- History of Falun Gong
Falun Gong is a spiritual practice that combines the practice of meditation with the moral philosophy articulated by its founder, Li Hongzhi. It emerged on the public radar in the Spring of 1992 in the city of Changchun, and was classified as a system of qigong. Though it initially enjoyed official sanction and support, Falun Gong became estranged from the state-run qigong associations in 1996, leading to a gradual escalation of tensions with the party-state that culminated in the Spring of 1999. Following a protest of 10,000+ Falun Gong adherents near the Zhongnanhai government compound on April 25, 1999 to request official recognition, then-Communist Party head Jiang Zemin ordered Falun Gong be crushed. A campaign of propaganda, mass imprisonment, systematic torture and coercive reeducation ensued. Falun Gong practitioners have responded to the campaign with protests on Tiananmen Square, the creation of their own media companies overseas, international lawsuits targeting Chinese officials, and the establishment of a network of underground publishing sites to produce literature on the practice within China.
Timeline of major events
Falun Gong has been classified variously as a form of spiritual cultivation and as a qigong discipline. Qigong refers to a broad set of exercises, meditation and breathing methods that have long been part of cultivation practices of select Buddhist sects, of Daoist alchemists, martial artists, and some Confucian scholars. The modern qigong movement with which Falun Gong identifies traces its origins to the late 1940s and 1950s. At that time, Communist Party cadres began pursuing qigong as a means of improving health, and regarded it as a category of traditional Chinese medicine. With official support from the party-state, qigong grew steadily in popularity, particularly in the period following the Cultural Revolution. The state-run China Qigong Scientific Research Society was established to administer and oversee qigong practice across the country. Thousands of qigong disciplines emerged, some of them headed by "grandmasters" with millions of adherents. 
From his youth, Li Hongzhi claims to have been tutored by a variety of Buddhist and Daoist masters, who, according to his spiritual biography, imparted to him the practice methods and moral philosophy that would come to be known as Falun Gong.
- 1951 – On May 13, Li Hongzhi, founder of Falun Gong, is born in Gongzhuling, Jilin Province. The Chinese government provides an alternate birth date for Li as July 1952.
- 1984 – According to his spiritual biography, Li elects to create Falun Gong as a more accessible version of Falun Xiulian Dafa, a qigong cultivation system of the Buddhist school.
- 1989 – Li begins private instruction of Falun Gong to select students.
1992 – 1995
Falun Gong was publicly founded in the Spring of 1992, toward the end of China’s “qigong boom” period which saw the proliferation of thousands of disciplines. Li Hongzhi and his Falun Gong became an “instant star” of the qigong movement, and were welcomed into the state-run China Qigong Scientific Research Association. From 1992 to 1994, Li traveled throughout China giving 54 lectures seminars on the practice and beliefs of Falun Gong. Seminars typically lasted 8–10 days, and attracted as many as 6,000 participants per class. The practice grew rapidly based on its purported efficacy in improving health and its moral and philosophical elements, which were more developed than those of other qigong schools.
- 1992 – On May 13, Li begins public teaching of Falun Gong in Changchun, Jilin Province, lecturing to a crowd of roughly 500.
- 1992 – In September, Falun Gong is recognized as a qigong branch under the administration of the state-run China Qigong Scientific Research Association (CQRA).
- 1992 – Li is formally declared a “Master of Qigong” by the CQSRA, and received a permit to teach nationwide.
- 1992 – Li and several Falun Gong students participate in the 1992 Asian Health Expo in Beijing from December 12–21. Li receives the most awards of any master at the event.
- 1993 – Zhongguo Falungong (中国法轮功, China Falun Gong) is published by Military Yiwen Press in April. The book sets forth an explanation of Falun Gong’s basic cosmology, moral system, and exercises. A revised edition is released in December of the same year.
- 1993 – The Falun Xiulian Dafa Research Society is established as a branch of the CQSRA on July 30. 
- 1993 – On Sept 21, The People's Public Security Daily, a publication of the Ministry of Public Security, commends Falun Gong for “promoting the traditional crime-fighting virtues of the Chinese people, in safeguarding social order and security, and in promoting rectitude in society.”
