Criticism of multiculturalism


Criticism of multiculturalism

Criticism of multiculturalism questions the multicultural ideal of the co-existence of distinct ethnic cultures within one nation-state. Multiculturalism is a particular subject of debate in certain European nations that were once associated with a single, homogeneous, national cultural identity.[1][2][3] Critics of multiculturalism argue for assimilation of different ethnic groups to a single national identity.

Contents

United States

The Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act in 1921, followed by the Immigration Act of 1924. The Immigration Act of 1924 was aimed at further restricting the Southern and Eastern Europeans, especially Italians and Slavs, who had begun to enter the country in large numbers beginning in the 1890s.[4] Most of the European refugees fleeing the Nazis and World War II were barred from coming to the United States.[5]

In the 1980s and 1990s many criticisms were expressed, from both the left and right. Criticisms come from a wide variety of perspectives, but predominantly from the perspective of liberal individualism, from American conservatives concerned about shared traditional values, and from a national unity perspective.

The liberal-feminist critique is related to the liberal and libertarian critique, since it is concerned with what happens inside the cultural groups. In her 1999 essay, later expanded into an anthology, "Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?" the feminist and political theorist Susan Okin argues that a concern for the preservation of cultural diversity should not overshadow the discriminatory nature of gender roles in many traditional minority cultures, that, at the very least, "culture" should not be used as an excuse for rolling back the women's rights movement.[6]

A prominent criticism in the US, later echoed in Europe, Canada and Australia, was that multiculturalism undermined national unity, hindered social integration and cultural assimilation, and led to the fragmentation of society into several ethnic factions (Balkanization).[7]

In 1991, Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., a former advisor to the Kennedy and other US administrations and Pulitzer Prize winner, published a book criticial of multiculturalism with the title The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society.

In his 1991 work, Illiberal Education,[8] Dinesh D'Souza argues that the entrenchment of multiculturalism in American universities undermined the universalist values that liberal education once attempted to foster. In particular, he was disturbed by the growth of ethnic studies programs (e.g., black studies).

Samuel P. Huntington, political scientist and author, known for his Clash of Civilizations theory, has described multiculturalism as "basically an anti-Western ideology." According to Huntington, multiculturalism has "attacked the identification of the United States with Western civilization, denied the existence of a common American culture, and promoted racial, ethnic, and other subnational cultural identities and groupings."[9]

Criticism of multiculturalism in the US was not always synonymous with opposition to immigration. Some politicians did address both themes, notably Patrick Buchanan, who in 1993 described multiculturalism as "an across-the-board assault on our Anglo-American heritage."[citation needed] Buchanan and other paleoconservatives argue that multiculturalism is the ideology of the modern managerial state, an ongoing regime that remains in power, regardless of what political party holds a majority. It acts in the name of abstract goals, such as equality or positive rights, and uses its claim of moral superiority, power of taxation and wealth redistribution to keep itself in power.[citation needed]

Multiculturalism has also been attacked through satire, such as the following proposition by John Derbyshire.

The Diversity Theorem: Groups of people from anywhere in the world, mixed together in any numbers and proportions whatsoever, will eventually settle down as a harmonious society, appreciating—nay, celebrating!—their differences... which will of course soon disappear entirely.

This theorem is held to be false by Derbyshire and other paleoconservatives.[10]

Lawrence Auster, another conservative critic of multiculturalism, has argued that although multiculturalism is meant to promote the value of each culture, the reality is that its real tendency has been to undermine America's traditional majority culture. In Auster's view, multiculturalism has tended to "downgrade our national culture while raising the status and power of other cultures."

