Criticism of Ellen G. White

Criticism of Ellen G. White
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A number of groups and persons have voiced doubts as to the reliability of Ellen G. White as a true prophet and the authenticity of her visions, a few of which are summarized here.



Mental illness

  • Critics argue that Ellen White's childhood injury caused traumatic brain injury, and that she was cataleptic[citation needed]. Some neurologists have commented that this may have caused partial complex seizures and hallucinations which led her to believe that she had visions of God.[1]

Donald I. Peterson, Professor of Neurology at the Adventist Loma Linda University School of Medicine and Chief of Neurology at Riverside General Hospital, California, disagrees.[2] Adventists Desmond and Gillian Ford also disagree with the critics of Ellen White, writing:

We personally do not believe that the epilepsy theory of "partial-complex seizures" is an adequate explanation for the phenomenon of Ellen G. White. Such seizures typically are common within a few months of the cause of the injury, not eight years after. If disease could provide the dedication, energy and wisdom that Ellen White revealed for over seventy years, some of us would pray "Lord, give me that disease".[3]


Many critics have also accused Ellen White of extensive plagiarism. One such was Walter T. Rea, who argued against the "original" nature of her supposed revelations in his book The White Lie. Another critic is Ronald Numbers' Ellen White: Prophetess of Health (originally published in 1976).[4] In this text Numbers argues that her understanding of health reform was simply plagiarized from other health reformers and therefore did not come from divine revelation.

Denial of the Trinity

Early Seventh-day Adventists came from a wide assortment of nineteenth-century American Protestant churches, highly influenced in thought and teaching by Anabaptism and Restorationism[citation needed]. As typical among early Adventists, two of the church's principal founders, James White and Joseph Bates, had a background in the Restorationist Christian Connection church, which rejected the Trinitarian nature of God.[5] However, some contend that the teachings and writings of Ellen White, ultimately proved influential in shifting the church from largely Semi-Arian[6] roots towards Trinitarianism.[7]

Some critics, as well as some non-Trinitarian Adventists, have asserted that in some of her early writings Ellen White did not teach the Trinity and affirmed a form of Arianism, the view that Jesus is a lesser being than God the Father[citation needed]. Orthodox Adventists, for their part, credit her with bringing the Seventh-day Adventist church into a "progressive awareness of the Trinity" during the 1890s. Some critics have characterized her descriptions of the Godhead as Tritheistic.[8][9][10] One study contends that early Adventism was neither Arian nor Trinitarian, but materialist in theology, and that Ellen White represented the same viewpoint as her co-religionists, a non-trinitarian, materialist view of God, Christ, and the Holy Spirit.[11]

Writings on masturbation

Many critics cite Ellen White's views on masturbation, which she called "self-indulgence" or "a solitary vice," as proof that she is a false prophet. In her book "A Solemn Appeal" she writes:

"If the practice [self-indulgence] is continued from the age of fifteen and upward, nature will protest against the abuse she has suffered, and continues to suffer, and will make them pay the penalty for the transgression of her laws, especially from the ages of thirty to forty-five, by numerous pains in the system, and various diseases, such as affection of the liver and lungs, neuralgia, rheumatism, affection of the spine, diseased kidneys, and cancerous humors. Some of nature's fine machinery gives way, leaving a heavier task for the remaining to perform, which disorders nature's fine arrangement, and there is often a sudden breaking down of the constitution; and death is the result."[12]

Females possess less vital force than the other sex, and are deprived very much of the bracing, invigorating air, by their in-door life. The result of self-abuse in them is seen in various diseases, such as catarrh, dropsy, headache, loss of memory and sight, great weakness in the back and loins, affections of the spine, and frequently, inward decay of the head. Cancerous humor, which would lie dormant in the system their lifetime, is inflamed, and commences its eating, destructive work. The mind is often utterly ruined, and insanity supervenes."[13]

Critics cite a modern study which seems to show that having lots of orgasms can help protect men against heart disease.[14]

Thomas Szasz states the shift in scientific consensus[15][16][17] as "Masturbation: the primary sexual activity of mankind. In the nineteenth century it was a disease; in the twentieth, it's a cure."[18] Many other medical researchers and state medical education boards support his conclusion.[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26]

