Cyrillic alphabets


Cyrillic alphabets
Distribution of the Cyrillic script worldwide. The dark green shows the countries that use Cyrillic as the one main script; the lighter green those that use Cyrillic alongside another official script.

This is a list of national variants of the Cyrillic script.

Sounds are indicated using IPA. These are only approximate indicators. While these languages by and large have phonemic orthographies, there are occasional exceptions—for example, Russian <г> represents /v/ in a number of words (e.g. его (yego, 'him/his', pronounced [jɪˈvo] instead of [jɪˈɡo])).

Note that transliterated spellings of names may vary, especially y/j/i, but also gh/g/h and zh/j.

See also a more complete list of languages using Cyrillic.

Contents

Common letters

The following table lists the Cyrillic letters which are used in the alphabets of most of the national languages which use a Cyrillic alphabet. Exceptions and additions for particular languages are noted below.

Common Cyrillic letters
Upright Italic/Cursive Name Sound
А а А а A /a/
Б б Б б Be /b/
В в В в Ve /v/
Г г Г г Ge /ɡ/
Д д Д д De /d/
Е е Е е Ye /je/, /ʲe/
Ж ж Ж ж Zhe /ʒ/
З з З з Ze /z/
И и И и I /i/, /ʲi/
Й й Й й Short I (Russian: I kratkoye) /j/
К к К к Ka /k/
Л л Л л El /l/
М м М м Em /m/
Н н Н н En /n/
О о О о O /o/
П п П п Pe /p/
Р р Р р Er /r/
С с С с Es /s/
Т т Т т Te /t/
У у У у U /u/
Ф ф Ф ф Ef /f/
Х х Х х Kha /x/
Ц ц Ц ц Tse /ts/
Ч ч Ч ч Che //
Ш ш Ш ш Sha /ʃ/
Щ щ Щ щ Shcha, Shta /ʃtʃ/, /ɕː/, /ʃt/
Ь ь Ь ь Soft sign (Russian: myagkiy znak)
or Small yer (Bulgarian: er malak)
/ʲ/
Ю ю Ю ю Yu /ju/, /ʲu/
Я я Я я Ya /ja/, /ʲa/

The soft sign ⟨ь⟩ is not a letter representing a sound, but modifies the sound of the preceding letter, indicating palatalisation ("softening"), also separates the consonant and the following vowel. Sometimes it does not have phonetic meaning, just orthographic; e.g. Russian туш, tush [tuʂ] 'flourish after a toast'; тушь, tushʹ [tuʂ] 'India ink'. In some languages, a hard sign ⟨ъ⟩ or apostrophe ⟨’⟩ just separates consonant and the following vowel (бя [bʲa], бья [bʲja], бъя = б’я [bja]).

Slavic languages

Belarusian

The Belarusian alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з І і Й й
К к Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Т т У у Ў ў
Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

The Belarusian alphabet displays the following features:

  • Г represents a voiced glottal fricative /ɦ/.
  • Yo (Ё ё) /jo/
  • I resembles the Latin letter I (І, і).
  • Short U (Ў, ў) falls between U and Ef. It looks like U (У) with a breve and represents /w/, or like the u part of the diphthong in loud.
  • A combination of sh and ch (ШЧ, шч) is used where those familiar only with Russian and or Ukrainian would expect Shcha (Щ, щ).
  • Yery (Ы ы) /ɨ/
  • E (Э э) /ɛ/
  • An apostrophe is used to indicate de-palatalization of the preceding consonant.
  • The letter combinations Дж дж and Дз дз appear after Д д in the Belarusian alphabet in some publications. These digraphs each represent a single sound: Дж /dʒ/, Дз /dz/.

Bosnian

The Bosnian language uses both Latin and Cyrillic scripts.[1] There was also a Bosnian Cyrillic script (Bosančica) used in the Middle Ages, along with other scripts, although its connection with the Bosnian language, which was only standardised in the 1990s and whose status as a language is still debated[citation needed][dubious ][by whom?], is tenuous at best.[citation needed] The Cyrillic used for writing in Bosnian language today is the modern Serbian variant.