- 1993 – Li participates in the Asian Health Expo in Beijing from Dec 11 - 20, and is proclaimed the “Most Acclaimed Qigong Master.” Falun Gong also received the “Special Gold Award” and award for “Advancing Frontier Science.” 
- 1994 – The Jilin Province Qigong Science Research Association proclaims Li Hongzhi a “Grandmaster of Qigong” on May 6.
- 1994 –On August 3, the City of Houston, Texas, declares Li Hongzhi an honorary citizen for his “unselfish public service for the benefit and welfare of mankind.” 
- 1994 – Li ceased to charge fees for his classes, and thereafter insists that Falun Gong must be taught free of charge.
- 1994 – On December 31, Li gives his last seminar series on Falun Gong practice in the city of Dalian before a crowd of roughly 6,600. 
- 1995 – Zhuan Falun (转法轮), the complete teachings of Falun Gong, is published in January. A publication ceremony is held in the Ministry of Public Security auditorium on January 4. 
- 1995 – In February, Li is approached by the Chinese National Sports Committee, Ministry of Public Health, and China Qigong Science Research Association to jointly establish a Falun Gong association. Li declines the offer.
- 1995 – At the invitation of the Chinese embassy in Paris, Li begins teaching Falun Gong abroad. On March 13, he gives a seven-day class in Paris, followed by another lecture series in Sweden in May. 
1996 – July 1999
As Falun Gong’s popularity increases in Mainland China, Li Hongzhi moves to the United States in 1996. Falun Gong withdraws from the China Qigong Scientific Research Association in early 1996, and thereafter finds itself the subject of growing scrutiny and criticism from the government and in the state-run press. Tensions continue to escalate over this period, culminating in a demonstration on 25 April 1999 near the Zhongnanhai government compound, where over ten thousand Falun Gong practitioners gather to request official recognition. Following the event Jiang Zemin, then-leader of the Communist Party, quietly prepares for the launch of a nationwide campaign to suppress the practice.
- 1996 — Zhuan Falun is listed as a bestseller by Beijing Youth Daily (北京青年报) in January, March, and April.
- 1996 — Falun Gong files for withdrawal from the China Qigong Scientific Research Association in March. Li later explains that he had found the state-run CQRA to be more concerned with profiting from qigong than engaging in genuine research. Li had also apparently balked at new CQRA policy that mandated that all qigong practices create Party branches within their organizations. Falun Gong is left entirely without government oversight or sanction.
- 1996 — At Li’s direction, administrators of the Falun Gong Research Association of China apply for registration with three other government organizations, including the Buddhist Association of China and United Front Work Department. All applications are denied.
- 1996 — The first major state-run media article criticizing Falun Gong appears in the Guangming Daily newspaper on June 17. The article writes that Falun Gong represents a manifestation of feudal superstition, and that its core text Zhuan Falun is a work of "pseudo-science" that swindles the masses.
- 1996—In the latter half of the year, the state-run Buddhist Association of China begins issuing criticisms of Falun Gong, and urging its members not to take up the practice. 
- 1996 — On July 24, Falun Gong books are banned from further publication by the China News Publishing Bureau, a branch of the Ministry of Propaganda. The reason cited for the ban is that Falun Gong is “spreading superstition.” Pirated and copied versions of Falun Gong books proliferate, with Li Hongzhi’s approval.
- 1997 — The Ministry of Public Security launches an investigation into whether Falun Gong should be deemed xie jiao (邪教, “evil religion”). The report concludes that “no evidence has appeared thus far.”
- 1997-1999 — Criticism of Falun Gong escalates in state-run media. With the encouragement of Li, Falun Gong practitioners respond to criticisms by peacefully petitioning outside media offices seeking redress against perceived unfair reporting. The tactic succeeds frequently, often resulting in the retraction of critical articles.
- 1998 — On July 21, the Ministry of Public Security issues Document No. 555, "Notice of the Investigation of Falun Gong." The document asserts that Falun Gong is an “evil religion,” and mandates that another investigation be launched to seek evidence of the conclusion. Falun Gong practitioners report having phone lines tapped, homes ransacked and raided, and Falun Gong exercise sites disrupted.