Such criticism is acknowledged as significant by the Ellen White Estate website, a.k.a. The Official Ellen G. White Website.[27] The estate staff quotes conclusions by David Horrobin in support of Mrs. White's views; Horrobin was a researcher of dubious reputation according to his British Medical Journal obituary[28] and according to Stephen Barrett from Quackwatch.[29]

Ronald L. Numbers, an American historian of science and a graduate of the Loma Linda University School of Medicine, criticized Mrs. White for her view upon masturbation and many other medical issues, the gist of his criticism being that she followed the medical consensus of her epoch (which was before the advent of evidence-based medicine).[30] Numbers shows that she plagiarized vitalist writers (such as Horace Mann and Larkin B. Coles)[31] for her arguments against masturbation.[30] In fact the Appeal to Mothers contains a quite odd remark, namely that Ellen White did not copy her text from the health reform advocates and claiming that she independently reached such conclusions.[32] Numbers' criticism is acknowledged as significant by the staff of the White Estate, which sought to refute it in A Critique of the Book Prophetess of Health.[33]

Besides, there is no Bible verse which affirms that masturbation would be sinful.[15][34] The biblical story of Onan does not refer to masturbation, but to coitus interruptus.[35]

Writings on novels/fiction

Critics also cite statements that she wrote which seem hyperbolic or unfounded, such as her views on novels:

"That mind is ruined which is allowed to be absorbed in story-reading. The imagination becomes diseased, sentimentalism takes possession of the mind, and there is a vague unrest, a strange appetite for unwholesome mental food, which is constantly unbalancing the mind. Thousands are today in the insane asylum whose minds became unbalanced by novel reading, which results in air-castle building and love-sick sentimentalism."

This statement is part of an article published in The Signs of the Times on February 10, 1881.


Many critics believe that Ellen White also wrote racist (and biologically inaccurate) statements in her book "Spiritual Gifts."

"Every species of animal which God had created were preserved in the ark. The confused species which God did not create, which were the result of amalgamation, were destroyed by the flood. Since the flood there has been amalgamation of man and beast, as may be seen in the almost endless varieties of species of animals, and in certain races of men."[36]

This criticism is compounded by a defense of her statements which was published 8 years later by church leader and personal friend of Ellen White, Uriah Smith, in which the latter inferred that this "amalgamation" produced certain "lesser" races which he claimed were difficult to differentiate from animals:

"Now we have ever supposed that anybody that was called a man, was considered a human being. The vision speaks of all these classes as races of men; yet in the face of this plain declaration, they foolishly assert that the visions teach that some men are not human beings! But does any one deny the general statement contained in the extract given above? They do not. If they did, they could easily be silenced by a reference to such cases as the wild Bushmen of Africa, some tribes of the Hottentots, and perhaps the Digger Indians of our own country.. Moreover, naturalists affirm that the line of demarkation between the human and animal races is lost in confusion. It is impossible, as they affirm, to tell just where the human ends and the animal begins."[37]

Response to criticism

Seventh-day Adventists have long responded to critics with arguments and assertions of their own. Typical responses to these criticisms include:

Mental illness

Seventh-day Adventists reject the charge that Ellen White suffered mental illness or that she had seizures. There are several main lines of argument Adventists use to respond to this charge:

  • They point out that there is nothing on record of Ellen White ever having a seizure or showing signs of mental illness. They assert instead that these charges were trumped up by critics many years after her first vision as a way of discrediting her.
  • Many times Ellen White had visions in the company of large groups of people. They claim that these visions were sometimes accompanied by unusual physical phenomena that all were able to witness. One such story relates how on several occasions witnesses recorded her holding a large family Bible for extended periods of time (in one case 20–25 minutes) at arms length just above her head while quoting Scriptural passages out loud; she would trace the verses in the Bible with her free hand as she spoke the words, and was apparently unaware of other people in the room. During such incidents, Adventists claim, several skeptics attempted to pull her arm down, as well as double-check the verses she was speaking aloud against the verses she traced with her finger. The story concludes that these unbelievers could not pull her arm down, and the verses were verbatim quotations from the Bible.
  • Jesus said "A prophet is not without honor except in his own country, among his own relatives, and in his own house." (Mark 6:4, Matthew 13:57)
  • Adventist also point to "the overall ministry of her life" as evidence of her inspiration.