He writes:

The formal meaning of “diversity,” “cultural equity,” “gorgeous mosaic” and so on is a society in which many different cultures will live together in perfect equality and peace (i.e., a society that has never existed and never will exist); the real meaning of these slogans is that the power of the existing mainstream society to determine its own destiny shall be drastically reduced while the power of other groups, formerly marginal or external to that society, will be increased. In other words the U.S. must, in the name of diversity, abandon its particularity while the very groups making that demand shall hold on to theirs.[11]

According to Auster:

Since multiculturalism claims to stand for the sanctity and worth of each culture, the discovery that its real tendency is to dismantle the existing, European-based culture of the United States should have instantly discredited it.[12]

Another critic of multiculturalism is the political theorist Brian Barry. In his 2002 book Culture and Equality: An Egalitarian Critique of Multiculturalism,[13] he argues that some forms of multiculturalism can divide people, although they need to unite in order to fight for social justice.[citation needed]

Kevin B. MacDonald, a professor of psychology at California State University, Long Beach, has argued in his trilogy of books on Judaism that Jews have been prominent as main ideologues and promoters of multiculturalism in an attempt to end anti-semitism.[14] MacDonald considers multiculturalism to be dangerous to the West, concluding in his Jack London Literary Prize acceptance speech:

[Given] that some ethnic groups—especially ones with high levels of ethnocentrism and mobilization—will undoubtedly continue to function as groups far into the foreseeable future, unilateral renunciation of ethnic loyalties by some groups means only their surrender and defeat—the Darwinian dead end of extinction. The future, then, like the past, will inevitably be a Darwinian competition in which ethnicity plays a very large role.

The alternative faced by Europeans throughout the Western world is to place themselves in a position of enormous vulnerability in which their destinies will be determined by other peoples, many of whom hold deep historically conditioned hatreds toward them. Europeans’ promotion of their own displacement is the ultimate foolishness—an historical mistake of catastrophic proportions.[15]

Finally, multiculturalism and cultural relativism have been fiercely attacked by American social thinker Lloyd deMause, founder of psychohistory. DeMause's central argument is that, in the past, the astronomical infanticidal ratios among the tribes gives the lie to the claim that the diverse cultures are basically equal. DeMause wrote: "The best estimate I could make from the statistics was that in antiquity about half of all children born were killed by their caretakers, declining to about a third by later medieval times and to a very small percentage by the seventeenth century in Western Europe and America."[16]

Diversity and Social Trust

Harvard professor of political science Robert D. Putnam conducted a nearly decade long study how diversity affects social trust.[17] He surveyed 26,200 people in 40 American communities, finding that when the data were adjusted for class, income and other factors, the more racially diverse a community is, the greater the loss of trust. People in diverse communities "don’t trust the local mayor, they don’t trust the local paper, they don’t trust other people and they don’t trust institutions," writes Putnam.[18] In the presence of such ethnic diversity, Putnam maintains that

[W]e hunker down. We act like turtles. The effect of diversity is worse than had been imagined. And it’s not just that we don’t trust people who are not like us. In diverse communities, we don’t trust people who do look like us.[17]

Ethologist Frank Salter writes:

Relatively homogeneous societies invest more in public goods, indicating a higher level of public altruism. For example, the degree of ethnic homogeneity correlates with the government's share of gross domestic product as well as the average wealth of citizens. Case studies of the United States...find that multi-ethnic societies are less charitable and less able to cooperate to develop public infrastructure..... A recent multi-city study of municipal spending on public goods in the United States found that ethnically or racially diverse cities spend a smaller portion of their budgets and less per capita on public services than do the more homogenous cities.[19]

Canada

Approximately 20% of today's Canadian citizens were born outside Canada,[20] recent immigrants are largely concentrated in the cities of Vancouver, Montreal and Toronto. The multicultural heritage of Canadians was officially recognized in the Constitution Act, 1982 by Prime Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau, with the introduction of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which included section 27, stating that the "Charter shall be interpreted in a manner consistent with the preservation and enhancement of the multicultural heritage of Canadians."[21]