Bulgarian

The Bulgarian alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ж ж З з И и Й й К к
Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Т т У у Ф ф Х х
Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ь ь Ю ю Я я

The Bulgarian alphabet features:

  • (Е) represents /ɛ/ and is called "е" [e].
  • (Щ) represents /ʃt/ and is called "щъ" [ʃtə].
  • (Ъ) represents the vowel /ɤ/, and is called "ер голям" [ˈer ɡoˈlʲam] ('big er').

Тhe Bulgarian names for the consonants are [bɤ], [kɤ], [lɤ] etc. instead of [be], [ka], [el] etc.

Macedonian

The Macedonian alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Ѓ ѓ Е е Ж ж З з Ѕ ѕ И и
Ј ј К к Л л Љ љ М м Н н Њ њ О о П п Р р С с
Т т Ќ ќ У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Џ џ Ш ш

The Macedonian alphabet differs from Serbian in the following ways:

  • Between Ze and I is the letter Dze (Ѕ, ѕ), which looks like the Latin letter S and represents /dz/.
  • Djerv is replaced by Gje (Ѓ, ѓ), which looks like Ghe with an acute accent (´) and represents /ɟ/,
  • Tjerv is replaced by Kja (Ќ, ќ), which looks like Ka with an acute accent (´), represents /c/,

Russian

The Russian alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й
К к Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Т т У у Ф ф
Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я
  • Yo (Ё ё) /jo/
  • The Hard Sign¹ (Ъ ъ) indicates no palatalisation²
  • Yery (Ы ы) indicates [ɨ] (an allophone of /i/)
  • E (Э э) /e/
  • Ж and Ш indicate sounds that are retroflex

Notes:

  1. In the pre-reform Russian orthography, in Old Russian and in Old Church Slavonic the letter is called yer. Historically, the "hard sign" takes the place of a now-absent vowel, still preserved in Bulgarian. See the notes for Bulgarian.
  2. When an iotated vowel (vowel whose sound begins with [j]) follows a consonant, the consonant is palatalised. The Hard Sign indicates that this does not happen, and the [j] sound will appear only in front of the vowel. The Soft Sign indicates that the consonant should be palatised in addition to a [j] preceding the vowel. The Soft Sign also indicates that a consonant before another consonant or at the end of a word is palatised. Examples: та ([ta]); тя ([tʲa]); тья ([tʲja]); тъя ([tja]); т (/t/); ть ([tʲ]).

Before 1918, there were four extra letters in use: Іі (replaced by Ии), Ѳѳ (Фита "Fita", replaced by Фф), Ѣѣ (Ять "Yat", replaced by Ее), and Ѵѵ (ижица "Izhitsa", replaced by Ии); these were eliminated by reforms of Russian orthography.

Rusyn

The Rusyn language is spoken by the Lemko Rusyns in Carpathian Ruthenia, Slovakia, and Poland, and the Pannonian Rusyns in Serbia.

The Rusyn alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Ґ ґ Д д Е е Є є Ё ё* Ж ж З з
И и I і* Ы ы* Ї ї Й й К к Л л М м Н н О о П п
Р р С с Т т У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ѣ ѣ*
Ю ю Я я Ь ь Ъ ъ*

*Letters absent from Pannonian Rusyn alphabet.

Serbian

The Serbian alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Ђ ђ Е е Ж ж З з И и Ј ј
К к Л л Љ љ М м Н н Њ њ О о П п Р р С с Т т
Ћ ћ У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Џ џ Ш ш

The Serbian alphabet shows the following features:

