pad horizontally and then raised into vertical position for launch.[2][3]

Like many Soviet boosters, the names of recurring payloads became associated with their launchers. Thusly, the moniker "Proton" originates from a series of large scientific Proton satellites, which were among the rocket's first payloads. It is also known as the D-1/D-1e or SL-12/SL-13.

Launch capacity to low Earth orbit is about 22 tonnes (49,000 lb). Geostationary transfer capacity is about 5–6 tonnes (11,000–13,000 lb). Commercial launches are marketed by International Launch Services (ILS). In a typical launch of a commercial communications satellite destined for geostationary orbit, a Proton M/Breeze M can place a spacecraft with mass at separation of 9,127 pounds (4,140 kg) into an orbit with an apogee of 35,786 kilometres (22,236 mi), a perigee of 6,257 kilometres (3,888 mi) and an inclination of 19.7°.[4]

Contents

History

Proton [5] initially started life as a "super ICBM." It was designed to throw a 100-megaton (or larger) nuclear warhead over a distance of 13,000 km. It was hugely oversized for an ICBM, and was never deployed in such a capacity. It was eventually utilized as a space launch vehicle. It was the brainchild of Vladimir Chelomei's design bureau as a foil to Sergei Korolev's N1 booster with the specific intent of sending a two-man Zond craft around the Moon. With the termination of the Saturn V program, Proton became the largest expendable launch system in service until the Energia rocket first flew in 1987 and the U.S. Titan IV in 1989.

Between the 1965 first flight and 1970, the Proton experienced dozens of failures. However, once perfected it became one of the most reliable heavy launch vehicles. With a total of about 335 launches, it has an 88% success rate.

Proton launched the unmanned Soviet circumlunar flights, and was intended to have launched the first Soviet circumlunar spaceflights, before the United States flew the Apollo 8 mission. Proton launched the Salyut space stations, the Mir core segment and expansion modules, and both the Zarya and Zvezda modules of the ISS. It also launched many probes to the Moon, Mars, Venus, and even Halley's Comet (using the 4-stage D-1e version).

Proton also launches commercial satellites, most of them being managed by International Launch Services. The first ILS Proton launch was on 9 April 1996 with the launch of the SES Astra 1F communications satellite.[6]

Since 1994, Proton has earned $4.3 billion for the Russian space industry, and by 2011 this figure is expected to rise to $6 billion.[7]

Proton 8K82K

The (GRAU index) 8K82K version is now usually called "Proton K". It is fuelled by unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide.[8] These are hypergolic fuels which burn on contact, avoiding the need for an ignition system, and can be stored at ambient temperatures. This avoids the need for low-temperature–tolerant components, and allows the rocket to sit on the pad indefinitely (other launchers with such capability include the U.S. Titan II, Titan III, and Titan IV, the Chinese Long March 2 rocket family and Long March 4 rocket family, the Soviet/Ukrainian Tsyklon launchers, the Soviet/Russian Kosmos-3 and Kosmos-3M launchers and the European Ariane 1 to Ariane 4 launchers). In contrast, cryogenic fuels need periodic topping-up of propellants as they boil off.

The fourth stage has come in multiple variants, depending on the mission. The simplest, Blok D, was used for interplanetary missions. Blok D had no guidance module, depending on the probe to control flight. Three different Blok DM versions (DM, DM2, and DM-2M) were for high Earth orbits. (Low-Earth orbits often skipped a fourth stage entirely, hence the third stage's self-contained guidance capability.) The Blok D/DM were unusual in that the fuel was stored in a toroidal tank, around the engine and behind the oxidizer tank.

Proton-M

The latest version is the Proton M, which can launch 3–3.2 tonnes (6,600–7,100 lb) into geostationary orbit or 5.5 tonnes (12,000 lb) into a geostationary transfer orbit. It can place up to 22 tonnes (49,000 lb) in low Earth orbit with a 51.6-degree inclination, the orbit of the International Space Station (ISS).

