- Elliott Cresson Medal
Elliott Cresson Medal
Elliott Cresson Medal given to Emile Berliner in 1913
Presented by Franklin Institute Country USA First awarded 1875 Last awarded 1997
The Elliott Cresson Medal, also known as the Elliott Cresson Gold Medal, was the highest award given by the Franklin Institute. The award was established by Elliott Cresson, life member of the Franklin Institute, with $1,000 granted in 1848. The endowed award was to be "for some discovery in the Arts and Sciences, or for the invention or improvement of some useful machine, or for some new process or combination of materials in manufactures, or for ingenuity skill or perfection in workmanship." The medal was first awarded in 1875, 21 years after Cresson's death.
The Franklin Institute continued awarding the medal on an occasional basis until 1998 when they reorganized their endowed awards under one umbrella, The Benjamin Franklin Awards. A total of 268 Elliott Cresson Medals were given out during the award's lifetime.
Year Awardee Category Citation 1875 W. G. A. Bonwill Life Science Electro Magnetic Dental Mallet 1875 Fiss, Banes, Erben & Co. Engineering Worsted Yarns 1875 Powers & Weightman Engineering Drug Manufacturing 1875 W.P. Tatham Invention Printing press 1875 Benjamin Chew Tilghman Engineering Sand Blast 1875 Joseph Zentmayer Engineering Microscopes and Objectives 1877 John Charlton Engineering Shaft Coupling 1877 P. H. Dudley Engineering Dynomagraph 1878 Henry Bower Chemistry Inodorous Glycerin 1878 Cyrus Chambers, Jr. Engineering Bolt and rivet clipper 1878 Williams Farr Goodwin Engineering Competitive test of mowing machines 1879 Norbert Delandtsheer Invention Machine for Testing Flax 1880 L. H. Spellier Invention Time Telegraph 1881 W. Woodnut Griscom Engineering Electric Induction Motor and Battery 1885 Cyprien Chabot Engineering Shoe Sewing Machine 1885 Frederick Siemens Engineering Regenerative Gas Burner 1886 Patrick Bernard Delany Engineering Synchronous Telegraphy 1886 Thaddeus S. C. Lowe Engineering Water Gas Process and Apparatus 1886 Ott & Brewer Engineering China and Porcelain Wares 1886 Pratt & Whitney Co. Engineering System of Interchangeable Cut Gears 1886 R. H. Ramsay Engineering Railway Car Transfer Apparatus 1886 Liberty Walkup Invention Airbrush 1887 Charles F. Albert Engineering Violins and Bows 1887 Hugo Bilgram Engineering Bevel Gear Cutter 1887 Alfred H. Cowles Engineering Electric Smelting Furnace 1887 Eugene H. Cowles Engineering Electric Smelting Furnace 1887 Thomas Shaw Engineering Testing for Mine Gases and system of Mine Signaling 1889 Edward Alfred Cowper Invention Writing Telegraph 1889 Ottmar Mergenthaler Engineering Linotype machine 1889 T. Hart Robertson Invention Writing Telegraph 1889 George Frederick Simonds Engineering Universal Rolling Machine 1890 J. B. Hammond Engineering Typewriter Improvements 1890 Herman Hollerith Computer and Cognitive Science Electric Tabulating Device 1890 Mayer Hayes & Co. Engineering Manufacture of files 1891 Stockton Bates Engineering Spindle Support 1891 James H. Bevington Engineering Welding Metal and Spinning and Shaping Tube 1891 Bradley Allen Fiske Engineering Rangefinder 1891 Tinius Olsen Engineering Testing Machine 1891 Edwin F. Shaw Engineering Spindle Support 1891 Samuel M. Vauclain Engineering Compound Locomotive 1891 George M. Von Culin Engineering Spindle Support 1892 Philip H. Holmes Engineering Composition for Journal Bearings 1892 Henry M. Howe Engineering Metallurgy of Steel 1893 Clifford H. Batchellor Engineering Compound Locomotive 1893 Frederic Eugene Ives Engineering Color photography 1893 George E. Marks Life Science Improvements in Artificial Limbs 1893 Paul von Jankó Engineering Jankó piano keyboard 1894 Nikola Tesla Engineering Alternating Electric Currents of High Frequency 1895 Henry M. Howe Engineering Experimental Researches on Steel 1895 James Peckover Invention Stone Sawing Machine 1895 Lester Allan Pelton Engineering Water Wheel 1896 Patrick Bernard Delany Engineering Telegraphy, High speed system 1896 Tolbert Lanston Invention Monotype Machine 1897 Hamilton Y. Castner Engineering Process of electrolytic decomposing of alkaline chlorides 1897 Elisha Gray Engineering Telautograph 1897 Charles Francis Jenkins Invention Phantoscope projector 1897 Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen Physics Discovery of X-rays 1897 Joseph Wilckes Invention Econometer 1898 Wilbur Olin Atwater Engineering Respiration Calorimeter 1898 Thomas