- 1998 — Qiao Shi, the recently retired Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, leads his own investigation into Falun Gong in response to Document No. 555. After months of investigations, the group concluded that “Falun Gong has hundreds of benefits for the Chinese people and nation, and does not a bit of harm.”
- 1998— China’s National Sports Commission launches its own investigation in May, and commissions medical professionals to conduct interviews of over 12,000 Falun Gong adherents in Guangdong province. 97.9 percent of respondents say Falun Gong improved their health. By October the investigation concludes, noting “We’re convinced the exercises and effects of Falun Gong are excellent. It has done an extraordinary amount to improve society’s stability and ethics. This should be duly affirmed.”
- 1998 — Estimates provided by the State Sports Commission suggest there are upwards of 70 millions Falun Gong practitioners in China.
- 1999 — Wu Shaozu, An official from China’s National Sports Commission, says in an interview with U.S. News & World Report on February 14 that as many as 100 million may have taken up Falun Gong and other forms of qigong. Wu notes that the popularity of Falun Gong dramatically reduces health care costs, and “Premier Zhu Rongji is very happy about that.”
- 1999 - In April He Zuoxiu, physcist and brother-in-law of Luo Gan, publishes an article in Tianjin Normal University’s Youth Reader magazine criticizing Falun Gong as superstitious and potentially harmful for youth.
- 1999 — Tianjin Falun Gong practitioners respond to the article by peacefully petitioning in front of the editorial offices. Editors initially agree to publish a retraction of the He Zuoxiu article, then renege. 
- 1999 — On April 22, some 300 security forces are called in to break up ongoing Falun Gong demonstration. 45 Falun Gong practitioners are beaten and detained.
- 1999 — Falun Gong adherents petition Tianjin City Hall for the release of the detained practitioners. They are reportedly told that the order to break up the crowd and detain protesters came from central authorities in Beijing. 
- 1999 — On April 25, 10,000+ Falun Gong adherents quietly assemble outside the Central Appeals Office, adjacent to the Zhongnanhai leadership compound in Beijing. Five Falun Gong representatives meet with Premier Zhu Rongji to request official recognition and an end to escalating harassment against the group. Zhu agrees to release the Tianjin practitioners, and assures the representatives that the government does not oppose Falun Gong. The same day however, at the urging of Luo Gan, Communist Party chief Jiang Zemin issues a letter stating his intention to suppress the practice.
- 1999 — The “6-10 Office” is established on June 10 at the behest of Jiang Zemin. Luo Gan is selected to lead the organization to eradicate Falun Gong. Preparations are quietly made for a the launch of a large-scale propaganda campaign against Falun Gong and for the arrest of thousands of practitioners.
- 1999 — As rumors spread of an impending crackdown, the Chinese government issued Document No. 27 on June 14, a “deceptive denial” that there are no such preparations underway.
1999 – 2001
In July 1999, a nationwide campaign is rolled out to “eradicate” Falun Gong. The suppression campaign is characterized by a “massive propaganda campaign” against the group, public burnings of Falun Gong books, and imprisonment of tens of thousands of Falun Gong adherents in prisons, reeducation through labor camps, psychiatric hospitals and other detention facilities. Authorities are given the broad mandate of ‘transforming’ adherents, resulting in the widespread use of torture against Falun Gong practitioners, sometimes resulting in death.
From late 1999 to early 2001, hundreds of Falun Gong practitioners per day travel to Tiananmen Square to stage peaceful protests against the suppression. The protests take the form of performing Falun Gong exercises or meditation, or holding banner proclaiming Falun Gong’s innocence. The protests are broken up, often violently, by security forces.
- 1999 — On July 20, hundreds of Falun Gong practitioners and volunteer organizers are arrested across 22 cities in China. Tens of thousands petition local, provincial and central appeals offices in response.
- 1999 — On July 22, The Public Security Bureau announces a ban on Falun Gong, stating that the possession of Falun Gong literature or other materials is forbidden, along with the display of Falun Gong symbols, public practice of Falun Gong exercises, and actions to protest the ban. Mass arrests ensue. Millions of copies of Falun Gong literature is confiscated, and book burnings are held in major cities. A nationwide propaganda campaign is launched to discredit Falun Gong.
