Prince of Orange


Prince of Orange
Coat of Arms of the city/town of Orange in the Vaucluse. They were granted to the city by the princes of Orange of the house of des Baux in the last quarter of the XIIth century.[1]
Coat of Arms of the counts of Orange of the first house of Orange. It came to stand for the principality of Orange.[2]

Prince of Orange is a title of nobility, originally associated with the Principality of Orange, in what is now southern France. In French it is la Principauté d'Orange.

The title is carried by members of the House of Orange-Nassau, as heirs to the crown of the Netherlands. Rival claims to the title are made by members of the House of Hohenzollern and the family of Mailly. The current holders of the title are Prince Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands (Orange-Nassau), Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia (Hohenzollern), and Guy, Marquis de Mailly-Neslé (Mailly).

Contents

History

County of Orange

Four generations Princes of Orange - William I, Maurice and Frederick Henry, William II, William III (Willem van Honthorst, 1662)

The title originally referred to Orange, Vaucluse in the Rhone valley in southern France, which was a property of the House of Orange, then the House of Baux and the House of Châlon-Arlay before passing in 1544 to the House of Orange-Nassau.

The area started as the County of Orange, a fief in the Holy Roman Empire, in its constituent Kingdom of Burgundy. It was awarded to William of Gellone, a grandson of Charles Martel and therefore a cousin of Charlemagne, around the year 800 for his services in the wars against the Moors and reconquering southern France and the Spanish March. His Occitan name is Guilhem. However, as a Frankish lord, he probably knew himself by the old Germanic version of Wilhelm. William was also count of Toulouse, duke of Aquitaine, and marquis of Septimania. The horn that came to symbolize Orange when heraldry came in vogue much later in the 12th century was a pun on his name in French, from the character his deeds inspired in the chanson de geste, the Chanson de Guillaume, "Guillaume au Court Nez" or "Guillaume au Cornet".[3] The chanson appears to be based on William of Gellone's battle at the Orbieu or Orbiel river near Carcassonne in 793 as wells as his seizure of the town of Orange.[4]

Principality of Orange

As the kingdom of Burgundy fragmented in the early Middle Ages, the title was raised by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa elevated to a principality in 1163 to shore up his supporters in Burgundy against the Pope and the King of France. As the Empire's boundaries retreated from those of the principality, the prince acceded to the sovereign rights that the Emperor used to exercise.[dubious ] As William the Silent wrote in his marriage proposal to the uncle of his second wife, the Elector August of Saxony, he held Orange as "my own free property", not as a fief of anyone else, neither the Pope, nor the King of Spain or France.[5][6] However, in the days where one's position honor and reputation were determined by such things, it drove William the Silent forward as much as it also fueled his great grandson's William III's opposition to Louis XIV when that king continually invaded and occupied Orange.

The last descendant of the original princes, René of Nassau, left the principality to his cousin William the Silent, who was not a descendant of the original Orange family but the legal heir to the principality of Orange.

Map of the principality of Orange in the 16th century.

In 1673, Louis XIV of France annexed all territory of the principality to the royal domain, as part of the war actions against the stadtholder William III of Orange — who later became King William III of England and King William II of Scotland. Orange ceased to exist as a separate sovereign principality, or in today's parlance, a separate sovereign nation.

In 1673, Louis XIV bestowed the (now non-sovereign) principality on Louis of Mailly-Nesles, marquis of Nesles (1689–1764), a very remote descendant of the original princes of Orange, through the marriage of the marquis to a descendant of the Chalons & des Baux.[7] His descendant still claims the title today. In 1714 Louis XIV bestowed the usufruct of the principality on Prince Louis Armand of Bourbon-Conti. He died in 1727 and the principality was merged in the Crown in 1731.[8]

Abolition of the principality, continuation of the title

Because William III died without legitimate children, the principality was regarded as having been inherited by his closest cognate relative on the basis of the testament of Frederic-Henry, Frederick I of Prussia, who ceded the principality — at least the lands, but not the formal title — to France in 1713.[9] France supported his claim. In this way, the territory of the principality lost its feudal and secular privileges and became a part of France. The Treaty of Utrecht allowed the King of Prussia to erect part of the duchy of Gelderland (the cities of Geldern, Straelen and Wachtendonk with their bailiwicks, Krickenbeck (including Viersen), the land of Kessel, the lordships of Afferden, Arcen-Velden-Lomm, Walbeck-Twisteden, Raay and Klein-Kevelaer, Well, Bergen and Middelaar) into a new Principality of Orange.[10] The kings of Prussia and the German emperors styled themselves Princes of Orange till 1918.