Concerning prophets, the Bible says, "Ye shall know them by their fruits" (Matthew 7:16).[38] This is an appropriate standard by which to judge the visions and works of Ellen White.[39]


A Roman Catholic lawyer, Vincent L. Ramik, undertook a study of Ellen G. White's writings during the early 1980s, and concluded that they were "conclusively unplagiaristic."[40] When the plagiarism charge ignited a significant debate during the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Adventist General Conference commissioned a major study by Dr. Fred Veltman. The ensuing project became known as the "'Life of Christ' Research Project." The results are available at the General Conference Archives.[41] Dr. Roger W. Coon,[42] David J. Conklin,[43] Dr. Denis Fortin,[44][45] King and Morgan,[46] among others, undertook the refutation of the accusations of plagiarism. At the conclusion of Ramik's report, he states:

"It is impossible to imagine that the intention of Ellen G. White, as reflected in her writings and the unquestionably prodigious efforts involved therein, was anything other than a sincerely motivated and unselfish effort to place the understandings of Biblical truths in a coherent form for all to see and comprehend. Most certainly, the nature and content of her writings had but one hope and intent, namely, the furthering of mankind's understanding of the word of God. Considering all factors necessary in reaching a just conclusion on this issue, it is submitted that the writings of Ellen G. White were conclusively unplagiaristic." [47]

Critics have especially targeted Ellen White's book The Great Controversy arguing in contains plagiarized material.[48] However in her introduction she wrote...

In some cases where a historian has so grouped together events as to afford, in brief, a comprehensive view of the subject, or has summarized details in a convenient manner, his words have been quoted; but in some instances no specific credit has been given, since the quotations are not given for the purpose of citing that writer as authority, but because his statement affords a ready and forcible presentation of the subject. In narrating the experience and views of those carrying forward the work of reform in our own time, similar use has been made of their published works.

The Great Controversy, p. xi.4 1911 edition

Failed prophecy

Adventists state that some prophecy, such as Jonah's prophecy regarding Nineveh was conditional. (Jonah 3:1-5, 4) Adventists also cite additional texts for such a belief (Jeremiah 18:7-10, 2 Kings 20:1-6, Jeremiah 26:17-19). Recently a number of apologetic books have been published by the church arguing for the validity of her prophetic gift.

Denial of the Trinity

Fundamental belief # 2 of the Seventh-day Adventist Church is the belief of the Trinity. Their belief statement declares "There is one God: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, a unity of three co-eternal Persons. God is immortal, all-powerful, all-knowing, above all, and ever present." [49] Ellen White clearly stated that Jesus was divine in her book "The Desire of Ages"

By His humanity, Christ touched humanity; by His divinity, He lays hold upon the throne of God. As the Son of man, He gave us an example of obedience; as the Son of God, He gives us power to obey. It was Christ who from the bush on Mount Horeb spoke to Moses saying, "I AM THAT I AM.... Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you." Exodus 3:14. This was the pledge of Israel’s deliverance. So when He came "in the likeness of men," He declared Himself the I AM. The Child of Bethlehem, the meek and lowly Saviour, is God "manifest in the flesh." 1 Timothy 3:16.

The Desire Of Ages, p. 24

Ellen White also stated that the Holy Spirit was divine.

The Holy Spirit has a personality, else He could not bear witness to our spirits and with our spirits that we are the children of God. He must also be a divine person, else He could not search out the secrets which lie hidden in the mind of God. "For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God." (1 Corinthians 2:11) The prince of the power of evil can only be held in check by the power of God in the third person of the Godhead, the Holy Spirit.

Evangelism, p. 617

Stance against masturbation

Adventists generally rest their defense on the bible and state that sin is never beneficial to health but rather “the wages of sin is death” (Romans 6:23). Christians are called to “put to death, therefore, whatever belongs to your earthly nature: sexual immorality, impurity, lust, evil desires and greed, which is idolatry. Because of these, the wrath of God is coming on those who are disobedient”. (Colossians 3:5-6) Many Adventists also claim that no true Christian of any denomination would say that masturbation is something Jesus would approve of, for Christians are called to “abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul” (1 Peter 2:11) Ellen White states:

Man is doing the greatest injury and injustice to his own soul when he thinks and acts contrary to the mind and will of God. He is sowing to the flesh, and will of the flesh reap corruption. No real joy can be found in the path forbidden by the God who knows what is best, and who plans for the good of his creatures. The path of transgression is a path of misery and destruction, and he who walks therein is exposed to the wrath of God and the Lamb.