- 1999 — In October, 30 Falun Gong adherents hold a secret press conference for foreign media in Beijing to tell of the violence and persecution they are suffering. At the end of the press briefing, participants are arrested, and some of the foreign reporters present are questioned and briefly detained. Ten of the organizers were detained almost immediately afterwards, and one of them, a 31-year-old hairdresser names Ding Yan, is later tortured to death in custody. During the press conference, some of the first allegations of Falun Gong torture deaths in custody are made.
- 1999 - In late October, at Jiang Zemin’s urging, the Supreme People’s Court issues a judicial interpretation of article 300 of the criminal code. The decision states that Falun Gong constitutes an evil religion, thus providing retroactive justification for the ongoing crackdown. 
- 1999 — On December 27th, four high-profile Falun Gong practitioners are put on trial for “undermining the implementaion of the law” and illegally obtaining state secrets. They include Beijing engineer and prominent Falun Gong organizer Zhiwen Wang, sentenced to 16 years in prison, and Li Chang, an official of the Ministry of Public Security, sentenced to 18 years.
- 2000 — During Lunar New Year celebrations in early February, at least 2,000 Falun Gong practitioners are detained on Tiananmen Square while attempting to peacefully protest the ban against the group.
- 2000 — On April 20, Wall Street Journal reporter Ian Johnson publishes the first article in a series on Falun Gong. The article details the torture death of 58-year-old grandmother in Weifang city, who was beaten, shocked, and forced to run barefoot through the snow because she refused to denounce Falun Gong. Johnson went on to win the 2001 Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting for the series.
- 2000 — On April 21, Xinhua News Agency admits for the first time the difficulty the Central authorities have had in stamping out Falun Gong, noting that since “July 22, 1999, Falun Gong members have been causing trouble on and around Tiananmen Sqaure in Central Beijing nearly every day.” 
- 2000 — Zhao Ming, a graduate student at Ireland’s Trinity College, is sent to the Tuanhe forced labor camp in Beijing in May. He spends two years in the camp amidst international pressure for his release, and is reportedly tortured with electric batons.
- 2000 — In May, expatriate Falun Gong practitioners in New York publish the first edition of Dajiyuan, a newspaper intended to serve as an alternative to the state-run Chinese media. A website is launched in August of the same year.
- 2000 — On October 1st, thousands of Falun Gong adherents travel to Tiananmen Square to stage protests against the suppression. Foreign media correspondents witness security officers beating and practitioners on the square. 
- 2000 — In November, Zhang Kunlun, a Canadian citizen and professor of art, is detained while visiting his mother in China and held in a forced labor camp where he reported being beaten and shocked with electric batons. Canadian politicians intervene on his behalf, eventually winning his release to Canada.
- 2001 — On 23 January, five individuals set themselves on fire on Tiananmen Square. State-run media claim they are Falun Gong adherents, driven to suicide by the practice. Falun Gong sources deny involvement, saying that Falun Gong forbids suicide, and arguing that the event was staged by the government to turn public opinion against the practice.
- 2001 — As sympathy for Falun Gong erodes in Mainland China, authorities for the first time openly sanction the “systematic use of violence” against the group, establishing a network of brainwashing classes and rooting out Falun Gong practitioners “neighborhood by neighborhood and workplace by workplace.”
- 2001 — By February, international concern grows around psychiatric abuses committed against Falun Gong adherents, several hundred of whom had reportedly been held and tortured in psychiatric facilities for refusing to denounce the practice.
- 2001 — On November 20, a group of 35 Falun Gong practitioners from 12 different countries gathers on Tiananmen Square to meditate under a banner that reads: “Truth, Compassion, Tolerance” – Falun Gong’s core moral tenets. They are arrested within minutes, and some are beaten while resisting arrest.
- 2001 — On December 23, a New York District Court hands down a default judgement against Zhao Zhifei, Public Security Bureau chief for Hubei Province, for his role in the wrongful death and torture of Falun Gong adherents.
2002 – 2004
By 2002, Falun Gong adherents had all but completely abandoned the approach of protesting on Tiananmen Square, and coverage in Western news outlets declined precipitously.