Proton-M during verticalization. On the background the mobile service tower can be observed

The Proton M's improvements include modifications to the lower stages to reduce structural mass, increase thrust, and fully utilize propellants. Generally a Breeze-M storable propellant upper stage is used instead of the Block D or Block DM stage, eliminating the need for multiple fuel supplies and oxygen top-off due to boiling; however, the Proton-M has also flown with a Block-DM upper stage. Efforts were also made to reduce dependency on foreign (usually Ukrainian) component suppliers.

Proton launch vehicles and Breeze M Upper Stages are designed and built by Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center (Khrunichev) in Moscow, the majority owner of International Launch Services (ILS). The Center is home to all engineering, assembly and test functions of the Proton production. And now, with the recent consolidation of the Russian space enterprises, Khrunichev has direct oversight and control of up to 70% of all Proton manufacturing from suppliers to manufacturers. The consolidation directly supports Khrunichev’s ongoing efforts for vertical integration of Proton production.[9]

The most recent enhanced Proton, the Phase III Proton Breeze M launch vehicle, was flight proven on the Russian Federal dual mission of Express AM-44 and Express MD-1 in February 2009 and performed its first commercial launch in March 2010 with the Echostar XIV satellite. The Proton Breeze M phase III configuration is the current standard configuration for ILS Proton. This configuration provides 6150 kg of GTO performance, which is an increase of 1150 kg over the original Proton Breeze M, while maintaining the fundamental design configuration.

Khrunichev has initiated development of a set of phase IV enhancements in order to keep pace with market demands and the mass growth trends of commercial satellites. The implementation of Phase IV Proton Breeze M enhancements will be completed in 2013. The Payloads Systems Mass performance for phase IV has been increased to 6300 kg to a reference GTO orbit with 1500 m/s of residual delta V to GSO.[10]

