- Duchy of Oldenburg
(Grand) Duchy of Oldenburg
(Groß) Herzogtum Oldenburg
1180–1918 → Flag Coat of arms Anthem
Heil dir, o Oldenburg
German Empire Capital Oldenburg Government Monarchy History - Established 1180 - Part of Denmark 1667–1773 - Raised to Duchy 1774 - Raised to Grand Duchy 1829 - German Revolution 1918 Currency till 1858: 1 VereinsTaler = 72 Grote = 360 Schwaren
1858 to 1871: 1 Taler = 30 Groschen
Oldenburg (Low German: Ollnborg) — named after its capital, the town of Oldenburg — was a state in the north of present-day Germany. Oldenburg survived from 1180 until 1918 as a county, duchy and grand duchy, and from 1918 until 1946 as a free state. It was located near the mouth of the River Weser. Its ruling family, the House of Oldenburg, also came to rule in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Greece and Russia.
The first known count of Oldenburg is Elimar I, Count of Oldenburg (d. 1108). Elimar's ancestors appear as vassals, though sometimes rebellious ones, of the dukes of Saxony; but they attained the dignity of princes of the empire when the emperor Frederick I dismembered the Saxon duchy in 1180. At this time, the county of Delmenhorst formed part of the dominions of the counts of Oldenburg, but afterwards it was on several occasions separated from them to form an apanage for younger branches of the family. This was the case between 1262 and 1447, between 1463 and 1547, and between 1577 and 1617.
During the early part of the 13th century the counts carried on a series of wars with independent, or semi-independent, Frisian princes to the north and west of the county, which resulted in a gradual expansion of the Oldenburgian territory. The free city of Bremen and the bishop of Münster were also frequently at war with the counts of Oldenburg.
In 1440, Christian succeeded his father Dietrich, called Fortunatus, as Count of Oldenburg. In 1448 Christian was elected king of Denmark as Christian I, partly based on his maternal descent from previous Danish kings. Although far away from the Danish borders, Oldenburg was now a Danish exclave. The control over the town was left to the king's brothers, who established a short reign of tyranny.
In 1450 Christian became king of Norway and in 1457 king of Sweden; in 1460 he inherited the Duchy of Schleswig and the County of Holstein, an event of high importance for the future history of Oldenburg. In 1454 he handed over Oldenburg to his brother Gerhard (about 1430–99), a wild prince, who was constantly at war with the bishop of Bremen and other neighbors. In 1483, Gerhard was compelled to abdicate in favor of his sons, and he died while on pilgrimage in Spain.
Early in the 16th century Oldenburg was again enlarged at the expense of the Frisians. Protestantism was introduced into the county by Count Anton I (1505–73), who also suppressed the monasteries; however, he remained loyal to Charles V during the Schmalkaldic War, and was able thus to increase his territories, obtaining Delmenhorst in 1547. One of Anton's brothers, Count Christopher of Oldenburg (about 1506–60), won some reputation as a soldier.
Anton's grandson, Anton Günther (1583–1667), who succeeded in 1603, considered himself the wisest prince who had yet ruled Oldenburg. Jever had been acquired before he became count, but in 1624 he added Kniphausen and Varel to his lands, with which in 1647 Delmenhorst was finally united. By his neutrality during the Thirty Years' War and by donating valuable horses to warlord Count of Tilly, Anton Günther secured for his dominions an immunity from the terrible devastations to which nearly all the other states of Germany were exposed. He also obtained from the emperor the right to levy tolls on vessels passing along the Weser, a lucrative grant which soon formed a material addition to his resources. In 1607 he erected a Renaissance castle.
After the death of Anton Günther, Oldenburg fell again under Danish authority. In 1773, Danish rule ended and, in 1777, the County of Oldenburg was raised to a duchy. By the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803, Oldenburg acquired the Oldenburger Münsterland and the Bishopric of Lübeck. Between 1810 and 1814, Oldenburg was occupied by Napoleonic France. Its annexation into the French Empire, in 1810, was one of the causes for the diplomatic rift between former allies France and Russia, a dispute that would lead to war in 1812 and eventually to Napoleon's downfall. In 1815 it acquired the Principality of Birkenfeld and in 1829 Oldenburg became a grand duchy.
In 1937 (with the Greater Hamburg Act), it lost the exclave districts of Eutin near the Baltic coast and Birkenfeld in southwestern Germany to Prussia and gained the City of Wilhelmshaven; however, this was a formality, as the Hitler regime had de facto abolished the federal states in 1934.
By the beginning of World War II in 1939, as a result of these territorial changes, Oldenburg had an area of 5,375 km² (2,075.3 sq mi) and 580,000 inhabitants.
After World War II, Oldenburg was merged into the newly founded state of Lower Saxony as the administrative region (Regierungsbezirk) of Oldenburg, both of which became a part of West Germany.