Criticism from Quebec

To many Quebecers, despite an official national bilingualism policy, multiculturalism threatens to reduce them to just another ethnic group. Quebec has tended to promote interculturalism, welcoming people of all origins while insisting that they integrate into Quebec's French-speaking majority culture. In 2008, a Consultation Commission on Accommodation Practices Related to Cultural Differences, headed by sociologist Gerard Bouchard and philosopher Charles Taylor, recognized that Quebec is a de facto pluralist society, but that the Canadian multiculturalism model "does not appear well suited to conditions in Quebec".[22] Four reasons were given by the commissioners against multiculturalism for Quebec society: a) anxiety over language is not an important factor in English Canada; b) minority insecurity is not found there; c) there is no longer a majority ethnic group in Canada (citizen of British origin account for 34% of the population, whereas citizen of French-Canadian origin form 79% of Quebec's population); d) less concern for the preservation of a founding cultural tradition is found in English Canada. Interculturalism, the commissioners pleaded, "seeks to reconcile ethnocultural diversity with the continuity of the French-speaking core and the preservation of the social link".[22]

Germany

In October 2010, Angela Merkel told a meeting of younger members of her conservative Christian Democratic Union (CDU) party at Potsdam, near Berlin, that attempts to build a multicultural society in Germany had "utterly failed",[23] stating: "The concept that we are now living side by side and are happy about it does not work".[24] She continued to say that immigrants should integrate and adopt Germany's culture and values. This has added to a growing debate within Germany[25] on the levels of immigration, its effect on Germany and the degree to which Muslim immigrants have integrated into German society.

Australia

The response to multiculturalism in Australia has been extremely varied, with a recent wave of criticism against it in the past decade. An anti-immigration party, the One Nation Party, was formed by Pauline Hanson in the late 1990s. The party enjoyed significant electoral success for a while, most notably in its home state of Queensland, but is now electorally marginalized. One Nation called for the abolition of multiculturalism on the grounds that it represented "a threat to the very basis of the Australian culture, identity and shared values", arguing that there was "no reason why migrant cultures should be maintained at the expense of our shared, national culture.".[26]

A Federal Government proposal in 2006 to introduce a compulsory citizenship test, which would assess English skills and knowledge of Australian values, sparked renewed debate over the future of multiculturalism in Australia. Andrew Robb, then Parliamentary Secretary for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, told a conference in November 2006 that some Australians worried the term "multicultural" had been transformed by interest groups into a philosophy that put "allegiances to original culture ahead of national loyalty, a philosophy which fosters separate development, a federation of ethnic cultures, not one community". He added: "A community of separate cultures fosters a rights mentality, rather than a responsibilities mentality. It is divisive. It works against quick and effective integration."[27] The Australian citizenship test commenced in October 2007 for all new citizens between the ages of 18 and 60.[28]

In January 2007 the Howard Government removed the word "multicultural" from the name of the Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, changing its name to the Department of Immigration and Citizenship.

Intellectual critique

The earliest academic critics of multiculturalism in Australia were the philosophers Lachlan Chipman[29] and Frank Knopfelmacher,[30] sociologist Tanya Birrell[31] and the political scientist Raymond Sestito.[32] Chipman and Knopfelmacher were concerned with threats to social cohesion, while Birrell's concern was that multiculturalism obscures the social costs associated with large scale immigration that fall most heavily on the most recently arrived and unskilled immigrants. Sestito's arguments were based on the role of political parties. He argued that political parties were instrumental in pursuing multicultural policies, and that these policies would put strain on the political system and would not promote better understanding in the Australian community.[33][34]

It was the high-profile historian Geoffrey Blainey, however, who first achieved mainstream recognition for the anti-multiculturalist cause when he wrote that multiculturalism threatened to transform Australia into a "cluster of tribes". In his 1984 book All for Australia, Blainey criticized multiculturalism for tending to "emphasize the rights of ethnic minorities at the expense of the majority of Australians" and also for tending to be "anti-British", even though "people from the United Kingdom and Ireland form the dominant class of pre-war immigrants and the largest single group of post-war immigrants."

According to Blainey, such a policy, with its "emphasis on what is different and on the rights of the new minority rather than the old majority," was unnecessarily creating division and threatened national cohesion. He argued that "the evidence is clear that many multicultural societies have failed and that the human cost of the failure has been high", and warned that "we should think very carefully about the perils of converting Australia into a giant multicultural laboratory for the assumed benefit of the peoples of the world."[35] Blainey wrote "For the millions of Australians who have no other nation to fall back upon, multiculturalism is almost an insult. It is divisive. It threatens social cohesion. It could, in the long-term, also endanger Australia's military security because it sets up enclaves which in a crisis could appeal to their own homelands for help."