Signs Of The Times, April 20, 1888

It is also often pointed out that while masturbation may appear to have several health benefits, the Bible says “there is a way that seems right to a man, but its end is the way of death.” (Proverbs 14:12) Of such Ellen White warns:

Satan is constantly seeking to deceive men and lead them to call sin righteousness, and righteousness sin. How successful has been his work! How often censure and reproach are cast upon God’s faithful servants because they will stand fearlessly in defence of the truth! Men who are but agents of Satan are praised and flattered, and even looked upon as martyrs, while those who should be respected and sustained for their fidelity to God, are left to stand alone, under suspicion and distrust.

The Great Controversy , p. 192

Writings on novels/fiction

Ellen White gave some specifics regarding her statements

Those who would not fall a prey to Satan’s devices must guard well the avenues of the soul; they must avoid reading, seeing, or hearing that which will suggest impure thoughts. The mind must not be left to dwell at random upon every subject that the enemy of souls may suggest. The heart must be faithfully sentineled, or evils without will awaken evils within, and the soul will wander in darkness.

Adventist Home, p. 403 paragraph 3

Such is in harmony with the Bible

Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things.

Holy Bible King James Version, Philippians 4:8

See also Psalm 101:3, Isaiah 33:15-16, Job 14:4, 2 Corinthians 3:18, Romans 12:1-2, 13:14.


Ellen White wrote the following before the American Civil War

When the laws of men conflict with the word and law of God, we are to obey the latter, whatever the consequences may be. The law of our land requiring us to deliver a slave to his master, we are not to obey; and we must abide the consequences of violating this law. The slave is not the property of any man. God is his rightful master, and man has no right to take God's workmanship into his hands, and claim him as his own.

Testimonies For The Church Volume 1, p. 201-202

Also, Ellen White stated the following near the end of the 19th century

Walls of separation have been built up between the whites and the blacks. These walls of prejudice will tumble down of themselves as did the walls of Jericho, when Christians obey the Word of God, which enjoins on them supreme love to their Maker and impartial love to their neighbors. The religion of the Bible recognizes no caste or color. It ignores rank, wealth, worldly honor. God estimates men as men. With Him, character decides their worth. And we are to recognize the Spirit of Christ in whomsoever He is revealed.

The Review and Herald, December 17, 1895, Testimonies for the Church Vol 9 p. 223.

Besides her strong stance against slavery and racism, Adventist scholars have noted that there is not one instance where her writings hint to a half-man/half-animal race of people.[50] Instead, her amalgamation statements were a reference to Leviticus 19:19, 2 Corinthians 6:14 and Genesis 6:1-5.[51]