Corscaden Engineering All-Wrought Steel Belt Pulley 1898 Clemens Hirschel Invention Venturi Meter 1898 Henri Moissan Engineering Investigations with his electric furnace 1898 Edward Bennett Rosa Engineering Respiration Calorimeter 1900 American Cotton Company Engineering Round Lap Bale System 1900 Louis Edward Levy Engineering Method and apparatus for acid blast etching of metal plates 1900 Pencoyd Iron Works Engineering Bridge construction 1900 United States Geological Survey Earth Science Exhibit of the USGS 1900 Carl Auer von Welsbach Chemistry Discoveries regarding metallic oxides 1901 Rudolph Diesel Engineering Diesel engine 1901 John S. Forbes Chemistry Process of automatically heating and sterilizing fluids 1901 L. M. Haupt Engineering Reaction Breakwater 1901 Mason & Hamlin Company Engineering Liszt Pipe Organ 1901 A. G. Waterhouse Engineering Process of automatically heating and sterilizing fluids 1902 C. E. Acker Engineering Manufacturing Caustic Alkali and Halogen Gas 1902 Fred W. Taylor Engineering Process of Treating Tool Steel 1902 Maunsel White Engineering Process of Treating Tool Steel 1903 G. H. Clam Engineering Method of eliminating metals from mixtures of metals 1903 J. L. Ferrell Engineering Process of fireproofing wood 1903 Wilson Lindsley Gill Engineering; Computer and Cognitive Science School City Educational Plan 1903 Victor Goldschmidt Engineering Theory of Musical Harmony 1903 Frank J. Sprague Engineering System of Electric Traction 1904 James Mapes Dodge Engineering System of Storing Coal 1904 Wilson Lindsley Gill Engineering; Computer and Cognitive Science School City 1904 Hans Goldschmidt Physics Alumino-Thermics 1904 L. E. Levy Engineering Machine for preparation of plates for etching 1904 L. D. Lovekin Engineering Expanding and Flanging Machinery for Tubes 1904 A. E. Outerbridge, Jr. Engineering Molecular Structure of Cast Iron 1904 J. C. Parker Engineering Steam Generator 1905 Gray National Telautograph Company Engineering Telautograph 1905 M. I. Pupin Physics Reducing Attenuation of Electrical Waves 1906 American Paper Bottle Company Engineering Paper Milk Bottles 1906 William Joseph Hammer (unspecified) Historic Collection of Incandescent Electric Lamps 1907 Baldwin Locomotive Works Engineering Contributions to Evolution of American Locomotive 1907 J. L. Borsch Physics A new Bi-Focal Lens 1907 J. Allen Heany Engineering Fireproof Insulated Wire 1907 F. Philips Engineering Pressed Steel Pulley for Power Transmission 1907 Edward R. Taylor Chemistry Electric Furnace Manufacture of Carbon bisulfide 1908 Romeyn Beck Hough Engineering Uses of American Woods 1908 Anatole Mallet Engineering Improved Articulated Compound Locomotive 1909 Marie Curie Chemistry The discovery of radium 1909 Pierre Curie Chemistry The discovery of radium 1909 Wolfgang Gaede Engineering Molecular Air Pump 1909 James Gayley Engineering Dry air blast in blast furnace operation 1909 Auguste and Louis Lumière Engineering Color photography 1909 George Owen Squier Engineering Multiplex Telephony 1909 Benjamin Talbot Engineering Open Hearth Steel Process 1909 W. V. Turner Engineering Air Brake Design and Application 1909 Underwood Typewriter Co. Engineering Underwood Typewriter 1909 Alexis Vernasz Engineering Milling files 1909 H. A. Wise Wood Engineering The Autoplate Machine 1910 Automatic Electric Company Engineering Automatic System of Telephony 1910 John A. Brashear Physics Distinguished work in astronomical instruments 1910 Peter Cooper Hewitt Invention Mercury rectifier 1910 John Fritz Engineering Distinguished work in iron and steel industries 1910 Robert Abbott Hadfield Engineering Distinguished work in metallurgical sciences 1910 Ernest Rutherford Engineering Distinguished work in electrical theory 1910 Joseph John Thomson Physics For distinguished work in physical sciences 1910 Edward Weston Engineering Distinguished work in electrical discovery 1910 Harvey W. Wiley Life Science Distinguished work in agricultural chemistry 1912 Alexander Graham Bell Engineering Electrical Transmission of Articulate Speech 1912 William Crookes Chemistry Discoveries in Chemistry 1912 Alfred Noble Engineering Distinguished work in civil engineering 1912 Edward Williams Morley Chemistry Determination of fundamental magnitudes in chemistry 1912 Albert A. Michelson Physics Investigations in physical optics 1912 Sir Henry Enfield Roscoe Chemistry Important Research in Chemistry 1912 Samuel Wesley Stratton Engineering Distinguished work in