  • E represents /ɛ/.
  • Between Д and E is the letter Dje (Ђ, ђ), which represents /dʑ/, and looks like Tshe, except that the loop of the h curls farther and dips downwards.
  • Between И and К is the letter Je (Ј, ј), represents /j/, which looks like the Latin letter J.
  • Between Л and М is the letter Lje (Љ, љ), representing /ʎ/, which looks like a ligature of Л and the Soft Sign .
  • Between Н and О is the letter Nje (Њ, њ), representing /ɲ/, which looks like a ligature of Н and the Soft Sign.
  • Between Т and У is the letter Tshe (Ћ, ћ), representing /tɕ/ and looks like a lowercase Latin letter h with a bar. On the uppercase letter, the bar appears at the top; on the lowercase letter, the bar crosses the top at half of the vertical line.
  • Between Ч and Ш is the letter Dzhe (Џ, џ), representing /dʒ/, which looks like Ts but with the downturn moved from the right side of the bottom bar to the middle of the bottom bar.
  • Ш is the last letter.

Ukrainian

The Ukrainian alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Ґ ґ Д д Е е Є є Ж ж З з И и
І і Ї ї Й й К к Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с
Т т У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ь ь Ю ю Я я

The Ukrainian alphabet displays the following features:

  • Ve represents /ʋ/ (which may be pronounced [w] in a word final position and before consonants).
  • He (Г, г) represents a voiced glottal fricative, (/ɦ/).
  • Ge (Ґ, ґ) appears after He, represents /ɡ/. It looks like He with an "upturn" pointing up from the right side of the top bar. (This letter was not officially used in the Soviet Union after 1933, so it is missing from older Cyrillic fonts.)
  • E (Е, е) represents /ɛ/.
  • Ye (Є, є) appears after E, represents /jɛ/.
  • Y (И, и) represents /ɪ/.
  • I (І, і) appears after Y, represents /i/.
  • Yi (Ї, ї) appears after I, represents /ji/.
  • Yot (Й, й) represents /j/.
  • Shcha (Щ, щ) represents ʃtʃ.
  • An apostrophe (’) is used to mark de-palatalization of the preceding consonant.
  • Like in Belarusian Cyrillic, the sounds /dʒ/, /dz/ are represented by digraphs Дж and Дз respectively.
  • Until reforms in 1990, Soft sign (Ь, ь) appeared at the end of the alphabet, after Ju (Ю, ю) and Ja (Я, я), rather than before them, as in Russian. Many native speakers continue to ignore this reform.

Non-Slavic languages

These alphabets are generally modelled after Russian, but often bear striking differences, particularly when adapted for Caucasian languages. The first few of them were generated by Orthodox missionaries for the Finnic and Turkic peoples of Idel-Ural (Mari, Udmurt, Mordva, Chuvash, Kerashen Tatars) in 1870s. Later such alphabets were created for some of the Siberian and Caucasus peoples who had recently converted to Christianity. In the 1930s, some of those alphabets were switched to the Uniform Turkic Alphabet. All of the peoples of the former Soviet Union who had been using an Arabic or other Asian script (Mongolian script, etc.) also adopted Cyrillic alphabets, and during the Great Purge in the late 1930s, all of the Latin alphabets of the peoples of the Soviet Union were switched over to Cyrillic as well (the Baltic Republics were annexed later, and weren't affected by this change). The Abkhazian alphabet was switched to Georgian script, but after the death of Stalin, Abkhaz also adopted Cyrillic. The last language to adopt Cyrillic was the Gagauz language, which had used Greek script before.

In Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, the use of Cyrillic to represent local languages has often been a politically controversial issue since the collapse of the Soviet Union, as it evokes the era of Soviet rule and Russification. Some of Russia's peoples such as the Tatars have also tried to drop Cyrillic, but the move was halted under Russian law. A number of languages have switched from Cyrillic to other orthographies—either Roman‐based or returning to a former script.

Unlike the Latin alphabet, which is usually adapted to different languages by using additions to existing letters such as accents, umlauts, tildes and cedillas, the Cyrillic script is usually adapted by the creation of entirely new letter shapes. In some alphabets invented in the nineteenth century, such as Mari, Udmurt and Chuvash, umlauts and breves also were used.