A detailed map of the principality in the first half of the 17th century reproduced from the famous 1627 Atlas of Willem Janszoon Blaeu. The area of the principality was approximately 12 miles long by 9 miles wide, or 108 sq. miles.[11]

An agnatic relative of William III, John William Friso of Nassau, who was also descended by female line from William the Silent, was designated the heir to the princes of Orange in the Netherlands by the last will of William III. Several of his descendants became stadtholders. They claim the principality of Orange on the basis of agnatic inheritance, similar to that of William the Silent, inheriting from his cousin René, though not being descendants of the original princes of Orange. They also claim on basis of the testament of Philips William, Maurice and William III. Finally, they claim on the basis that Orange was an independent state, where the sovereign had the right to assign his succession according to his will. France never recognized any of this, nor allowed the Oranje-Nassaus or the Hohenzollerns to obtain anything of the principality itself. The Oranje-Nassaus nevertheless assumed the title and also erected several of their lordships as new principality of Orange.[12] [13] [14] From that derivation of the title comes the tradition of the house of Nassau-Dietz/Friesland, the later stadtholders of the Netherlands, and the present-day royal family of the Netherlands, of holding this title. They maintain the tradition of William the Silent and the house of Orange-Nassau.

Thus, there are now two [15] pretender claimants to this title, or claimants, depending on whose claims take precedence:

Bearers of the title

As Counts of Orange

House of Orange

No Name Picture Birth Became Count(ess) of Orange Ceased to be Count(ess) Death Other titles Spouse
1. Pons de Mevouillon Blismodis
2. Pons II de Mevouillon Richilde
3. Laugier de Nice Odile de Provence
3. Rambaud de Nice Accelena d’Apt
4. Bertrand-Rambaud d'Orange 1. Adélaïde de Cavenez
Gerberge
5. Raimbaut II ?
6. Tiburge d'Orange 1. Giraud Adhémar de Monteil
2. Guillaume d'Aumelas
7. Raimbaut of Orange Lord of Aumelas None

As sovereign prince of Orange

Until 1340, it was customary for all sons of the prince of Orange to inherit the title. Only the direct line of descent to Raimond V is shown here.

House of Baux

The house of Baux succeeded to the principality of Orange when Bertrand of Baux married the heiress of the last native count of Orange, Tiburge, daughter of William of Orange, Omelaz, and Montpellier. Their son was William I of Baux-Orange. Bertrand was the son of Raymond of Baux and Stephanie of Gevaudan. Stephanie was the younger daughter to the heiress of the counts of Provence.[16] For a genealogical table, see the reference cited:[17]

No Name Picture Birth Created Prince of Orange Ceased to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
1. Prince Bertrand I Sceau baux-orange.jpg 1110/1115 1173
After the death of his brother-in-law, Raimbaut, Count of Orange, the County of Orange was elevated to a principality in 1163 by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I.
April/October 1180 Lord of Baux Tibors de Sarenom

Bertrand I used as Prince of Orange the coat of arms of the House of Baux: a 16-pointed white star placed on a field of gules. Later on, the Princes of Orange quartered the legendary bugle-horn as a heraldic figure into their coat of arms.

House of Baux-Orange

No Name Arms Birth Became Prince of Orange Ceased to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
2. Prince William I Blason Baux-Orange.svg 1155 31 October 1180 bef. 30 July 1218 Co-Prince (with brothers); Lord of Baux 1. Ermengarde of Mévouillon
2. Alix
3. Prince William II Blason Baux-Orange.svg - 31 October 1180 bef. 1 November 1239 Co-Prince (with brothers); Lord of Baux Précieuse
4. Prince Raymond I Blason Baux-Orange.svg - bef. 30 July 1218 1282 Lord of Baux Malberjone of Aix
5. Prince Bertrand II Blason Baux-Orange.svg - 1282 aft. 21 July 1314 Lord of Baux Eleanore of Geneva
6. Prince Raymond II Blason Baux-Orange.svg - aft. 21 July 1314 1340, aft. 9 September Lord of Baux and Condorcet Anne of Viennois
7. Prince Raymond III Blason Baux-Orange.svg - aft. 9 September 1340 10 February 1393 Lord of Baux 1. Constance of Trian
2. Jeanne of Geneva
8. Princess Mary Blason Baux-Orange.svg - 10 February 1393 October 1417 Lady of Arlay, Cuiseaux, and Vitteaux Prince John I

House of Châlon-Arlay (also House of Ivrea of Anscarid dynasty)

The lords of Chalons and Arlay were a cadet branch of the ruling house of the county of Burgundy, the Anscarids or House of Ivrea. They married the heiress of Baux-Orange.