Notable critics

See also


  1. ^ Gregory Holmes and Delbert Hodder(1981).Ellen G.White and the Seventh Day Adventist Church:Visions or Partial Complex Seizures?Journal of Neurology,31(4):160-161.
  2. ^ Peterson, Donald I. (1988). Visions or Seizures: Was Ellen White the Victim of Epilepsy?. Boise, Idaho: Pacific Press Publishing. ISBN 0-8163-0795-4. Retrieved 2006-06-06. 
  3. ^ Desmond and Gillian Ford (1982). The Adventist Crisis of Spiritual Identity. Desmond Ford Publications. p. 201. 
  4. ^ Ronald Numbers (1992). Prophetess of Health: Ellen G. White and the Origins of Seventh-Day Adventist Health Reform. University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 0870497138. 
  5. ^ Knight, George, 2000, A Search for Identity, Review and Herald Pub., pp. 30-32
  6. ^ by Jerry Moon. "Were early Adventists Arians?". 
  7. ^ Jerry A. Moon, The Adventist Trinity Debate Part 1: Historical Overview and The Adventist Trinity Debate Part 2: The Role of Ellen G. White. Copyright 2003 Andrews University Press. See also "The Arian or Anti-Trinitarian Views Presented in Seventh-day Adventist Literature and the Ellen G. White Answer" by Erwin Roy Gane
  8. ^ Ratzlaff, Dale (2007). Truth about Adventist "Truth". LAM Publications, LLC. p. 28. ISBN 0-9747679-4-8. 
  9. ^ Wiebe, Elmer (2006). Who Is the Adventist Jesus?. Xulon Press. ISBN 1-59781-328-1. 
  10. ^ Tinker, Colleen (March/April 2007). "Discovering the Adventist Jesus" (PDF). Proclamation! (Life Assurance Ministries, Inc.) 8 (2): 10–17. Retrieved 2011-01-12. 
  11. ^ Thomas McElwain, Adventism and Ellen White: A Phenomenon of Religious Materianism. Studies on Inter-religious Relations no. 48. Swedish Science Press, 2010.
  12. ^ Ellen G. White (1870). Solemn Appeal, A. The Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association. p. 63. 
  13. ^ Ellen G. White (1870). Solemn Appeal, A. The Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association. p. 73. 
  14. ^ Smith, George Davey; Frankel, Stephen and Yarnell, John. (December 1997). "Sex and death: are they related? Findings from the Caerphilly cohort study". British Medical Journal 315 (7123): 1641–1644. PMC 2128033. PMID 9448525. Retrieved 2008-04-29. 
  15. ^ a b Patton, Michael S. (June 1985). "Masturbation from Judaism to Victorianism". Journal of Religion and Health (Springer Netherlands) 24 (2): 133–146. doi:10.1007/BF01532257. ISSN 0022-4197. Retrieved 12 November 2011. "Nevertheless, there is no legislation in the Bible pertaining to masturbation." 
  16. ^ Jack Boulware, "Sex educator says most people masturbate," at:[dead link] apud Masturbation: Current medical opinions Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. New URL:
  17. ^ Ornella Moscuci, "Male masturbation and the offending prepuce," at:[dead link] (It is an excerpt from "Sexualities in Victorian Britain.") apud Masturbation: Current medical opinions Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. New URL:
  18. ^ Szasz, Thomas S. (1974) [1973]. "Sex". The Second Sin. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. p. 10. ISBN 0-7100-7757-2.;+in+the+twentieth,+it%27s+a+cure.%22+%22second+sin%22&source=bl&ots=lSH-mPbfvU&sig=Yki_FWLBB6N_DKxa_CpV-_Ll_5c&hl=nl&ei=XqkLTrWuKsGBOsTfoZIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEIQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved June 30, 2011. "Masturbation: the primary sexual activity of mankind. In the nineteenth century it was a disease; in the twentieth, it's a cure." 
  19. ^
  20. ^ "Masturbation key to healthy, functional sexual relationships". The Badger Herald, Daily campus newspaper. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: Badger Herald, Inc.. April 19, 2007. Retrieved July 2007. 
  21. ^ Giles, G.G.; G. Severi, D.R. English, M.R.E. McCredie, R. Borland, P. Boyle and J.L. Hopper (2003). Sexual factors and prostate cancer. BJU International. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2003.04319.x. Retrieved 2009-01-09. 
  22. ^ Dimitropoulou, Polyxeni; Artitaya Lophatananon, Douglas Easton, Richard Pocock, David P. Dearnaley, Michelle Guy, Steven Edwards, Lynne O'Brien, Amanda Hall, Rosemary Wilkinson, Rosalind Eeles, Kenneth R. Muir (November 11, 2008). "Sexual activity and prostate cancer risk in men diagnosed at a younger age". BJU International 103 (2): 178–185. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.08030.x. OCLC 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.08030.x. PMID 19016689. 