Falun Gong adherents continued adopting more novel approaches to protesting, including the establishment of a vast network of underground ‘material sites’ that create and distribute literature, and tapping into television broadcasts to replace them with Falun Gong content. Practitioners outside China established a television station to broadcast into China, designed censorship-circumvention tools to break through Internet censorship and surveillance, and filed dozens of largely symbolic lawsuits against Jiang Zemin and other Chinese officials alleging genocide and crimes against humanity.
From 2002–2004, the three paramount positions of power in China were transferred from Jiang Zemin to Hu Jintao. Annual Falun Gong deaths in custody continued to grow through 2004, according to reports published by Falun Gong sources, but coverage of Falun Gong in the Chinese state-run press declined over the period.
- 2002 — On February 14, 53 Falun Gong adherents from North America, Europe and Australia attempt to stage a demonstration on Tiananmen Square. They are detained, and several reportedly assaulted by security forces before being expelled from China.
- 2002 — On March 5, a group of six Falun Gong practitioners in Changchun city intercept television broadcasts, replacing them with content about Falun Gong and the suppression. Apparently believing that it to be a signal that the ban on Falun Gong had been lifted, citizens pour into public squares to celebrate. The Falun Gong broadcasts run for 50 minutes before the city goes black. Over the next three days, security forces arrest some 5,000 Falun Gong practitioners in Changchun. Amnesty International reports that “police ‘stop-and-search’ checkpoints have reportedly been established across the city.” All six individuals involved in the television hijacking are later tortured to death.
- 2002 — In June, Jiang Zemin visits Iceland. Dozens of Falun Gong practitioners from around the world attempt to travel to the country to protest, but find their names on an international blacklist organized at the behest of Chinese authorities, suggesting extensive espionage against foreign Falun Gong adherents. 
- 2002 — Falun Gong adherents in New York establish New Tang Dynasty Television, a Chinese-language station created to present an alternative to state-run Chinese media.
- 2002 — On July 24, U.S. House of Representatives passes a unanimous resolution (House Concurrent Resolution 188) condemning the persecution of Falun Gong in China.
- 2002 — On October 21, Falun Gong adherents from North America, Europe and Australia file a legal case against Jiang Zemin, Zeng Qinghong, and Luo Gan to the United Nations Human Rights Committee and the International Criminal Court for their involvement in the suppression of Falun Gong.
- 2002 — In November, Hu Jintao begins the process of taking over China’s leadership from Jiang Zemin, assuming the position General Secretary of the Communist Party.
- 2003 — On January 22, Falun Gong practitioner and American citizen Dr. Charles Lee is arrested by security forces in Nanjing immediately upon his arrival in China. Lee is sentenced to three years in prison.
- 2003 — On May 1, Pan Xinchun, Deputy Consul General at the Chinese consulate in Toronto, published a letter in the Toronto Star in which he said that local Falun Gong practitioner Joel Chipkar is a member of a “sinister cult.” In February 2004, the Ontario Superior Court found Pan liable for libel, and demanded he pay $10,000 in compensation to Chipkar. Pan refused to pay, and left Canada.
- 2003 — June, A San Francisco District Court issues a default ruling against Beijing Party Secretary and former Beijing Mayor Liu Qi and Deputy Governor of Liaoning Province Xia Deren, who had been accused of overseeing the torture of Falun Gong adherents.
- 2003 — On December 26, Liu Chengjun, one of the leaders behind the Changchun television broadcasts, is tortured to death while serving out a 19-year prison sentence.
- 2004 — In October, U.S. House of Representatives passed a unanimous resolution detailing and condemning the Chinese government’s attempts to interfere with and intimidate Falun Gong adherents in the United States. 
- 2004 — In November, Dajiyuan newspaper publishes “Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party” (Jiuping Gongchandang), a editorial series providing a highly critical account of the Communist Party’s history and human rights abuses. The event marks the beginning of a trend toward more overt criticism of the Communist Party by Falun Gong adherents.
- 2004 — In December, prominent Weiquan lawyer Gao Zhisheng writes to the National People’s Congress detailing torture and sexual abuse against Falun Gong adherents in custody. In response to his letter, Gao’s lawfirm is shut down, his legal license is revoked, and he is put under house arrest.