Blainey remained a persistent critic of multiculturalism into the 1990s, denouncing multiculturalism as "morally, intellectually and economically ... a sham".

Following the upsurge of support for the One Nation Party in 1996, Lebanese-born Australian anthropologist Ghassan Hage published a critique in 1997 of Australian multiculturalism in the book White Nation.[36]

Japan

Japanese society, with its ideology of homogeneity, has traditionally rejected any need to recognize ethnic differences in Japan, even as such claims have been rejected by such ethnic minorities as the Ainu.[37] Former Japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso has called Japan a “one race” nation.[38]

In 2005, a report by Doudou Diène, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights, expressed concerns about racism in Japan and stated that the government needed to recognize the depth of the problem.[39][40] Diène's nine-day investigation concluded that racial discrimination and xenophobia in Japan primarily affects three groups: national minorities, Latin Americans of Japanese descent, mainly Japanese Brazilians, and foreigners from other Asian countries.[41] For example, according to the UNHCR, in 1999 Japan accepted just 16 refugees for resettlement, while the United States took in 85,010, and New Zealand, which has a much smaller population than Japan, accepted 1,140. Between 1981, when Japan ratified the U.N. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, and 2002, Japan recognized only 305 persons as refugees.[42][43]

South Korea

South Korea is among the world's most ethnically homogeneous nations.[44] Historically, the country has tried hard to keep interaction between Koreans and non-Koreans as minimal as possible, forming a very distinct society. Koreans have traditionally valued an "unmixed blood" as the most important feature of Korean identity, often more important than their own lives[citation needed]. Most Koreans tend to equate nationality or citizenship with membership in a single, homogeneous ethnic group sharing the same "blood" and history. A common language and culture are also viewed as important elements in Korean identity.

Those who do not share such features are often rejected by the Korean society or face discrimination.[45] This includes Koreans themselves who may not share one of the elements of Korean identity. For example, Koreans brought up overseas often face discrimination by Koreans living in South Korea upon their return who may not speak the language properly or have developed a different culture. North Koreans who immigrated to South Korea, despite sharing the same Korean blood and history, face discrimination as they do not share all of the elements of Korean identity, such as speaking the Korean language with an accent. Even South Koreans brought up in rural areas, who may speak with a distinct accent, face some form of discrimination by those in the cities of South Korea. Racial discrimination is not uncommon in South Korea and is sometimes seen as socially acceptable among South Koreans.

The idea of multiracial or multiethnic nations, like Canada or the United States, is opposed in general and strikes many Koreans as odd or even contradictory. Relationships between Koreans and non-Koreans may be viewed skeptically by some South Koreans and often condemned. In particular, marriage between Koreans and Japanese is seen as undesirable and this can be attributed to the strong anti-Japanese sentiment in Korea. The term "Kosian", referring to someone who has a Korean father and a non-Korean mother, is considered offensive by some who prefer to identify themselves or their children as Korean.[46][47] Moreover, the Korean office of Amnesty International has claimed that the word "Kosian" represents racial discrimination.[48] According to Pearl S. Buck International, there are approximately 30,000 Kosians in South Korea.[49] Kosian children, like those of other mixed-race backgrounds in Korea, often face discrimination.[50]

The Netherlands

Legal philosopher Paul Cliteur attacked multiculturalism in his book The Philosophy of Human Rights.[51] Cliteur rejects all political correctness on the issue: Western culture, the Rechtsstaat (rule of law), and human rights are superior to non-Western culture and values.[citation needed] They are the product of the Enlightenment. Cliteur sees non-Western cultures not as merely different but as anachronistic. He sees multiculturalism primarily as an unacceptable ideology of cultural relativism, which would lead to acceptance of barbaric practices, including those brought to the Western World by immigrants.[citation needed] Cliteur lists infanticide, torture, slavery, oppression of women, homophobia, racism, anti-Semitism, gangs, female genital cutting, discrimination by immigrants, suttee, and the death penalty. Cliteur compares multiculturalism to the moral acceptance of Auschwitz, Stalin, Pol Pot and the Ku Klux Klan.[citation needed]

