Cynicism (contemporary)


Cynicism (contemporary)

Cynicism is a distrust of other's apparent motives. It is a form of jaded negativity, and other times, realistic criticism or skepticism.[1] The term originally derives from an ancient Greece philosophers group called the Cynics who rejected all conventions, whether of religion, manners, housing, dress, or decency, advocating the pursuit of virtue in a simple and unmaterialistic lifestyle. By the 19th century, emphasis on the negative aspects of Cynic philosophy led to the modern understanding of cynicism to mean a disposition to disbelieve in the sincerity or goodness of human motives and actions. Modern cynicism, as a product of mass society, is a distrust toward professed ethical and social values, especially when there are high expectations concerning society, institutions and authorities which are unfulfilled. It can manifest itself as a result of frustration, disillusionment, and distrust perceived as due to organizations, authorities and other aspects of society, and thus "cynical" is sometimes used as if it were synonymous with "jaded", and the opposite of "optimistic". Other times, "cynicism" is the opposite of "naiveté".[1][2]

Contents

Rise of modern cynicism

The classical Greek and Roman Cynics regarded virtue as the only necessity for happiness. They sought to free themselves from conventions; become self-sufficient; and live only in accordance with nature. They rejected any conventional notions of happiness involving money, power, or fame, in the pursuit of virtuous, and thus happy, lives.[3] In rejecting conventional social values, they would criticise the types of behaviours, such as greed, which they viewed as causing suffering. Emphasis on this aspect of their teachings led, in the late 18th and early 19th century,[4] to the modern understanding of cynicism as "an attitude of scornful or jaded negativity, especially a general distrust of the integrity or professed motives of others."[5] This modern definition of cynicism is in marked contrast to the ancient philosophy, which emphasized "virtue and moral freedom in liberation from desire."[6]

Modern cynicism has been defined as an attitude of distrust toward ethical and social values and a rejection of the need to be socially involved.[7] It is often regarded as a product of mass society, but one where political engagement has no option but to be cynical.[8][9] Unlike mere depression, cynicism can be said to be more active; in his bestselling Critique of Cynical Reason, Peter Sloterdijk defined modern cynics as "borderline melancholics, who can keep their symptoms of depression under control and yet retain the ability to work, whatever might happen ... indeed, this is the essential point in modern cynicism: the ability of its bearers to work - in spite of anything that might happen."[10] David T. Wolf said that "Idealism is what precedes experience. Cynicism is what follows."[1] It can be said that modern cynicism is the opposite of optimism and a more accurate antonym is naiveté[2] which further supports this view.

Social cynicism results from excessively high expectations concerning society, institutions and authorities: unfulfilled expectations lead to disappointment, which releases feelings of disillusionment and betrayal.[11] In organizations, cynicism manifests itself as a general or specific attitude, characterized by frustration, hopelessness, disillusionment and distrust in regard to economic organizations, managers and/or other aspects of work.[12]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c David T. Wolf (1943 – ). "Quote Details: David T. Wolf: Idealism is what precedes...". The Quotations Page. http://www.quotationspage.com/quote/29731.html. Retrieved 2010-05-14. 
  2. ^ a b "Synonym for cynicism (n) – antonym for cynicism (n) – Thesaurus – MSN Encarta". Encarta.msn.com. http://encarta.msn.com/thesaurus_561570272/cynicism.html. Retrieved 2010-05-14. 
  3. ^ Julie Piering (2006-04-18). "Cynics". The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://www.iep.utm.edu/cynics. Retrieved 2010-05-31. 
  4. ^ David Mazella, (2007), The Making of Modern Cynicism, University of Virginia Press. ISBN 0-813-92615-7
  5. ^ Cynicism, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Fourth Edition. 2006. Houghton Mifflin Company.
  6. ^ Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy, page 231. Simon and Schuster
  7. ^ Luis E. Navia, 1999, The Adventure of Philosophy, page 141.
  8. ^ "Cynicism promotes and is a product of mass society. It makes economic, political, and cultural domination invisible, and casts serious doubts on cultural and political alternatives." Jeffrey C. Goldfarb, 1991, The Cynical Society: The Culture of Politics and the Politics of Culture in American Life, page 30. University of Chicago Press
  9. ^ "cynicism appears in the space left empty by mass culture's retreat from politics itself. Political engagement has no option, apparently, but to be cynical..." Timothy Bewes, 1997, Cynicism and Postmodernity, page 3. Verso
  10. ^ Peter Sloterdijk, (1987), Critique of Cynical Reason, page 5
  11. ^ Donald L. Kanter and Philip H. Mirvis, (1989). The Cynical Americans - Living and Working in an Age of Discontent and Disillusion. San Francisco
  12. ^ Andersson, L. M.; Bateman, T. S. (1997). "Cynicism in the workplace: Some causes and effects". Journal of Organizational Behavior 18: 449–469. 

Further reading

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cynicism — Cynic redirects here. For the modern understanding of the word cynicism , see Cynicism (contemporary). For other uses, see Cynic (disambiguation). Statue of an unknown Cynic philosopher from the Capitoline Museum in Rome. This statue is a Roman… …   Wikipedia

  • Contemporary philosophy — is the present period in the history of Western philosophy beginning at the end of the 19th century with the professionalization of the discipline and the rise of analytic and continental philosophy. The phrase contemporary philosophy is a piece… …   Wikipedia

  • Contemporary Islamic philosophy — Main article: Islamic philosophy Aziz Abbassi’s English translation found in the following pages was made from the French Introduction à la critique de la raison Arabe, translated from Arabic to French by Ahmed Mahfoud and Marc Geoffroy,… …   Wikipedia

  • Cynic (disambiguation) — Cynicism was a school of ancient Greek philosophy. Cynicism (contemporary) refers to the modern usage of the word post 19th century Cynic may also refer to: Cynic (band), a progressive/technical death metal band from Miami, Florida The Cynics, a… …   Wikipedia

  • Compassion fatigue — (also known as a secondary traumatic stress disorder) is a condition characterised by a gradual lessening of compassion over time. It is common among trauma victims and individuals that work directly with trauma victims. It was first diagnosed in …   Wikipedia

  • Philosophical realism — Contemporary philosophical realism is the belief that our reality, or some aspect of it, is ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. Realism may be spoken of with respect to other minds, the past,… …   Wikipedia

  • literature — /lit euhr euh cheuhr, choor , li treuh /, n. 1. writings in which expression and form, in connection with ideas of permanent and universal interest, are characteristic or essential features, as poetry, novels, history, biography, and essays. 2.… …   Universalium

  • Critique of Cynical Reason — is a book by the German philosopher Peter Sloterdijk, published in 1983 in two volumes under the German title Kritik der zynischen Vernunft. It discusses philosophical Cynicism and popular cynicism as a societal phenomenon in European history. In …   Wikipedia

  • Diogenes of Sinope — (Διογένης ὁ Σινωπεύς) Diogenes by John William Waterhouse, depicting his lamp, tub, and diet of onions Full name Diogenes of Sinope (Διογένης ὁ Σινωπεύς) Born …   Wikipedia

  • French literature — Introduction       the body of written works in the French language produced within the geographic and political boundaries of France. The French language was one of the five major Romance languages to develop from Vulgar Latin as a result of the …   Universalium


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.