Bulgarian and Bosnian Sephardim lacking Hebrew typefaces occasionally printed Judeo-Spanish in Cyrillic.[2]

Finno-Ugric and other Uralic languages

Uralic languages using the Cyrillic script (currently or in the past) include:

Karelian language

The first lines of the Book of Matthew in Karelian using the Cyrillic script, 1820

The Karelian language was written in the Cyrillic script in various forms until 1940 when publication in Karelian ceased in favor of Finnish, except for Tver Karelian, written in a Latin-derived alphabet. In 1989 publication began again in the other Karelian dialects and Latin-based alphabets were used, in some cases with the addition of Cyrillic letters such as ь.

Komi-Permyak language

The Komi-Permyak alphabet А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и І і Й й К к Л л М м Н н О о Ӧ ӧ П п Р р С с Т т У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Mari alphabets

Meadow Mari alphabet:

А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и
Й й К к Л л М м Н н Ҥ ҥ О о Ö ö П п Р р
С с Т т У у Ӱ ӱ Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ
Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Hill Mari alphabet

А а Ä ä Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з
И и Й й К к Л л М м Н н О о Ö ö П п Р р
С с Т т У у Ӱ ӱ Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ
Ъ ъ Ы ы Ӹ ӹ Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Iranian languages

Ossetian

The Ossetic language has officially used the Cyrillic script since 1937.

Ossetian Cyrillic script
А а Ӕ ӕ Б б В в Г г Гъ гъ Д д Дж дж
Дз дз Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й К к
Къ къ Л л М м Н н О о П п Пъ пъ Р р
С с Т т Тъ тъ У у Ф ф Х х Хъ хъ Ц ц
Цъ цъ Ч ч Чъ чъ Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь
Э э Ю ю Я я

Tajik

The Tajik language is written using a Cyrillic-based alphabet.

Tajik Cyrillic script
А а Б б Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й К к
Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Т т У у Ф ф Х х
Ч ч Ш ш Ъ ъ Э э Ю ю Я я Ғ ғ Ӣ ӣ Қ қ Ӯ ӯ Ҳ ҳ
Ҷ ҷ

Moldovan

The Moldovan language used the Cyrillic script until 1918 and again between 1946 and 1989. Nowadays, this alphabet is still official in the unrecognized republic of Transnistria.

Mongolian

The Mongolic languages include Khalkha (in Mongolia), Buryat (around Lake Baikal) and Kalmyk (northwest of the Caspian Sea). Khalkha Mongolian is also written with the Mongol vertical alphabet.

Overview

This table contains all the characters used.

Һһ is shown twice as it appears at two different location in Buryat and Kalmyk

Khalkha Аа Бб Вв Гг Дд Ее Ёё Жж Зз Ии Йй Кк Лл Мм Нн Оо
Buryat Аа Бб Вв Гг Дд Ее Ёё Жж Зз Ии Йй Лл Мм Нн Оо
Kalmyk Аа Әә Бб Вв Гг Һһ Дд Ее Жж Җҗ Зз Ии Йй Кк Лл Мм Нн Ңң Оо
Khalkha Өө Пп Рр Сс Тт Уу Үү Фф Хх Цц Чч Шш Щщ Ъъ Ыы Ьь Ээ Юю Яя
Buryat Өө Пп Рр Сс Тт Уу Үү Хх Һһ Цц Чч Шш Ыы Ьь Ээ Юю Яя
Kalmyk Өө Пп Рр Сс Тт Уу Үү Хх Цц Чч Шш Ьь Ээ Юю Яя

Khalkha

The Khalkha Mongolian alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й
К к Л л М м Н н О о Ө ө П п Р р С с Т т У у
Ү ү Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э
Ю ю Я я
  • В в = /w/
  • Е е = /jɛ/, /jœ/
  • Ё ё = /jo/
  • Ж ж = /dʒ/
  • З з = /dz/
  • Н н = /n-/, /-ŋ/
  • Ө ө = /œ/
  • Ү ү = /y/
  • Ы ы = /iː/ (after a hard consonant)
  • Ь ь = /ĭ/ (extra short)
  • Ю ю = /ju/, /jy/

The Cyrillic letters Кк, Фф and Щщ are not used in native Mongolian words, but only for Russian loans.