Launches

Date Flight Version Payload Notes
8 April 1996 Proton D1-e (launch #236) Astra 1F Success, first commercial flight[11]
23 April 1996 Proton-K (#237) Priroda Success
25 May 1996 Proton-K (#238) / DM-2 Gorizont-32 Success
6 September 1996 Proton-K (#239) / DM-1 INMARSAT-3F2 Success
26 September 1996 Proton-K (#240) / DM-2M Express-2 Success
16 November 1996 Proton-R (#241) (Block D-2) Mars 96 Failure, Block D-2 failed to restart, reentered atmosphere over Bolivia[12]
24 May 1997 Proton-K (#242) / DM-4 Telstar-5 Success
6 June 1997 Proton-K (#243) / DM-5 Kosmos-2344 (Araks) Success
18 June 1997 Proton-K (#244) / DM-2 Iridium Satellite LLC 11-16 (for Motorola) Success
14 August 1997 Proton-K (#245) / DM-2 Kosmos-2345 (Araks) Success
28 August 1997 Proton-K (#246) / DM-3 PanAmSat-5 (for ILS) Success
14 September 1997 Proton-K (#247) / DM-2 Iridium Satellite LLC 27-33 (for Motorola) Success
12 November 1997 Proton-K (#248) / DM-2M Coupon Купон (КА) Success
2 December 1997 Proton-K (#249) / DM-3 Astra 1G (for ILS) Success
24 December 1997 Proton-K (#250) / DM-3 Asiasat-3 (for ILS) Failure. Block DM3 upper stage engine's failure.[13]
7 April 1998 Proton-K (#251) / DM-2 Iridium Satellite LLC 62-68 (for Motorola) Success
29 April 1998 Proton-K (#252) / DM-2 Kosmos-2350 Success
7 May 1998 Proton-K (#253) / DM-3 EchoStar-4 (for ILS) Success
30 August 1998 Proton-K (#254) / DM-3 Astra 2A (for ILS) Success
4 November 1998 Proton-K (#255) / DM-3 PanAmSat-8 (for ILS) Success
20 November 1998 Proton-K (#256) / ? Zarya Success
30 December 1998 Proton-K (#257) / DM-2 Kosmos 2362-2364 (GLONASS satellites) Success
15 February 1999 Proton-K (#258) / DM-3 Telstar-6 (for ILS) Success
28 February 1999 Proton-K (#259) / DM-2 Raduga 1-4 Success
21 March 1999 Proton-K (#260) / DM-3 Asiasat 3S (for ILS) Success
20 May 1999 Proton-R (#261) (Block DM) Nimiq-1 Success
18 June 1999 Proton-K (#262) / DM-3 Astra 1H (for ILS) Success
5 July 1999 Proton-K (#263) / Breeze-M Raduga Failed
6 September 1999 Proton-K (#264) / DM-2M Yamal 101,102 Success
26 September 1999 Proton-K (#265) / DM-3 LMI-1 (for ILS) Success
27 October 1999 Proton-K (#266) / DM-2 Express-A1 Failed
12 February 2000 Proton-R (#267) (Block DM-3) Garuda 1 Success
12 March 2000 Proton-K (#268) / DM-2M Express-A2 Success
18 April 2000 Proton-K (#269) / DM-2M Eutelsat SESAT 1 Success
6 June 2000 Proton-K (#270) / Breeze-M Gorizont-45 Success
24 June 2000 Proton-K (#271) / DM-2M Express-A3 Success
30 June 2000 Proton-K (#272) / DM-3 Sirius-1 (for ILS) Success
4 July 2000 Proton-K (#273) / DM-2 Geizer Success
12 July 2000 Proton-K (#274) / ? Zvezda (ISS module) Success
28 August 2000 Proton-K (#275) / DM-2 Raduga 1-5 Success
5 September 2000 Proton-K (#276) / DM-3 Sirius-2 (for ILS) Success
1 October 2000 Proton-K (#277) / DM-3 GE-1A (for ILS) Success
13 October 2000 Proton-K (#278) / DM-2 GLONASS Success
21 October 2000 Proton-K (#279) / DM-3 GE-6 (for ILS) Success
30 November 2000 Proton-K (#280) / DM-3 Sirius-3 (for ILS) Success