metrology 1912 Elihu Thomson Engineering Industrial applications of electricity 1912 Adolf von Baeyer Chemistry Extended research in organic chemistry 1913 Emile Berliner Engineering Contributions to telephony and science of sound reproduction 1913 Emile Fischer Life Science Organic and biological chemistry 1913 Sir William Ramsay Chemistry Discoveries in chemistry 1913 Isham Randolph Engineering Distinguished work in civil engineering 1913 John Strutt Physics Extended researches in physical science 1913 Albert Sauveur Engineering Metallography of Iron and Steel 1913 Charles Proteus Steinmetz Engineering Analytical methods in electrical engineering 1914 J. M. von Eder Chemistry Original Researches in Photo-Chemistry 1914 Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde Engineering Liquefaction of gases and refrigeration 1914 Edgar Fahs Smith Chemistry Leading work in electro-chemistry 1914 Orville Wright Engineering The art and science of aviation 1915 Michael J. Owens Engineering Automatic Bottle Blowing Machine 1916 American Telephone & Telegraph Engineering Development of the Art of telephony 1916 Byron E. Eldred Engineering Low Expansion Wire for Incandescent Lamps 1916 Robert Gans Engineering Permutit water softening process 1917 Edwin Fitch Northrup Engineering Investigation of Electric Furnaces and High Temperature 1918 Isaac Newton Lewis Engineering Lewis Machine Gun 1920 William LeRoy Emmet Engineering Electrical Propulsion of Ships 1923 Lee DeForest Engineering Audion 1923 Raymond D. Johnson Engineering Hydraulic Valve 1923 Albert Kingsbury Engineering Thrust bearing 1925 Francis Hodgkinson Engineering Turbo-Electric Appliances 1926 George Ellery Hale Physics Astronomical Researches of sun, solar atmosphere and solar physics 1926 Charles S. Hastings Engineering Design of Optical Systems 1927 Dayton C. Miller Physics Researches in Sound 1927 Edward Leamington Nichols Physics Investigations in the Physical Sciences 1928 Gustaf W. Elmen Engineering Permalloy 1928 Henry Ford Engineering Revolutionizing automobile industry, and industrial leadership 1928 Vladimir Karapetoff Computer and Cognitive Science Kinematic Computing Devices 1928 Charles L. Lawrance Engineering Wright Whirlwind Air-Cooled Engine, Model J-5 1929 James Colquhoun Irvine Life Science Carbohydrate chemistry 1929 Chevalier Jackson Life Science Instruments for Removal of Foreign Bodies from Respiratory and food Passages 1929 Elmer A. Sperry Engineering Navigational and Recording Instruments (Gyroscopic) 1930 Norman Rothwell Gibson Physics Measurement of Liquid Flow in Closed Conduits 1930 Irving Edwin Moultrop Engineering High Pressure Steam Boilers in Electric Generating Stations 1931 Clinton Joseph Davisson Physics Scattering and diffraction of electrons by crystals 1931 Lester Halbert Germer Physics Scattering and Diffraction of Electrons by Crystals 1931 Kotaro Honda Engineering Contributions to magnetism and metallurgy 1931 Theodore Lyman Physics Work in Spectroscopy 1932 Percy W. Bridgman Physics Work in high pressure 1932 Charles LeGeyt Fortescue Engineering Symmetrical Coordinates in Polyphase Networks 1932 John B. Whitehead (unspecified) Dielectric Behavior 1933 Walther Bauersfeld Physics Optical Planetarium 1933 Juan de la Cierva Engineering Autogiro-flying machine with freely rotating wings 1934 Stuart Ballantine Engineering Vertical Antenna for Radio Transmission 1934 Union Switch & Signal Engineering Continuous Cab Signal and Automatic Train Control Systems 1936 George O. Curme Chemistry Development of synthetic aliphatic chemistry 1936 Robert J. Van de Graaff Engineering High Voltage Electrostatic Generator 1937 Carl David Anderson Chemistry Discovery of the positron 1937 William Bowie Earth Science Contributions to the Science of Geodesy (Isostasy) 1937 Jacques Edwin Brandenberger Engineering Process for Manufacture of Cellophane 1937 William F. Giauque Physics Low temperature research 1937 Ernest O. Lawrence Engineering Development of the Cyclotron 1938 Edwin H. Land Engineering Polaroid camera 1939 Charles Vernon Boys Physics Creation of new methods for measuring gravitation, sound, heat, radiation and current and static electricity 1939 George Ashley Campbell Engineering Theory of electric circuits for improvements in telephony 1939 John R. Carson Engineering Contributions to electric communications 1940 Frederick M. Backet Engineering Low carbon ferro-alloys and electro-metallurgy 1940 Robert R. Williams Life Science