Buryat

The Buryat (буряад) Cyrillic script is similar to the Khalkha above, but Ьь indicates palatalization as in Russian. Buryat does not use Вв, Кк, Фф, Цц, Чч, Щщ or Ъъ in its native words.

The Buryat Mongolian alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й
Л л М м Н н О о Ө ө П п Р р С с Т т У у Ү ү
Х х Һ һ Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я
  • Е е = /jɛ/, /jœ/
  • Ё ё = /jo/
  • Ж ж = /dʒ/
  • Н н = /n-/, /-ŋ/
  • Ө ө = /œ/
  • Ү ү = /y/
  • Һ һ = /h/
  • Ы ы = /ei/, /iː/
  • Ю ю = /ju/, /jy/

Kalmyk

The Kalmyk (хальмг) Cyrillic script is similar to the Khalkha, but the letters Ээ, Юю and Яя appear only word-initially. In Kalmyk, long vowels are written double in the first syllable (нөөрин), but single in syllables after the first. Short vowels are omitted altogether in syllables after the first syllable (хальмг = /xaʎmaɡ/).

The Kalmyk Mongolian alphabet
А а Ә ә Б б В в Г г Һ һ Д д Е е Ж ж Җ җ З з
И и Й й К к Л л М м Н н Ң ң О о Ө ө П п Р р
С с Т т У у Ү ү Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Ь ь Э э Ю ю
Я я
  • Ә ә = /æ/
  • В в = /w/
  • Һ һ = /ɣ/
  • Е е = /ɛ/, /jɛ-/
  • Җ җ = /dʒ/
  • Ң ң = /ŋ/
  • Ө ө = /œ/
  • Ү ү = /y/

Northwest Caucasian languages

Living Northwest Caucasian languages are generally written using Cyrillic alphabets.

Abkhaz

Abkhaz is a Caucasian language, spoken in the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, Georgia.

The Abkhaz alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Гь гь Ҕ ҕ Ҕь ҕь Д д Дә дә Џ џ Џь џь
Е е Ҽ ҽ Ҿ ҿ Ж ж Жь жь Жә жә З з Ӡ ӡ Ӡә ӡә И и Й й
К к Кь кь Қ қ Қь қь Ҟ ҟ Ҟь ҟь Л л М м Н н О о Ҩ ҩ
П п Ҧ ҧ Р р С с Т т Тә тә Ҭ ҭ Ҭә ҭә У у Ф ф Х х
Хь хь Ҳ ҳ Ҳә ҳә Ц ц Цә цә Ҵ ҵ Ҵә ҵә Ч ч Ҷ ҷ Ш ш Шь шь
Шә шә Щ щ Ы ы

Northeast Caucasian languages

Living Northeast Caucasian languages, as well as Northwest Caucasian languages are generally written using Cyrillic alphabets.

Avar

Avar is a Caucasian language, spoken in the Republic of Dagestan, of the Russian Federation, where is coofficial together with other Caucasian languages like Dargwa, Lak, Lezgian and Tabassaran. All these alphabets, and others ones (Abaza, Adyghe, Chechen, Ingush, Kabardian) have an extra sign: palochka (Ӏ), which gives voiceless occlusive consonants its particular ejective sound.

The Avar Alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Гъ гъ Гь гь ГI гI Д д
Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й К к Къ къ
Кь кь КI кI КIкI кIкI Кк кк Л л М м Н н О о
П п Р р С с Т т ТI тI У у Ф ф Х х
Хх хх Хъ хъ Хь хь ХI хI Ц ц Цц цц ЦI цI ЦIцI цIцI
Ч ч ЧI чI ЧIчI чIчI Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь
Э э Ю ю Я я
  • В = /w/
  • гъ = /ʁ/
  • гь = /h/
  • гI = /ʕ/
  • къ = /qːʼ/
  • кI = /kʼ/
  • кь = /t͡ɬːʼ/
  • кIкI = /t͡ɬː/, is also written ЛI лI.
  • кк = /ɬ/, is also written Лъ лъ.
  • тI = /tʼ/
  • х = /χ/
  • хъ = /qː/
  • хь = /x/
  • хI = /ħ/
  • цI = /t͡sʼ/
  • чI = /t͡ʃʼ/
  • Double consonants, called "fortis", are pronounced longer than single consonants (called "lenis").