15 May 2001 Proton-K (#281) / DM-3 PanAmSat-10 Success
16 June 2001 Proton-K (#282) / DM-3 Astra-2C (for ILS) Success
24 August 2001 Proton-K (#283) / DM-2 Kosmos 2379 Success
6 October 2001 Proton-K (#284) / DM-2 Globus-1 Success
1 December 2001 Proton-K (#285) / DM-2 Kosmos 2380-2382 (GLONASS satellites) Success
30 March 2002 Proton-K (#286) / DM-3 Intelsat-903 (for ILS) Success
7 May 2002 Proton-K (#287) / DM-3 DirecTV-5 (for ILS) Success
10 June 2002 Proton-K (#288) / DM-2M Express-A4 Success
25 July 2002 Proton-K (#289) / DM-5 Kosmos-2392 (Arcon) Success
22 August 2002 Proton-K (#290) / DM-3 EchoStar-8 (for ILS) Success
17 October 2002 Proton-K (#291) / DM-2 INTEGRAL Success
25 November 2002 Proton-K (#292) / DM-2M Astra 1K Block DM-3 miscommanded, leaving payload in unusable orbit
25 December 2002 Proton-K (#293) / DM-2M Kosmos 2394-2396 (GLONASS satellites) Success
30 December 2002 Proton-M (#2) Breeze M Nimiq-2 Success
24 April 2003 Proton-K (#294) / DM-2 Kosmos 2397 Success
7 June 2003 Proton-K (#295) Breeze M AMC-9 Success. 300th flight of a Proton[14]
24 November 2003 Proton-K (#296) / DM-2M Yamal-200 1,2 Success
10 December 2003 Proton-K (#297) / Breeze-M Kosmos 2402-2404 (GLONASS satellites) Success
28 December 2003 Proton-K (#298) / DM-2M Express-AM22 Success
15 March 2004 Proton-M (#3) Breeze M Eutelsat W3A Success[15]
27 March 2004 Proton-K (#299) / DM-2 Raduga 1-7 #17 Success
26 April 2004 Proton-K (#300) / DM-2M Express-AM11 Success
16 June 2004 Proton-M (#4) Breeze M Intelsat 10-02 Success[16]
5 August 2004 Proton-M (#5) Breeze M Hispasat Amazonas Success[17]
15 October 2004 Proton-M (#6) Breeze M AMC-15 Success[18]
29 October 2004 Proton-K (#301) / DM-2M Express-AM1 Success
26 December 2004 Proton-K (#302) / DM-2 Kosmos 2411-2413 (GLONASS satellites) Success
3 February 2005 Proton-M (#7) Breeze M AMC-12 Success[19]
29 March 2005 Proton-K (#303) / DM-2M Express-AM2 Success
22 May 2005 Proton-M (#8) Breeze M DirecTV-8 Success[20]
24 July 2005 Proton-K (#304) / DM-2 Express-AM3 Success
9 September 2005 Proton-M (#9) Breeze M Anik F1-R Success[21]
25 December 2005 Proton-K (#305) / DM-2 Kosmos 2417-2419 (GLONASS satellites) Success[22]
29 December 2005 Proton-M (#10) Breeze M AMC-23/Worldsat-3 Success[23]
28 February 2006 Proton-M (#11) Breeze M Arabsat-4A Failure. Briz-M upper stage turbopump malfunction[24]
18 June 2006 Proton-K (#306) / DM-3 Kazsat Success[25]
5 August 2006 Proton Breeze M Eutelsat HotBird-8 Success[26]
9 November 2006 Proton Breeze M Arabsat-4B Success[27]
25 December 2006 Proton-K (#307) / DM-2 Kosmos 2424-2426 (GLONASS satellites) Success[28]
12 December 2006 Proton Breeze M MEASAT-3 Success[29]
10 April 2007 Proton Breeze M Anik F3 Success[30]
7 July 2007 Proton Breeze M Enhanced DirecTV-10 Success.[31]
5 September 2007 Proton Breeze M JCSAT-11 Failure – [32]
26 October 2007 Proton-K (#308) / DM-2 Kosmos 2431-2433 (GLONASS satellites) Success[33]
17 November 2007 Proton Breeze M Sirius-4 Success[34]
28 January 2008 Proton Breeze M Ekspress-AM33 Success
11 February 2008 Proton Breeze M Thor 5 Success[35]