- Rulers of Oldenburg
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Anonymous (1911). "Oldenburg". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 71,72. http://www.archive.org/stream/encyclopdiabri20chis#page/70/mode/2up.
Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle (1500–1806) of the Holy Roman Empire Ecclesiastical Prelates Secular Counts
and lordsfrom 1500Bentheim · Bronkhorst (until 1719) · Diepholz · East Frisia (until 1667) · Horne3 (until 1614) · Hoya · Lingen3 · Lippe · Manderscheid (until 1546) · Moers (until 1541) · Nassau (Diez · Hadamar · Dillenburg (until 1664)) · Oldenburg (until 1777) · Pyrmont · Ravensberg3 · Reichenstein · Rietberg · Salm-Reifferscheid · Sayn · Schaumburg · Tecklenburg · Virneburg · Wied · Winneburg and Beilstein · Zimerauff?from 1792status
Cities1 from 1792. 2 until 1792. 3 without Reichstag seat. ? status uncertain. States of the Confederation of the Rhine (1806–13) Rank elevated
by NapoleonKingdomsGrand Duchies
States createdKingdomsGrand DuchiesPrincipalities Pre-existing
statesDuchiesPrincipalities1 from 1810. 2 until 1810. 3 until 1809. 4 from 1809. 5 until 1811.
States of the German Confederation (1815–66) Empires Kingdoms Electorates Grand Duchies Duchies Principalities City-states Other territories
outside of the
confederacyColonial possessions · Personal unions of Habsburg (Bukovina · Croatia · Galicia and Lodomeria · Hungary · Lombardy–Venetia · Serbian Voivodeship and Banat8 · Slavonia9 · Transylvania) · Personal union of Hanover (Great Britain and Ireland10) · Personal unions of Hohenzollern (East Prussia11 · Neuchâtel12 · Posen, Gr. Duchy13 · Posen, Prov.14 · Prussia, Prov.15 · West Prussia11) · Occupied: Schleswig161 w/o areas listed under other territories. 2 Merged with Anhalt from 1863. 3 until 1847. 4 from 1839. 5 from 1826. 6 until 1826. 7 until 1850. 8 1849–60. 9 as of 1849. 10 until 1837. 11 until 1829. 12 until 1848/57. 13 until 1848. 14 as of 1848. 15 as of 1829. 16 as of 1864.
States of the North German Confederation (1866–71) Kingdoms Grand Duchies Duchies Principalities City-states States of the German Empire (1871–1918) Kingdoms Grand Duchies Duchies Principalities City-states Other territoriesElsaß-Lothringen · Colonial possessions
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Grand Duchy of Oldenburg State Railways — The Grand Duchy of Oldenburg Railway ( Großherzoglich Oldenburgische Eisenbahn or GOE ) was the railway company that was run as a state railway for the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg ( Großherzogtum Oldenburg ), part of the German Empire.Compared with… … Wikipedia
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Oldenburg G 1 — Number(s): 46 Manufacturer: Krauss inter alia Year(s) of manufacture: 1867–1877 Retired … Wikipedia
Oldenburg T 2 — DRG Class 98.1 Number(s): DRG 98 101–137 Quantity: 38 Manufacturer: Hanomag Year(s) of manufacture: 1896–1913 Retired: 1931 Wheel arrangement: 0 4 0 Axle arrangement … Wikipedia
Oldenburg P 4.1 — DRG Class 36.12 Number(s): 36 1201–19 Quantity: 19 Year(s) of manufacture: 1896–1902 Wheel arrangement: 4 4 0 Axle arrangement: 2 B n2 Type: P 24 Gauge … Wikipedia
Oldenburg S 5 — DRG Class 13.18 Number(s): DRG 13 1851–1861 Quantity: 11 Manufacturer: Hanomag Year(s) of manufacture: 1909 1913 Retired: 1927 Wheel arrangement: 4 4 0 Axle arrangem … Wikipedia
Oldenburg P 4.2 — DRG Class 36.12 Number(s): DRG 36 1251 1258 Quantity: 8 Manufacturer: Hanomag Year(s) of manufacture: 1907 1909 Retired: 1929 Wheel arrangement: 4 4 0 Axle arr … Wikipedia
Oldenburg S 3 — DRG Class 13.18 Number(s): 151–154, 160, 161 DRG 13 1801–1806 Quantity: 6 Manufacturer: Hanoma … Wikipedia
Oldenburg G 4.2 — DRG Class 53.10 Number(s): DRG 53 1001–1003, 1051–1058 Quantity: 27 Manufacturer: Hanomag Year(s) of manufacture: 1895 1909 Retired: 1927 Wheel arrangement: 0 6 0 … Wikipedia
Oldenburg G 7 — DRG Class 55.62 Wheel arrangement: 0 8 0 Axle arrangement: D n2v Service weight: 58.6 t Adhesive weight: 58.6 t Top speed: 45 km/h Driving wheel diameter: 1,350 mm … Wikipedia