Researches upon Vitamin B1 including its isolation in the pure state in quantities sufficient for further study 1941 United States Navy Engineering Submarine rescue devices, U.S. lung and rescue chamber 1942 Claude Silbert Hudson Life Science Investigation in Carbohydrate chemistry 1942 Isidor I. Rabi Physics Measurement of magnetic moments of atomic nuclei, and their radio frequency spectra 1943 Charles Metcalf Allen Engineering Salt velocity method for measuring the flow of water in conduits 1944 Roger Adams Chemistry Contributions in organic chemistry 1945 Stanford Caldwell Hooper Engineering Leadership in field of radio for U.S. Navy 1945 Lewis Ferry Moody Engineering Hydraulic turbines 1946 Gladeon M. Barnes Engineering Contributions to design and development of anti-aircraft guns, tanks, seacoast artillery and welded gun carriages 1948 Edwin H. Colpitts Engineering Practical systems of long distance communications 1950 Basil Ferdinand Jamieson Schonland Physics Work in the field of atmospheric electricity and the mechanism of lightning discharge 1952 Edward C. Molina Engineering Contributions to improvement of telephonic communications by applying mathematical probability to the study of telephone traffic and by the invention of switching equipment 1952 H. Birchard Taylor Engineering Development of the single runner vertical reaction turbine 1953 William Blum Physics Scientific basis for the electro-deposition of metals 1953 George Russell Harrison Physics Precision measurement in Zeeman effect 1953 William F. Meggers Physics Contributions to field of spectroscopy and to the knowledge of the electronic structure of many elements 1955 F. Philip Bowden Physics For extensive investigations involving frictions between solid surfaces 1957 Willard F. Libby Physics Technique of radio carbon dating 1957 Reginold James Seymour Pigott Engineering Engineering accomplishments, inventions and leadership 1957 Robert Alexander Watson-Watt Engineering Pulsed radar, and development of radar systems 1958 Joseph C. Patrick Chemistry Discoveries in polysulfide polymers and new processes of combining chemical compounds for the manufacture of synthetic rubber 1958 Stephen P. Timoshenko Engineering Theory of elasticity and elastic stability 1959 John Hays Hammond Engineering Developed remote radio control of moving vehicles 1959 Henry Charles Harrison Engineering Matched impedance principle in electro-mechanical devices 1959 Irving Wolff Engineering Contributions to radio, radar and electronics 1960 Hugh Latimer Dryden Engineering Contributions to theory and application of aerodynamics which advanced the art of wind tunnel and aircraft design and for contributions to design and development of first automatic radar homing guided missile 1960 Arpad Ludwig Nadai Engineering Pioneering work in elasticity of materials 1960 William Francis Gray Swann Physics Significant studies in the field of cosmic radiation 1961 Donald A. Glaser Physics The bubble chamber for tracking and photographing tracks of high energy ionizing particles and the fragments of nuclear collisions 1961 Rudolf L. Mossbauer Physics Discovery of recoilless emission 1961 Reinhold Rudenberg Engineering Performance of electric power systems 1961 James Alfred Van Allen Physics Pioneering achievements in space science, Van Allen Radiation Belts 1962 James G. Baker Physics Innovations in the design of astronomical instruments and the mathematics of optical design 1962 Wernher von Braun Engineering Liquid rocket motors and rocket development 1963 Nicholas Christofilos Physics Contributions to applied electromagnetism and nuclear physics such as conception of strange-focusing principle in synchrotrons, the ARGUS experiment and principles in Astron development 1963 Grote Reber Physics Radio astronomy, early radio telescopes, and the identification of the first radio star 1964 Waldo L. Semon Engineering Achievements in natural and synthetic rubber production 1964 Richard V. Southwell Physics Solution of buckling problems in physics and engineering 1964 Robert Rathbun Wilson Physics Contributions to the control and direction of high-energy particle beams and as a designer of instrumentation for measurement of high-energy physical phenomena 1965 Donald Dexter Van Slyke Life Science Clinical chemistry procedures and apparatus 1966 Everitt P. Blizard Physics Development of the theory of radiation shielding 1966 Herman Francis Mark Chemistry Polymers 1968 Neil Bartlett Chemistry Fluorine Compounds