No Name Picture Arms Birth Became Prince of Orange Ceased to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
9. Prince John I none Blason famille fr Chalon Orange.svg - 10 February 1393 October 1417 2 September 1418 Lord of Arlay, Cuiseaux and Vitteaux Princess Mary
10. Prince Louis I none Blason famille fr Chalon Orange.svg 1390 October 1417 3 December 1463 Lord of Arlay, Arguel, Orbe, and Echelens 1. Jeanne of Montbéliard
2. Eleanor d'Armagnac
3. Blanche of Gamaches
11. Prince William II none Blason famille fr Chalon Orange.svg - 3 December 1463 27 September 1475 Lord of Arlay and Arguel Catherine of Brittany
12. Prince John II none Blason famille fr Chalon Orange.svg 1443 27 September 1475 15 April 1502 Count of Tonnerre; Lord of Arlay, Arguel and Montfaucon; Admiral of Guyenne 1. Jeanne de Bourbon
2. Philiberte of Luxembourg
13. Prince Philibert Philibert de Chalon.jpg Orange-chalon-bretagne.svg 18 March 1502 15 April 1502 3 August 1530 Viceroy of Naples; Prince of Melfi; Duke of Gravina; Count of Tonnerre, Charny, Penthièvre; Viscount of Besançon; Lord of Arlay, Nozeroy, Rougemont, Orgelet and Montfaucon, Lieutenant-General in the Imperial army. no wife

House of Châlon-Orange

Rene inherited the principality of Orange from his uncle Philbert on the condition that he bear the name and arms of the house of Châlon-Orange. Therefore, he is usually counted as one of the Châlon-Orange and history knows him as Rene of Châlon, rather than "of Nassau".[18]

No Name Picture Arms Birth Became Prince of Orange Ceased to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
14. Prince René Rene van Chalon.jpg Blason René de Nassau-Dillenbourg, Prince de Châlon-Orange.svg 5 February 1519 3 August 1530 15 July 1544 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Guelders; Count of Nassau, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Breda, Diest, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Anna of Lorraine

House of Orange-Nassau (first creation)

William of Nassau inherited the principality of Orange from his cousin Rene when Rene willed it to him, along with his other lordships. Although William had no blood from the previous princes, this was deemed to be "legal" as Orange was a soveign principality (in modern parliance, independent nation), and the sovereign prince (Rene) had the right to leave his sovereignty to whomever he pleased. This began the Dutch Royal House of Orange-Nassau.

No Name Picture Arms Birth Became Prince of Orange Ceased to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
15. Prince William I WilliamOfOrange1580.jpg Willem van Oranje wapen.svg.[19][20]:[21] 24 April 1533 15 July 1544 10 July 1584 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Friesland; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Breda, Lands of Cuijk, City of Grave, Diest, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Willemstad, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. 1. Anna van Egmont
2. Anna of Saxony
3. Charlotte de Bourbon
4. Louise de Coligny
16. Prince Philip William Workshop of Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt 003.jpg Blason Nassau-Orange.svg[22] 19 December 1554 10 July 1584 20 February 1618 Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Eindhoven, City of Grave, IJsselstein, Diest, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Willemstad, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Éléonore de Bourbon
17. Prince Maurice Workshop of Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt 004.jpg Arms Maurice of Nassau prince of Orange.JPG[23] [24][25] 14 November 1567 20 February 1618 23 April 1625 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, Overijssel and Groningen; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Bentheim-Lingen, Moers, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Willemstad, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. no wife
18. Prince Frederick Henry After Gerard van Honthorst 002.jpg Willem van Oranje wapen.svg[19] 29 January 1584 23 April 1625 14 March 1647 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Bentheim-Lingen, Moers, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Willemstad, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Amalia of Solms-Braunfels
19. Prince William II After Gerard van Honthorst 003.jpg Willem van Oranje wapen.svg[19] 27 May 1626 14 March 1647 6 November 1650 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders and Overijssel; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Bentheim-Lingen, Moers, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Mary, Princess Royal
20. William III King William III.jpg Willem van Oranje wapen.svg[19] 14 November 1650 14 November 1650 8 March 1702 King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Bentheim-Lingen, Moers, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Queen Mary II of England