15 March 2008 Proton Breeze M AMC-14 Failure – premature shutdown of Briz-M upper stage[36]
27 June 2008 Proton-K (#309) / DM-3 Kosmos 2440 Success
19 August 2008 Proton Breeze M Inmarsat 4 F3 Success[37]
20 September 2008 Proton Breeze M Nimiq-4 Success[38]
25 September 2008 Proton Block DM Kosmos 2447-2449 (GLONASS satellites) Success[39]
6 November 2008 Proton Breeze M Astra 1M Success[40][41]
10 December 2008 Proton Breeze M Ciel-2 Success[42]
11 February 2009 Proton Breeze M Enhanced Express-AM44 and Express-MD1 Success[43]
28 February 2009 Proton-K (#310) / DM-2 Raduga 1-8 #18 Success[44]
3 April 2009 Proton Breeze M Eutelsat W2A Success[45]
16 May 2009 Proton Breeze M ProtoStar II Success[46]
1 July 2009 Proton Breeze M Sirius FM-5 Success[47]
12 August 2009 Proton Breeze M AsiaSat 5 Success[48]
18 September 2009 Proton Breeze M Nimiq 5 Success[49]
24 November 2009 Proton Breeze M Eutelsat W7 Success[50]
14 December 2009 Proton-M / DM-2 Kosmos 2456-2458 (GLONASS satellites) Success[51]
29 December 2009 Proton Breeze M DirecTV-12 Success[52]
12 February 2010 Proton Breeze M Intelsat 16 Success[53]
2 March 2010 Proton Breeze M Kosmos 2459-2461 (GLONASS satellites) Success[54]
20 March 2010 Proton Breeze M EchoStar 14 Success[55]
24 April 2010 Proton Breeze M SES-1 (AMC-4R) Success[56]
3 June 2010 Proton Breeze M Badr 5 (Arabsat 5B) Success[57]
11 July 2010 Proton Breeze M EchoStar 15 Success[58]
2 September 2010 Proton-M / DM-2 Kosmos 2464-2466 (GLONASS satellites) Success[59]
14 October 2010 Proton Breeze M XM 5 Success[60]
14 November 2010 Proton-M / DM-3 SkyTerra 1 Success[61]
5 December 2010 Proton-M / DM-3 GLONASS satellites Failure – Block DM upper stage fueling error, causing crash into the Pacific Ocean[62]
26 December 2010 Proton Breeze M Eutelsat KA-SAT Success[63]
20 May 2011 Proton Breeze M Telstar-14R Success
15 July 2011 Proton Breeze M KazSat-2 and SES-3 Success
18 August 2011 Proton Breeze M Express-AM4 Failure - Breeze-M delivered satellite on incorrect orbit [64]
29 September 2011 Proton Breeze M QuetzSat 1 Success[65]
20 October 2011 Proton Breeze M ViaSat-1 Success[66]
Planned
Date Flight Payload
25 November 2011 Proton Breeze M Asiasat 7[67]
11 December 2011 Proton Breeze M Amos-5 and Luch 5A[67]
28 december 2011 Proton Breeze M SES 4[67]
December 2011[68] ISS assembly flight 3R Multipurpose Laboratory Module and European Robotic Arm
Fourth quarter 2011 Proton Breeze M Astra 4B
End of 2011 Proton Breeze M Ekspress AM8 and Ekspress MD2
Late 2011 Proton Breeze M SkyTerra 2
Late 2011 Proton Breeze M EuropaSat
Late 2011 Proton Breeze M Yahsat 1B
Early 2012 Proton Breeze M Telkom-3 and Yamal 300K
Early 2012 Proton Breeze M Intelsat 23[67]
2012 Proton Breeze M Intelsat 22
2012 Proton Breeze M Nimiq 6
2012 Proton Breeze M Yamal 402
2013 Proton Breeze M Yamal 401[citation needed]
2013 Proton Breeze M TurkSat 4A
2014 Proton Breeze M TurkSat 4B
~2015[69] Proton MDA Space Infrastructure Servicing vehicle[70]
2018 Proton ESA's ExoMars mission to Mars.[71]