Turkic languages

Azerbaijani

The Cyrillic script was used for the Azerbaijani language from 1939 to 1991.

Bashkir

The Cyrillic script was used for the Bashkir language after the winter of 1938.

The Bashkir alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Ғ ғ Д д Ҙ ҙ Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з
И и Й й К к Ҡ ҡ Л л М м Н н Ң ң О о Ө ө П п
Р р С с Ҫ ҫ Т т У у Ү ү Ф ф Х х Һ һ Ц ц Ч ч
Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ә ә Ю ю Я я

Chuvash

The Cyrillic alphabet is used for the Chuvash language since the late 19th century, with some changes in 1938.

The Chuvash alphabet
А а Ӑ ӑ Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ӗ ӗ Ж ж З з
И и Й й К к Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Ҫ ҫ
Т т У у Ӳ ӳ Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы
Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Kazakh

Kazakh is also written with the Latin alphabet (in Turkey, but not in Kazakhstan), and modified Arabic alphabet (in the People's Republic of China, Iran and Afghanistan).

The Kazakh alphabet
А а Ә ә Б б В в Г г Ғ ғ Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з
И и Й й К к Қ қ Л л М м Н н Ң ң О о Ө ө П п
Р р С с Т т У у Ұ ұ Ү ү Ф ф Х х Һ һ Ц ц Ч ч
Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы İ і Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

The Cyrillic letters Вв, Ёё, Цц, Чч, Щщ, Ъъ, Ьь and Ээ are not used in native Kazakh words, but only for Russian loans.

Kyrgyz

Kyrgyz has also been written in Latin and in Arabic.

The Kyrgyz alphabet
А а Б б Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й К к
Л л М м Н н Ң ң О о Ө ө П п Р р С с Т т У у
Ү ү Х х Ч ч Ш ш Ы ы Э э Ю ю Я я

Tatar

Tatar has used Cyrillic since 1939, but the Russian Orthodox Tatar community has used Cyrillic since the 19th century. In 2000 a new Latin alphabet was adopted for Tatar, but it is used generally in the Internet.

Uzbek

The Cyrillic script is still used most often for the Uzbek language, although the government has adopted a version of the Latin alphabet to replace it. The deadline for making this transition has however been repeatedly changed. The latest deadline was supposed to be 2005, but was shifted once again a few more years. Some scholars are not convinced that the transition will be made at all.

The Uzbek Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й К к
Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Т т У у Ф ф Х х Ч ч
Ш ш Ъ ъ Э э Ю ю Я я Ў ў Қ қ Ғ ғ Ҳ ҳ
  • В в = /w/
  • Ж ж = /dʒ/
  • Ф ф = /ɸ/
  • Х х = /χ/
  • Ъ ъ = /ʔ/
  • Ў ў = /ø/
  • Қ қ = /q/
  • Ғ ғ = /ʁ/
  • Ҳ ҳ = /h/

Sino-Tibetan

Dungan language

The modern Dungan alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж Җ җ З з И и Й й
К к Л л М м Н н Ң ң О о П п Р р С с Т т У у Ў ў
Ү ү Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю
Я я
  • Letters in color orange are used only in Russian loanwords.