United Kingdom

With considerable immigration after the Second World War making the UK an increasingly ethnically and racially diverse state, race relations policies have been developed that broadly reflect the principles of multiculturalism, although there is no official national commitment to the concept.[52][53][54] This model has faced criticism on the grounds that it has failed to sufficiently promote social integration,[55][56][57] although some commentators have questioned the dichotomy between diversity and integration that this critique presumes.[56] It has been argued that the UK government has since 2001, moved away from policy characterised by multiculturalism and towards the assimilation of minority communities.[58]

Opposition has grown to state sponsored multicultural policies, with some believing that it has been a costly failure.[59][60][61][62] Critics of the policy come from many parts of British society. There is now a debate in the UK over whether explicit multiculturalism and "social cohesion and inclusion" are in fact mutually exclusive.[63] In the wake of the July 7 Bombings 2005 David Davis, the opposition Conservative shadow home secretary, called on the government to scrap its "outdated" policy of multiculturalism.[64][65] The British columnist Leo Mckinstry said of multiculturalism, "Britain is now governed by a suicide cult bent on wiping out any last vestige of nationhood" and called it a "profoundly disturbing social experiment".[66] The head of the Commission for Racial Equality, who has called for an official end to multicultural policy and has criticised "politically correct liberals for their “misguided” pandering to the ethnic lobby".[67]

In the May 2004 edition of Prospect Magazine, the editor David Goodhart temporarily couched the debate on multiculturalism in terms of whether a modern welfare state and a "good society" is sustainable as its citizens become increasingly diverse.[68] In November 2005 John Sentamu, the Archbishop of York, stated, "Multiculturalism has seemed to imply, wrongly for me: let other cultures be allowed to express themselves but do not let the majority culture at all tell us its glories, its struggles, its joys, its pains."[69] The Bishop of Rochester Michael Nazir-Ali was also critical, calling for the Church to regain a prominent position in public life and blaming the "newfangled and insecurely founded doctrine of multiculturalism" for entrenching the segregation of communities.[70]

Whilst minority cultures are allowed to remain distinct, British culture and traditions are sometimes perceived as exclusive and adapted accordingly, often without the consent of the local population.[citation needed] Recent examples include the cancellation of public fires[who?][71] (associated with Guy Fawkes Night), which the local council said was for environmental reasons only, but critics believed multiculturalism played a part. Also, there was the proposed "multicultural reinterpretation" of the York Mystery Plays[72] and the Birmingham "Winterval"[73] controversy.

In August 2006, the community and local government secretary Ruth Kelly made a speech perceived as signalling the end of multiculturalism as official policy.[74] In November 2006, Prime Minister Tony Blair stated that Britain has certain "essential values" and that these are a "duty". He did not reject multiculturalism outright, but he included British heritage among the essential values:[75]

"When it comes to our essential values — belief in democracy, the rule of law, tolerance, equal treatment for all, respect for this country and its shared heritage — then that is where we come together, it is what we hold in common."

New Labour and multiculturalism

Renewed controversy on the subject came to the fore when Andrew Neather — a former adviser to Jack Straw, Tony Blair and David Blunkett — claimed that Labour ministers had a hidden agenda in allowing mass immigration into Britain, to "change the face of Britain forever".This alleged conspiracy has become known by the sobriquet "Neathergate".

According to Neather, who was present at closed meetings in 2000, a secret Government report called for mass immigration to change Britain's cultural make-up, and that “mass immigration was the way that the government was going to make the UK truly multicultural”. Neather went on to say that “the policy was intended — even if this wasn’t its main purpose — to rub the right’s nose in diversity and render their arguments out of date”.[76][77]

This was later affirmed after a request through the freedom of information act secured access to the full version of a 2000 government report on immigration that had been heavily edited on a previous release.[78] The Conservative party demanded an independent inquiry into the issue and alleged that the document showed that Labour had overseen a deliberate open-door ­policy on immigration to boost multi-culturalism for political ends.