  23. ^ "Masturbation could bring hay fever relief for men". April 2008. Retrieved August 2009. 
  24. ^ Treptow, C. (14 July 2009). "U.K. Government Encourages Teen Masturbation?". ABC News. 
  25. ^ Graber, Benjamin; Benjamin Graber, Scott Balogh, Denis Fitzpatrick and Shelton Hendricks (June 1991). "Cardiovascular changes associated with sexual arousal and orgasm in men". Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment (Springer Netherlands) 4 (2): 151–165. doi:10.1007/BF00851611. 1079-0632 (Print) 1573-286X (Online). Retrieved 2004-12-28. 
  26. ^ Spanish 'self love' lessons row BBC News, November 13, 2009.
  27. ^
  28. ^ "'A rotter, a snake oil salesman, a chancer' - how scientist's obituary sparked a storm. A vitriolic attack in the British Medical Journal has devastated eminent academic David Horrobin's family, reports Robin McKie" Robin McKie, The Oberver, in The Guardian, 25 May 2003.
  29. ^ "Primrose Oil and Eczema: How Research Was Promoted and Suppressed" Stephen Barrett, Quackwatch, 31 January 2004.
  30. ^ a b Numbers, Ronald L. (2008) [1976]. "Short Skirts and Sex". Prophetess of health: a study of Ellen G. White (3rd ed.). Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. pp. 207–218. ISBN 978-0-8028-0395-5. Retrieved June 30, 2011. "Ellen White followed another well-marked trail when she ventured into the potentially hazardous field of sex. From the appearance of Sylvester Graham's Lecture to Young Men on Chastity in 1834 this subject had played an integral and highly visible role in health-reform literature. Alcott, Coles, Trail, and Jackson, among others, had all spoken out on the dangers of what they regarded as excessive or abnormal sexual activities, particularly masturbation, which was thought to cause a frightening array of pathological conditions ranging from dyspepsia and consumption to insanity and loss of spirituality. By carefully couching their appeal in humanitarian terms, they had largely avoided offending the sensibilities of a prudish public. Theirs was a genuinely moral crusade against what Jackson called "the great, crying sin of our time."" 
  31. ^ Numbers (2008:213-214)
  32. ^ Numbers (2008:211)
  33. ^ The Staff of the Ellen G. White Estate A Critique of the Book Prophetess of Health, 2008. Upon the criticism of Mrs. White's views on masturbation see p. 72 of the publication.
  34. ^ Kwee, Alex W.; David C. Hoover (2008). "Theologically-Informed Education about Masturbation: A Male Sexual Health Perspective". Journal of Psychology and Theology (La Mirada, CA, USA: Rosemead School of Psychology. Biola University) 36 (4): 258–269. ISSN 0091-6471. Retrieved 12 November 2011. "The Bible presents no clear theological ethic on masturbation, leaving many young unmarried Christians with confusion and guilt around their sexuality." 
  35. ^ Coogan, Michael (October 2010). God and Sex. What the Bible Really Says (1st ed.). New York, Boston: Twelve. Hachette Book Group. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-446-54525-9. Retrieved May 5, 2011. 
  36. ^ Ellen G. White (1860). Spirutal Gifts, Volume 4. The Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association. 
  37. ^ Uriah Smith (1868). The Visions of Mrs. E. G. White, A Manifestation of Spiritual gifts According to the Scripture. Steam Press of the Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association. 
  38. ^ Modern Day Prophets: What Are The Biblical Tests?
  39. ^ VISIONS OR SEIZURES Was Ellen White the Victim of Epilepsy? - Donald I. Peterson, MD
  40. ^ The Ramik Report Memorandum of Law Literary Property Rights 1790 - 1915
  41. ^ General Conference Archives of the Seventh-day Adventist Church
  42. ^ Ellen G. White as a Writer: Part III - The Issue of Literary Borrowing
  43. ^ An Analysis of the Literary Dependency of Ellen White
  44. ^ Ellen G. White as a Writer: Case Studies in the Issue of Literary Borrowing
  45. ^ The Ellen G. White Encyclopedia
  46. ^ E. Marcella Anderson King and Kevin L. Morgan (2009). More Than Words: A Study of Inspiration and Ellen White's Use of Sources in The Desire of Ages. Honor Him Publishers. 
  47. ^ Also appears in Review article
  48. ^ See borrowing or plagiarism
  49. ^ Seventh Day Adventist Church Fundamental Beliefs
  50. ^ "Chapter 20: Amalgamation of Man and Beast". 
  51. ^ "Testing The Prophets: Understanding Ellen White’s Amalgamation Statements". 

External links



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