2005 – 2007
As Falun Gong becomes more overt in its rhetorical charges against Communist Party rule, allegations emerge that Chinese security agencies engage in large-scale overseas spying operations against Falun Gong practitioners, and that Falun Gong prisoners in China are killed to supply China's organ transplant industry.
- 2005 — On February 15, Li Hongzhi issues a statement renouncing his earlier membership in the Communist Youth League.
- 2005 — On June 4, Chinese diplomat Chen Yonglin, a political consul at the Chinese consulate in Sydney, defects to Australia. He reports that a large part of his job was to monitor and harass Falun Gong adherens in Australia. Days later, on June 8, Hao Fengjun, a former member of the Tianjin city 610 office, goes public with his story of defection, and tells of abuse against Falun Gong in China.
- 2005 — On June 16, Gao Rongrong is reported tortured to death in Shenyang at the age of 37.
- 2005 — In June, the number of Falun Gong adherents allegedly killed as a result or torture and abuse in custody exceeds 2,500.
- 2006 — UN special rapporteur on torture Manfred Nowak releases the findings of his 2005 investigation on torture in China. He reports that two-thirds of reported torture cases are against Falun Gong adherents.
- 2006 — In March, unverified allegations are advanced by two Chinese individuals that the vital organs of large numbers of non-consenting Falun Gong adherents are used to supply the organ transplant industry in the city of Shenyang.
- 2006 — In July of 2006, former Canadian Member of Parliament David Kilgour and international human rights attorney David Matas release the findings of their investigation into allegations of organ harvesting. Although their evidence was largely circumstantial, they conclude that involuntary organ extractions from Falun Gong adherents are widespread and ongoing. Chinese officials deny the allegations.
- 2007 — Falun Gong sources report that the number of persecution deaths exceeds 3,000.
2008 – present
Top-level Chinese authorities continue to launch strike-hard campaigns against Falun Gong surrounding sensitive events and anniversaries, and step up efforts to coercively "transform" Falun Gong adherents in detention facilities and reeducation centers. Lawyers who seek to represent Falun Gong defendants continue to face punishment from Chinese authorities, including harassment, disbarment, and imprisonment.
- 2008 — On February 6, popular folk musician Yu Zhou is tortured to death 11 days after being taken into custody in Beijing. His wife, artist Xu Na, is sentenced to 3 years in prison for possessing Falun Gong literature.
- 2008 — In the first six months of the year, over 8,000 Falun Gong adherents are abducted by security forces under the pretext of preventing protests during the Beijing Olympics.
- 2009 — Communist Party heir apparent Xi Jinping is put in charge of 6521 Project, a strike hard effort to crack down on Tibetans, democracy activists and Falun Gong adherents around sensitive anniversaries. Zhou Yongkang heads a parallel effort to crack down on Falun Gong adherents, ethnic separatism, and protests.
- 2009 — In March, U.S. House of Representatives passes a resolution on recognizing and condemning the ongoing suppression of Falun Gong in China.
- 2009 — On May 13, Weiquan lawyers Zhang Kai and Li Chunfu are violently beaten and detained in Chongqing for investigating the death of Jiang Xiqing, a 66-year-old Falun Gong practitioner killed in a labor camp.
- 2009 — On 4 July, Dalian city lawyer Wang Yonghang is taken from his home by security agents, interrogated, and beaten for defending Falun Gong adherents. In November 2009, Wang was sentenced in a closed court to seven years in prison for his advocacy on behalf of Falun Gong practitioners. When his lawyers were permitted to see him in January 2010, they reported that he had been tortured.
- 2009 — In November, Jiang Zemin and other high-ranking Chinese officials are indicted by a Spanish court on charges of genocide and crimes against humanity for their involvement in the suppression of Falun Gong. A month later, an Argentine judge concludes that top Chinese officials Jiang Zemin and Luo Gan had adopted a "genocidal strategy" in pursuing the eradication of Falun Gong, and asks Interpol to seek their arrest.
- 2010 — Over 100 Falun Gong practitioners in Shanghai are abducted and detained in connection with the Shanghai World Expo. Some reportedly face torture for their refusal to disavow Falun Gong.