In February 2011 Prime Minister David Cameron stated that the "doctrine of state multiculturalism" (promoted by the previous Labour government) has failed and will be no longer be state policy.[79] He stated that the UK needed a stronger national identity and signalled a tougher stance on groups promoting Islamist extremism.[80]

Yugoslavia

Before World War II, major tensions arose from the first, monarchist Yugoslavia's multi-ethnic makeup and absolute political and demographic domination of the Serbs. The Yugoslav wars that took place between 1991 and 2001 were characterized by bitter ethnic conflicts between the peoples of the former Yugoslavia, mostly between Serbs on the one side and Croats, Bosnians or Albanians on the other; but also between Bosniaks and Croats in Bosnia and Macedonians and Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia.

The conflict had its roots in various underlying political, economic and cultural problems, as well as long-standing ethnic and religious tensions.

Multiculturalism and Islam

In an article in the Hudson Review, Bruce Bawer, writes about what he sees as a developing distaste toward the idea and policies of multiculturalism in Europe, especially, as stated earlier, in the Netherlands, Denmark, United Kingdom, Norway, Sweden, Austria and Germany. The belief behind this backlash on multiculturalism is that it creates friction within society.[81]

See also

Assimilation:

Further reading

  • Allan, Lyle (1983), 'A Selective Annotated Bibliography of Multiculturalism', in Social Alternatives (University of Queensland), Vol.3, No.3, July, pages 65–72.
  • Blainey, Geoffrey (1984), All For Australia, Methuen Haynes, North Ryde, New South Wales. ISBN 0-454-00828-7
  • Clancy, Greg (2006), The Conspiracies of Multiculturalism, Sunda Publications, Gordon, New South Wales. ISBN 0-9581564-1-7
  • Hirst, John (2005), Sense and Nonsense in Australian History, Black Inc. Agenda, Melbourne, Victoria. ISBN 9780977594931
  • Putnam, Robert D., "E Pluribus Unum: Diversity and Community in the Twenty-first Century -- The 2006 Johan Skytte Prize," Scandinavian Political Studies 30 (2), June 2007.
  • Sailer, Steve, "Fragmented Future: Multiculturalism doesn’t make vibrant communities but defensive ones," American Conservative, Jan. 15, 2007.
  • Salter, Frank, On Genetic Interests: Family, Ethnicity, and Humanity in an Age of Mass Migration, 2007, ISBN 1-41280-596-1.