Future developments

Significant upgrades were temporarily put on hold following announcement of the new Angara launch vehicle. The single largest upgrade was the KVRB stage. This cryogenic stage would have greatly increased capacity. The engine was developed successfully, and the stage as a whole had progressed to hardware. However, as KVRB is noticeably larger than Blok D, the vehicle's aerodynamics, flight control, software, and possibly electronics would have to be reevaluated. In addition, the launch pad can supply existing Protons with common hypergol fuels from single sources. The upper stages, in particular, are fed by common loading pipes running along the rocket. Switching to a stage with different fuels requires the addition of extra support articles; switching to cryogens requires that such support articles top off the stage periodically.

Heavy variants of Angara will be simpler and cheaper than Proton (and like the new Atlas V rocket, will not use hypergolics; instead, it will use the same RP-1 fuel as that used on the Soyuz rocket). They will also be designed from the start to accept a KVRB stage, and will already have a LOX supply at the pad; only a hydrogen supply will be called upon. However, delays in Angara development mean that Protons will continue to fly for some time.

Frank McKenna, CEO of ILS, has indicated that in 2010 the Phase III Proton design would become the standard ILS configuration, with the ability to lift 6.15 metric tons to GTO.[72]

See also

Similar launch systems

References

  1. ^ "Proton 8K82K". http://www.friends-partners.org/partners/mwade/lvs/pro8k82k.htm. 
  2. ^ "Proton Mission Planner's Guide". International Launch Services. http://www.ilslaunch.com/launch-services/proton-mission-planners-guide. 
  3. ^ "Proton Verticalization, Pad 39, Baikonur". flickr. September 5, 2005. http://www.flickr.com/photos/alexpgp/40437004/. 
  4. ^ "ILS Proton to Launch AMC-14 Satellite" (Press release). ILS. March 7, 2008. http://www.ilslaunch.com/newsroom/news-releases/ils-proton-launch-amc-14-satellite. 
  5. ^ "Proton Heritage". International Launch Services. http://www.ilslaunch.com/launch-services/ils-proton-breeze-m-launch-vehicle/proton-heritage. 
  6. ^ http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/proton-launch-archives
  7. ^ Statement by Vladimir Ye.Nesterov, Khrunichev Director-General, at Press Conference on 15 July 2010 Khruhichev 2010-07-29.
  8. ^ http://www.ilslaunch.com/launch-services/ils-proton-breeze-m-launch-vehicle
  9. ^ http://www.ilslaunch.com/sites/default/files/pdf/ILS%20Proton%20Brochure.pdf
  10. ^ http://www.ilslaunch.com/launch-services/ils-proton-breeze-m-launch-vehicle/proton-heritage
  11. ^ "ASTRA 1F and ILS Proton Mission Control". ILS. April 9, 1996. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-ASTRA-1f. 
  12. ^ James Oberg (6 March 1999). "The probe that fell to Earth". New Scientist. http://www.jamesoberg.com/plutonium.html. Retrieved 2009-09-09. 
  13. ^ "Novosti Kosmonavtiki" magazine's report (in Russian)
  14. ^ "300th Mission Flown by Proton Vehicle" (Press release). ILS. June 7, 2003. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-amc-9. 
  15. ^ "ILS Successfully Launches W3A Satellite; 2nd Launch in Less Than A Week" (Press release). ILS. March 16, 2004. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-w3a. 
  16. ^ "ILS And Proton Successfully Launch Intelsat 10-02 Satellite" (Press release). ILS. June 17, 2004. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-intelsat-10-02. 
  17. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches Amazonas Satellite" (Press release). ILS. August 5, 2004. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-amazonas. 
  18. ^ "ILS Proton Launches AMC-15 Satellite; 9th Mission in 9 Months" (Press release). ILS. October 15, 2004. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-amc-15. 
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  20. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches Satellite For DIRECTV" (Press release). ILS. May 22, 2005. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-directv-8. 
  21. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches Telesat's Anik F1R Satellite" (Press release). ILS. September 9, 2005. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-anik-fi-r. 
  22. ^ "Proton-K Successfully Launches GLONASS Satellites. Proton-M Successfully Launches Satellite For SES Americom" (Press release). Khrunichev. December 29, 2005. http://www.khrunichev.ru/main.php?id=1&nid=45&lang=en. 
  23. ^ "Proton Launches AMC-23 Satellite; 7th and Final Mission of Year for ILS" (Press release). ILS. December 29, 2005. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-amc-23. 
  24. ^ Ray, Justin (February 28, 2006). "Proton rocket fails in Arab satellite launch". Spaceflight Now. http://www.spaceflightnow.com/proton/arabsat4a/. 
  25. ^ "KazSat Successfully Placed on GSO" (Press release). Khrunichev. June 19, 2006. http://www.khrunichev.ru/main.php?id=1&nid=56&lang=en. 
  26. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches Eutelsat's HOT BIRD 8 Broadcast Satellite" (Press release). ILS. August 5, 2006. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-hotbird-8. 
  27. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches ARABSAT's BADR-4 Satellite" (Press release). ILS. November 9, 2006. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-badr-4. 
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  33. ^ "Russia’s Proton Rocket 328th Flight" (Press release). Khrunichev. October 26, 2007. http://www.khrunichev.ru/main.php?id=1&nid=160&lang=en. 
  34. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches SIRIUS 4 Satellite" (Press release). ILS. November 18, 2007. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-sirius-4. 
  35. ^ "ILS Proton successfully launches THOR 5 satellite" (Press release). ILS. February 11, 2008. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-thor-5. 
  36. ^ Clark, Stephen (March 15, 2008). "Proton rocket suffers launch failure". Spaceflight Now. http://www.spaceflightnow.com/proton/amc14/. 