As a personal title or as heir apparent

House of Orange-Nassau (second creation)

As personal title of nobility:
No Name Picture Arms Heir of Birth Became Prince of Orange Ceased to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
21. Prince John William Friso JohanWillemFriso.jpg Arms of Johan Willem Friso as Prince of Orange.JPG[26] William III 4 August 1687 8 March 1702 14 July 1711 Stadtholder of Friesland and Groningen; Fürst of Nassau-Dietz → Fürst of Orange-Nassau; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, Spiegelberg, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Hereditary Lord of Ameland; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Liesveld, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Landgravine Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel
22. Prince William IV Guillaume IV d'Orange-Nassau.jpg Blason Nassau-Orange.svg Prince John William Friso 1 September 1711 22 October 1751 General Stadtholder of the United Provinces; Fürst of Orange-Nassau; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Buren, Culemborg, Leerdam, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Hereditary Lord of Ameland; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Liesveld, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Anne, Princess Royal
23. Prince William V WillemV.png Blason Nassau-Orange.svg Prince William IV 8 March 1748 22 October 1751 9 April 1806 General Stadtholder of the United Provinces; Fürst of Orange-Nassau; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Buren, Culemborg, Leerdam, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Hereditary Lord of Ameland; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Borculo, Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Lichtenvoorde, Liesveld, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Princess Wilhelmine of Prussia
24. Prince William VI
later William I
Willemi.jpg Willem VI van Oranje Sovereine Vorst 1814 - 1815.PNG Prince William V 24 August 1772 9 April 1806 16 March 1815
title dropped when invested as first King of the Netherlands
7 October 1840 Fürst of Orange-Nassau; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Buren, Culemborg, Leerdam, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Hereditary Lord of Ameland; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Borculo, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Lichtenvoorde, Liesveld, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Wilhelmine of Prussia
As royal title for the heir apparent:
No Name Picture Arms Heir of Birth Became Heir to the Crown Created Prince of Orange Ceased to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
25. Prince William
later William II
YoungwilliamII.jpg Arms of the Netherlands (1815-1907).svg William I 6 December 1792 16 March 1815
father's accession as King
7 October 1840
became King
17 March 1849 Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna of Russia
26. Prince William
later William III
William III of the Netherlands.jpg Arms of the Netherlands (1815-1907).svg William II 19 February 1817 7 October 1840
father's accession as King
17 March 1849
became King
23 November 1890 Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau Princess Sophie of Württemberg
27. Prince William Dutch Crown Prince Willem.jpg Arms of the Netherlands (1815-1907).svg William III 4 September 1840 17 March 1849
father's accession as King
11 June 1879 Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau no wife
28. Prince Alexander Alexander der Nederlanden 1851 - 1884.jpg Arms of the Netherlands (1815-1907).svg 25 August 1851 11 June 1879
brother's death
21 June 1884 Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau no wife
29. Prince Willem-Alexander
[27]
Guilherme Alexandre, príncipe de Orange.jpg Arms of the children of queen Beatrix of the Netherlands.svg Beatrix 27 April 1967 30 April 1980
mother's accession as Queen regnant
Incumbent Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Jonkheer van Amsberg Máxima Zorreguieta

House of Hohenzollern

House of Mailly

  • Louis de Mailly, Marquis de Nesle et de Mailly, appointed by the French king, and his descendants, currently Guy, Marquis de Nesle et de Mailly, Prince d'Orange.

House of Bourbon

  • Louis Armand II, Prince of Conti, appointed by the French king, and his descendants

The Princes of Orange of the House of Orange-Nassau

Historical background

William the Silent (Willem I) was the first stadtholder of the Dutch Republic and the most significant representative of the House of Orange in the Netherlands. He was count of a small German county, part of the Duchy of Nassau and heir to some of his father's fiefs in Holland. William obtained more extensive lands in the Netherlands (the lordship of Breda and several other dependencies) as an inheritance from his cousin René, Prince of Orange, when William was only 11 years old. After William's assassination in 1584, the title passed to his son Philip William (who had been held hostage in Spain until 1596), and after his death in 1618, to his second son Maurice, and finally to his youngest son, Frederick Henry.