References

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  2. ^ spiked-politics | Article | The trouble with multiculturalism
  3. ^ Report attacks multiculturalism
  4. ^ Old fears over new faces, The Seattle Times, September 21, 2006
  5. ^ U S Constitution - The Immigration Act of 1924
  6. ^ Susan Okin. "Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?", Boston Review 1999.
  7. ^ A diversity divide[dead link]
  8. ^ D'Souza, Dinesh (1991). Illiberal Education: The Politics of Race and Sex on Campus. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-684-86384-7. 
  9. ^ Huntington, Samuel P., The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1996 ISBN 0-684-84441-9
  10. ^ John Derbyshire on Islam on National Review Online
  11. ^ Auster, L. (1990). The Path to National Suicide, Charles Town, West Virginia: Old Line Press (ISBN 0-936247-12-6)
  12. ^ Lawrence Auster, "How the Multicultural Ideology Captured America," The Social Contract, Spring 2004.
  13. ^ Barry, Brian M. (2002). Culture and Equality: An Egalitarian Critique of Multiculturalism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01001-9. 
  14. ^ MacDonald, Kevin B. (1998, 2002). The Culture of Critique. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998. Bloomington, IN: 1stbooks Library, 2002. ISBN 0-275-96113-3
  15. ^ Can the Jewish Model Help the West Survive
  16. ^ deMause, Lloyd (1988). "On Writing Childhood History". The Journal of Psychohistory. 16 (2) (Fall). http://www.psychohistory.com/childhood/writech1.htm. 
  17. ^ a b Putnam, Robert D., "E Pluribus Unum: Diversity and Community in the Twenty-first Century -- The 2006 Johan Skytte Prize," Scandinavian Political Studies 30 (2), June 2007.
  18. ^ Sailer, Steve, "Fragmented Future," American Conservative, Jan. 15, 2007.
  19. ^ Salter, Frank, On Genetic Interests, pg.146.
  20. ^ prepared by (2007) (PDF). OECD Factbook 2007. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. pp. 252–253. ISBN 92-64-02946-X. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/15/37/38336539.pdf. 
  21. ^ Constitutional Act, 1982
  22. ^ a b Layout 1
  23. ^ "Merkel says German multicultural society has failed". BBC News. 2010-10-17. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-11559451. 
  24. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20101017/wl_afp/germanymuslimreligionimmigration
  25. ^ "Germany's charged immigration debate". BBC News. 2010-10-17. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-11532699. 
  26. ^ One Nation's Immigration, Population and Social Cohesion Policy 1998
  27. ^ The Courier Mail: National identity in spotlight, November 28, 2006 [1].
  28. ^ Department of Immigration and Citizenship: Overview of the citizenship test [2]
  29. ^ Lachlan Chipman (1980), 'The Menace of Multiculturalism,' in Quadrant, Vol. 24, No. 10, October, pp.3-6
  30. ^ Frank Knopfelmacher (1982), 'The case against multi-culturalism,' in Robert Manne (ed.), The New Conservatism in Australia, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Victoria, pages 40-66
  31. ^ Tanya Birrell (1978), 'Migration and the Dilemmas of Multiculturalism,' in Robert Birrell and Colin Hay (eds.), The Immigration Issue in Australia, A Sociological Symposium, Department of Sociology, School of Social Sciences, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, pages 132-146
  32. ^ Raymond Sestito (1982), The Politics of Multiculturalism, The Centre for Independent Studies, Sydney, New South Wales (ISBN 0-949769-06-1)
  33. ^ Ibid, pages 30-36
  34. ^ Lyle Allan (1983), 'A Selective Annotated Bibliography of Multiculturalism', in Social Alternatives (University of Queensland), Vol.3, No.3, July, page 68
  35. ^ Blainey, G. (1984). All For Australia, North Ryde, NSW: Methuen Haynes (ISBN 0-454-00828-7)
  36. ^ "Hage, G. (1997) White Nation: Fantasies of White supremacy in a multicultural society, Annandale, NSW: Pluto Press (ISBN 1-86403-056-9)"
  37. ^ "Abe fine with 'homogeneous' remark". Kyodo News. 2007-02-27. http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20070227a9.html. Retrieved 2009-08-10. 
  38. ^ Aso says Japan is nation of 'one race'
  39. ^ "Press Conference by Mr Doudou Diène, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights". http://www.unic.or.jp/new/pr05-057-E.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-05. 
  40. ^ "Japan racism 'deep and profound". BBC News (2005-07-11). Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  41. ^ "'Overcoming "Marginalization" and "Invisibility"', International Movement against all forms of Discrimination and Racism" (PDF). http://www.imadr.org/en/pdf/NGOJointStatement.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-05. 