- 2010 — In the Spring of 2010, Chinese authorities launch a new, three-year campaign whose goal is to coercively transform large portions of the known Falun Gong population through attendance in reeducation classes.
- 2010 — On 22 April 2010, Beijing lawyers Liu Wei and Tang Jitian were permanently disbarred for defending Falun Gong practitioners.
- 2011 — In May, a lawsuit is filed on behalf of Falun Gong adherents against Cisco. The suit alleges, based mainly on internal Cisco documents, that the technology company "designed and implemented a surveillance system for the Chinese Communist Party, knowing it would be used to root out members of the Falun Gong religion and subject them to detention, forced labor and torture."
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- ^ The Epoch Times “Essential Information on Organ Harvesting from Falun Gong Practitioners in China,” accessed 19 Mar 2011
- ^ David Kilgour and David Kilgour, “Bloody Harvest: Kilgour Matas Report on Allegation of Organ Harvesting from Falun Gong Practitioners in China,” 2007
- ^ New York Times, Falun Gong, accessed 19 Mar 2011
- ^ Falun Dafa Information Center, “Thousands of Falun Gong Adherents Arrested throughout China in Run Up to Olympics,” July 7, 2008
- ^ Ching Cheong. "China Acts to Defuse 'Crisis Year'". Singapore Straits Times. 3 March 2009
- ^ Einhorn, Bruce. "Congress Challenges China on Falun Gong & Yuan, Business Week, 17 March 2010
- ^ Human Rights in China, 'Beijing Lawyers Beaten for Representing Falun Gong Case', 13 May 2009.
- ^ Amnesty International. 'Human Rights Lawyer Detained, Tortured'. 28 July 2009
- ^ Congressional Executive Commission on China. '2010 Annual Report', 10 Oct 2010, p 104.
- ^ Charlotte Cuthbertson, “Spanish Judge Calls Top Chinese Officials to Account for Genocide,” Nov 15, 2009, accessed 19 Mar 2011
- ^ Luis Andres Henao, “Argentine judge asks China arrests over Falun Gong,” Dec 22, 2009
- ^ Falun Dafa Information Center, “Amnesty International Issues Urgent Action for Missing Shanghai Falun Gong Practitioner”, 13 May 2010, accessed 19 Mar 2011
- ^ Congressional Executive Commission, 2010 Annual Report, Oct 10 2010.
- ^ CECC, Communist Party Calls for Increased Efforts To "Transform" Falun Gong Practitioners as Part of Three-Year Campaign”, March 22, 2011, accessed 19 Mar 2011
- ^ Amnesty International, "China: No Rule of Law when Defence Lawyers Cannot Perform their Legitimate Role," 05-10-2010
- ^ Terry Baynes, 'Suit claims Cisco helped China repress religious group', Reuters, 20 May 2011.
- Pulitzer.org - The 2001 Pulitzer Prize Winners: International Reporting: Wall Street Journal: Ian Johnson
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Persécution de Falun gong — Répression du Falun Gong Le mouvement Falun Gong (pratique du Qi Gong) est interdit en Chine et officiellement réprimé depuis 1999. Une controverse existe sur l ampleur, la nature et les motifs réels de cette répression, parfois qualifiée de… … Wikipédia en Français
Persécution du Falun gong — Répression du Falun Gong Le mouvement Falun Gong (pratique du Qi Gong) est interdit en Chine et officiellement réprimé depuis 1999. Une controverse existe sur l ampleur, la nature et les motifs réels de cette répression, parfois qualifiée de… … Wikipédia en Français
Répression du Falun Gong — Le mouvement Falun Gong (pratique du Qi Gong) est interdit en Chine et officiellement réprimé depuis 1999. Une controverse existe sur l ampleur, la nature et les motifs réels de cette répression, parfois qualifiée de « persécution », la … Wikipédia en Français
Répression du Falun gong — Le mouvement Falun Gong (pratique du Qi Gong) est interdit en Chine et officiellement réprimé depuis 1999. Une controverse existe sur l ampleur, la nature et les motifs réels de cette répression, parfois qualifiée de « persécution », la … Wikipédia en Français