Paleosiberian languages

Cyrillic-based orthographies are in use for several of the Paleosiberian languages in Russia, including Itelmen, Koryak, Nivkh and Yukaghir.[3]

Summary table

Cyrillic alphabets
Common А   Б В Г   Д     Е     Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ       Ь     Ю Я
Slavic
Belarusian А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У Ў   Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш     Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Bulgarian А   Б В Г   Д     Е     Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ     Ь     Ю Я
Macedonian А   Б В Г   Д   Ѓ Е Ѕ   Ж   З   И   Ј     К   Л Љ М   Н Њ   О   П   Р   С   Т Ќ У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч Џ Ш
Russian А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Rusyn А   Б В Г Ґ Д     Е Є Ё Ж   З   И І Ы Ї Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ     Ѣ       Ю Я Ь Ъ
Serbian А   Б В Г   Д Ђ   Е     Ж   З   И   Ј     К   Л Љ М   Н Њ   О   П   Р   С   Т Ћ У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч Џ Ш
Ukrainian А   Б В Г Ґ Д     Е Є   Ж   З   И І   Ї Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ       Ь     Ю Я
Turkic
Bashkir А   Б В Г Ғ Д   Ҙ Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К Ҡ Л   М   Н Ң   О Ө П   Р   С Ҫ Т   У   Ү Ф Х Һ Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы   Ь Э Ә Ю Я
Chuvash А Ӑ Б В Г   Д     Е Ё Ӗ Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С Ҫ Т   У Ӳ   Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Kazakh А Ә Б В Г Ғ Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К Қ Л   М   Н Ң   О Ө П   Р   С   Т   У Ұ Ү Ф Х Һ Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы İ Ь Э   Ю Я
Kyrgyz А   Б   Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н Ң   О Ө П   Р   С   Т   У   Ү   Х       Ч   Ш     Ы     Э   Ю Я
Tatar А Ә Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж Җ З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н Ң   О Ө П   Р   С   Т   У   Ү Ф Х Һ Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Uzbek А   Б В Г Ғ Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К Қ Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У Ў   Ф Х Ҳ     Ч   Ш   Ъ       Э   Ю Я
Uralic
Komi-Permyak А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И І     Й К   Л   М   Н     О Ӧ П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Meadow Mari А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н Ҥ   О Ӧ П   Р   С   Т   У Ӱ   Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Hill Mari А Ä Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О Ӧ П   Р   С   Т   У Ӱ   Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ӹ Ь Э   Ю Я
Kildin Sami А Ӓ Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З Һ И   Й Ҋ Ј К   Л Ӆ М Ӎ Н Ӊ Ӈ О   П   Р Ҏ С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь Ҍ Э Ӭ Ю Я
Mongolian
Khalkha А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О Ө П   Р   С   Т   У   Ү Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Buryat А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й     Л   М   Н     О Ө П   Р   С   Т   У   Ү   Х Һ Ц   Ч   Ш     Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Kalmyk А Ә Б В Г Һ Д     Е     Ж Җ З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н Ң   О Ө П   Р   С   Т   У   Ү   Х   Ц   Ч   Ш         Ь Э   Ю Я
Iranian
Ossetian А Ӕ Б В Г Гъ Д Дж Дз Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К Къ Л   М   Н     О   П Пъ Р   С   Т Тъ У     Ф Х Хъ Ц Цъ Ч Чъ Ш Щ Ъ Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Tajik А   Б   Г Ғ Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И   Ӣ   Й К Қ Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У Ӯ   Ф Х Ҳ     Ч Ҷ Ш   Ъ       Э   Ю Я
Romance
Moldovan А   Б В Г   Д     Е     Ж Ӂ З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш     Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я
Sino-Tibetan
Dungan А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж Җ З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н Ң   О   П   Р   С   Т   У Ў Ү Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы   Ь Э   Ю Я

References

  1. ^ Senahid Halilović, Pravopis bosanskog jezika
  2. ^ Šmid (2002), pp. 113–24: "Es interesante el hecho que en Bulgaria se imprimieron unas pocas publicaciones en alfabeto cirílico búlgaro y en Grecia en alfabeto griego… Nezirović (1992: 128) anota que también en Bosnia se ha encontrado un documento en que la lengua sefardí está escrita en alfabeto cirilico." Translation: "It is an interesting fact that in Bulgaria a few [Sephardic] publications are printed in the Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet and in Greece in the Greek alphabet… Nezirović (1992:128) writes that in Bosnia a document has also been found in which the Sephardic language is written in the Cyrillic alphabet."
  3. ^ Minority languages of Russia on the Net – Paleoasian languages

See also


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