of Xenon and Radon 1969 Henry Eyring Chemistry Quantum mechanical calculations of activation energies 1969 Peter Carl Goldmark Engineering Contributions in the fields of electronics 1970 Walter Henry Zinn Engineering Nuclear power reactors 1971 Paul J. Flory Chemistry Polymer science 1971 John Hasbrouck Van Vleck Physics Theories of magnetism and dielectrics 1972 Brian D. Josephson Physics Josephson effect and theory of matter at low temperatures 1972 William Powell Lear Engineering Development of full maneuvering automatic pilot and Lear jet 1973 Allan R. Sandage Physics Astronomy 1973 John Paul Stapp Life Science Crash Injury Research 1974 Theodore L. Cairns Chemistry Percyano compounds, synthesis and exploration of chemical and physical properties 1974 Robert H. Dicke Physics Role in gravitational experiment and theory 1974 Arie Jan Haagen-Smit Earth Science Plant hormones and air pollution chemistry 1974 Bruno B. Rossi Physics Cosmic rays, gamma-ray astronomy 1975 Mildred Cohn Life Science Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of enzymatic complexes 1975 Michael James Lighthill Physics Acoustic quadrupole theory of aerodynamic noise generation 1976 Leon Lederman Physics Leadership in forefront of experimentation in study of high energy interactions, nuclear forces and particle physics 1978 Herbert C. Brown Chemistry Development of methods for synthesis of diborane and alkali metal hydrides 1978 Frank H. Stillinger Chemistry Computer-generated model for water molecules 1979 Steven Weinberg Physics Unified theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions 1980 Riccardo Giacconi Physics Outstanding work in X-ray astronomy 1981 Marion King Hubbert Earth Science Application of quantitative methods to geological problems 1982 Harold P. Eubank Physics Plasma physics 1982 Edgar Bright Wilson, Jr. Physics Contributions to the understanding of molecular structure and dynamics 1984 Elizabeth F. Neufeld Life Science For investigation of genetics of mucopolysaccharide storage disease 1985 Robert N. Clayton Engineering For the application of mass spectrometry to geoscience research 1985 Andrei Sakharov Physics For contributions to controlled thermonuclear reactions, baryon synthesis and proton decay, induced gravity and the quark model 1986 Leo P. Kadanoff Physics For contributions to the current understanding of second order phase transition 1987 Gerd Binnig Physics For development of the scanning tunneling microscope 1987 Heinrich Rohrer Physics For the development of scanning tunneling microscope 1988 Harry G. Drickamer Engineering For clarification of the role of pressure in producing paramagnetic-ferromagnetic and conductor-insulator transitions 1989 Edward Norton Lorenz Physics For interpretation of dynamical chaos in physical systems 1990 Marlan O. Scully Physics For his discoveries in laser physics and quantum optics, atomic and statistical physics, and biological engineering 1991 Yakir Aharonov Physics For observations of electromagnetic potentials and insights into quantum mechanics 1991 David Bohm Physics For elevated electromagnetic potentials to status of physical observables 1992 Lap-Chee Tsui Life Science For the discovery of the cystic fibrosis gene 1995 Marvin H. Caruthers Life Science For his contributions in automating the synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides 1995 Alfred Y. Cho Physics For development and refinement of techniques of molecular beam epitaxy for use in quantum physics 1997 Irwin Fridovich Life Science For discovering the biology of free radical reactions in living organisms 1997 Joe Milton McCord Life Science For discovering the biology of free radical reactions in living organisms
- ^ a b c The Franklin Institute. Donors of the Medals and their histories. The Elliott Cresson Medal - Founded in 1848 - Gold Medal. Retrieved on July 13, 2009.
- ^ The Franklin Institute. Awards. About the Awards: History and Facts, Retrieved on July 13, 2009.
- ^ The Franklin Institute. Winners. Cresson Medal winners. Note that the 269 listed awardees include two different entries for Lee DeForest, with different spellings of his name. DeForest received only one medal, in 1923. Retrieved on July 13, 2009.
- Franklin Institute. Journal of the Franklin Institute, Pergamon Press, 1898, page 210. "The Econometer: A Gas Balance for Indicating Continuously the Proportion of Carbonic Acid Gas in the Flow of Furnace Gases"
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