  42. ^ Japan's refugee policy
  43. ^ Questioning Japan's 'Closed Country' Policy on Refugees
  44. ^ Korea's ethnic nationalism is a source of both pride and prejudice, according to Gi-Wook Shin
  45. ^ The Life Instability of Intermarried Japanese Women in Korea, Eung-Ryul Kim (Korea University and University of Southern California, The Center for Multiethnic and Transnational Studies)
  46. ^ Myth of Pure-Blood Nationalism Blocks Multi-Ethnic Society in The Korean Times[dead link]
  47. ^ "'???'(Kosian) ?? ??! (Do not use Kosian)". Naver news (Korean language) February 23, 2006. http://news.naver.com/news/read.php?mode=LSS2D&office_id=079&article_id=0000076691&section_id=102&section_id2=257&menu_id=102. Retrieved 2006-03-04.  See English-language reaction on The Marmot's Hole
  48. ^ "Do not use the new word Kosian[dead link]," AMNESTY Internation South Korea Section, 2006, 07.
  49. ^ "Ward's Win Brings 'Race' to the Fore". Korea Times February 9, 2006. http://times.hankooki.com/lpage/nation/200602/kt2006020917515310510.htm. Retrieved 2006-03-04. [dead link]
  50. ^ "For mixed-race children in Korea, happiness is too far away". Yonhap News. http://english.yna.co.kr/Engnews/20060212/480100000020060212100027E2.html. Retrieved 2006-03-04. 
  51. ^ Paul Cliteur. De filosofie van mensenrechten. Nijmegen 1999.
  52. ^ Favell, Adrian (1998). Philosophies of Integration: Immigration and the Idea of Citizenship in France and Britain. Basingstoke: Palgrave. ISBN 0312176090. 
  53. ^ Kymlicka, Will (2007). Multicultural Odysseys: Navigating the New International Politics of Diversity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 72. ISBN 0199280401. 
  54. ^ Panayi, Panikos (2004). "The evolution of multiculturalism in Britain and Germany: An historical survey". Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 25 (5/6): 466–480. doi:10.1080/01434630408668919. 
  55. ^ "Race chief wants integration push". BBC News. 3 April 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/3596047.stm. Retrieved 7 October 2010. 
  56. ^ a b "So what exactly is multiculturalism?". BBC News. 5 April 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/3600791.stm. Retrieved 7 October 2010. 
  57. ^ "Davis attacks UK multiculturalism". BBC News. 3 August 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/4740633.stm. Retrieved 7 October 2010. 
  58. ^ Bam-Hutchison, June. "Race, faith, and UK policy: A brief history". Institute for the Public Understanding of the Past, University of York. http://www.york.ac.uk/ipup/projects/raceandfaith/discussion/bam-hutchison.html. Retrieved 7 October 2010. 
  59. ^ How Islam has killed multiculturalism
  60. ^ Multiculturalism has failed but tolerance can save us
  61. ^ Why the dogma of multiculturalism has failed Britain
  62. ^ Wynne-Jones, Jonathan; Sawer, Patrick (2008-01-13). "Muslims must do more to integrate, says poll". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1575404/Muslims-must-do-more-to-integrate-says-poll.html. Retrieved 2010-04-30. 
  63. ^ The Telegraph
  64. ^ George Jones (4 August 2005). "Multicultural Britain is not working, says Tory chief". London: Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1495397/Multicultural-Britain-is-not-working-says-Tory-chief.html. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  65. ^ "Davis attacks UK multiculturalism". BBC News. 3 August 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/4740633.stm. 
  66. ^ Leo McKinstry
  67. ^ Trevor Phillips
  68. ^ Too diverse?
  69. ^ Multiculturalism has betrayed the English, Archbishop says
  70. ^ Michael Nazir-Ali "Breaking Faith With Britain", Standpoint, June 2008.
  71. ^ Killjoy council scraps bonfire night party...to help save the planet, Daily Mail
  72. ^ Medieval play threatened by 21st century curse - of political correctness, Daily Mail.
  73. ^ Winterval gets frosty reception, BBC UK.
  74. ^ Ruth Kelly's speech on integration and cohesion, Guardian.
  75. ^ Conform to our society, says PM, Guardian, 8 December 2006.
  76. ^ Labour’s secret scheme to build multicultural Britain
  77. ^ 'Dishonest' Blair and Straw accused over secret plan for multicultural UK
  78. ^ Labour's 'secret plan' to lure migrants: The Government has been accused of pursuing a secret policy of encouraging mass immigration for its own political ends, The Telegraph
  79. ^ Muslims must embrace our British values, David Cameron says. The Daily Telegraph
  80. ^ State multiculturalism has failed, says David Cameron, BBC News
  81. ^ "Crisis in Europe"

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