  37. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches Inmarsat-4 F3 Satellite" (Press release). ILS. August 19, 2008. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-inmarsat-4-f3. 
  38. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches Telesat's Nimiq 4 Satellite" (Press release). ILS. September 20, 2008. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-nimiq-4. 
  39. ^ "Proton Successfully Launches Back-to-Back Missions" (Press release). ILS. September 25, 2008. http://www.ilslaunch.com/news-092508. 
  40. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches Astra 1M Satellite" (Press release). ILS. November 6, 2008. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-astra-1m. 
  41. ^ "ASTRA 1M Satellite Successfully Launched" (Press release). SES Astra. November 6, 2008. http://www.ses-astra.com/business/en/news-events/press-archive/2008/08-11-06/index.php. 
  42. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches Ciel II Satellite" (Press release). ILS. December 10, 2008. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-ciel-2. 
  43. ^ "Proton Successfully Delivers Two New Russian Express-series Satellites into Orbit" (Press release). ILS. February 11, 2009. http://www.ilslaunch.com/news-021109. 
  44. ^ "Proton Successfully Delivers Russian Military Satellite" (Press release). Khrunichev. February 28, 2009. http://www.khrunichev.ru/main.php?id=1&nid=333&lang=en. 
  45. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches W2A Satellite; The 50th ILS Proton Launch" (Press release). ILS. April 3, 2009. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-w2a. 
  46. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches IndoStar II/ProtoStar II Satellite" (Press release). ILS. May 16, 2009. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-indostar-ii-protostar-ii. 
  47. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches SIRIUS FM-5 Satellite" (Press release). ILS. July 1, 2009. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-sirius-fm-5. 
  48. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launched AsiaSat 5 Satellite" (Press release). ILS. August 12, 2009. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-asiasat-5. 
  49. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches Nimiq 5 Satellite" (Press release). ILS. September 18, 2009. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-nimiq-5. 
  50. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches the W7 Satellite for Eutelsat" (Press release). ILS. November 24, 2009. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-w7. 
  51. ^ "Proton Successfully Launches Three GLONASS Satellites" (Press release). Khrunichev. December 14, 2009. http://www.khrunichev.ru/main.php?id=1&nid=471&lang=en. 
  52. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches DIRECTV 12 Satellite for DIRECTV; 7th ILS Proton Mission of 2009" (Press release). ILS. December 29, 2009. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-directv-12. 
  53. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches the Intelsat 16 Satellite for Intelsat; First ILS Proton Launch of 2010" (Press release). ILS. February 12, 2010. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-intelsat-16. 
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  55. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches EchoStar XIV for DISH Network; 2nd ILS Proton Mission of 2010; 4th Proton in 3 Months" (Press release). ILS. March 21, 2010. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-echostar-14. 
  56. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches SES-1 for SES 3rd ILS Proton Mission of 2010; 5th Proton in 4 Months" (Press release). International Launch Services. April 24, 2010. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-ses-1. 
  57. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches BADR-5 For Arabsat; 4th ILS Proton Mission of 2010; 6th Proton in 5 Months" (Press release). International Launch Services. June 4, 2010. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-badr-5. 
  58. ^ "ILS Successfully Launches the EchoStar XV Satellite for DISH Network" (Press release). International Launch Services. July 11, 2010. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-echostar-15. 
  59. ^ "GLONASS M Navigation Triplets Launched Successfully by Proton M" (Press release). Khrunichev. September 2, 2010. http://www.khrunichev.ru/main.php?id=1&nid=600&lang=en. 
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  61. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches LightSquared Satellite" (Press release). International Launch Services. November 14, 2010. http://www.ilslaunch.com/mission-control/mission-skyterra-1. 
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  65. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches QuetzSat-1 for SES" (Press release). International Launch Services. September 30, 2011. http://www.ilslaunch.com/newsroom/news-releases/ils-proton-successfully-launches-quetzsat-1-ses. 
  66. ^ "ILS Proton Successfully Launches ViaSat-1 for ViaSat" (Press release). International Launch Services. October 20, 2011. http://www.ilslaunch.com/newsroom/news-releases/ils-proton-successfully-launches-viasat-1-viasat. 
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  70. ^ de Selding, Peter B. (2011-03-14). "Intelsat Signs Up for Satellite Refueling Service". Space News. http://www.spacenews.com/satellite_telecom/intelsat-signs-for-satellite-refueling-service.html. Retrieved 2011-03-15. "if the MDA spacecraft performs as planned, Intelsat will be paying a total of some $200 million to MDA. This assumes that four or five satellites are given around 200 kilograms each of fuel. ... The maiden flight of the vehicle would be on an International Launch Services Proton rocket, industry officials said. One official said the MDA spacecraft, including its 2,000 kilograms of refueling propellant, is likely to weigh around 6,000 kilograms at launch." 
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