The title of Prince of Orange became synonymous with the stadtholder of the Netherlands.

William III (Willem III) was also King of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his legacy is commemorated annually by the Protestant Orange Order.

William and Mary had no legitimate children. After his death in 1702, the Dutch contender to his title was his heir in the Netherlands, John William Friso of Nassau-Diez, who assumed the title. William's testament designated Friso to inherit the title. The other contender was the King in Prussia, who based his claim to the title on the will of Frederick Henry, William III's grandfather. Eventually, a compromise was reached by which both families were entitled to bear the title of Prince of Orange. By then, it was no more than a title because the principality had been annexed by Louis XIV of France.

Friso's line held it as their principal title during the 18th century. The French army drove them away from the Netherlands in 1795, but on their return, the Prince of Orange became the first sovereign of the Netherlands in 1813.

After the establishment of the current Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815, the title was partly reconstitutionalized in a bill and granted to the eldest son of King William I of the Netherlands, Prince William, who later became William II of the Netherlands. Since 1983, the heir to the Dutch throne, whether male or female[citation needed], bears the title Prince or Princess of Orange. The first-born child of the heir to the Dutch throne bears the title Hereditary Prince(ss) of Orange[citation needed]. Currently, Princess Catharina-Amalia is the Hereditary Princess of Orange. She will be the Princess of Orange once her father, Prince Willem-Alexander, is inaugurated King of the Netherlands.

Style

The Prince(ss) of Orange is styled His/Her Royal Highness the Prince(ss) of Orange (Dutch: Zijne/Hare Koninklijke Hoogheid de Prins(es) van Oranje).

During the 15th, 16th and 17th Centuries, The Prince(ss) of Orange was styled His/Her Highness the Prince(ss) of Orange (Dutch: Zijne/Hare Hoogheid de Prins(es) van Oranje), except for William III, who rated the "Royal/Koninklijke" as his mother was the Princess Royal of England.

Arms

The princes of Orange in the 16th and 17th century used the following sets of arms. On becoming prince of Orange, William placed the Châlon-Arlay arms in the center ("as an inescutcheon") of his father's arms. He used these arms until 1582 when he purchased the marquisate of Veere and Vlissingen. He then used the arms attributed to Frederick Henry, etc. with the arms of the marquisate in the top center, and the arms of the county of Buren in the bottom center.[28] Their growing complexity shows how arms are used to reflect the growing political position and royal aspirations of the house of Orange-Nassau.

Individual members of the House of Orange-Nasau also given their own arms by the reigning monarch, similar to the United Kingdom. This is usually the royal arms, quartered with the arms of the principality of Orange, and an inescutcheon of their paternal arms. For Willem Alexander, the current Prince of Orange & crown prince of the Netherlands, it is:

The Counts of Orange of the First House of Orange

The first house of Orange is somewhat of a conjecture given the fragmentary nature of documentation in the early medieval era. The French Wikipedia page for the first House of Orange has presented what is known with references. Their chart is reproduced here.

Descendants of Pons de Mevouillon (the arms of the counts d'Orange is a reference point. Arms did not exist until the late 12th century. :

Pons de Mevouillon Blason Raymond IV des Baux.svg
 x Blismodis
 |
 | --> Humbert évêque de Vaison, jusqu’en 1005 BishopCoA PioM.svg
 |
 | --> Garnier, évêque d’Avignon (976-991) BishopCoA PioM.svg
 |
 | --> Ison
 |
 | --> Pons II de Mevouillon (ca 920-986) Blason Raymond IV des Baux.svg
       x Richilde, originaire de l’Uzège
       |
       | --> Féraud de Nice  évêque de Gap BishopCoA PioM.svg
       |
       | --> Pierre de Mirabel  évêque de Vaison BishopCoA PioM.svg
       |
       | --> Pons III de Mevouillon
       |      |    ... --> Descendance Mevouillon... 
       |
       | --> Arnoul de Theys
       |      |    ... --> Descendance Theys... 
       |
       | --> Gérard
       |
       | --> Rambaud
       |
       | --> Raoul
       |
       | --> Laugier de Nice (ca 1050-1032) Blason Raymond IV des Baux.svg
             x  Odile de Provence (976-1032), fille de fr:Guillaume Ier de Provence:Guillaume Ier de Provence
             |
             | --> Rostan de Gréolières
             |      |    ... --> Descendance Gréolières... 
             |
             | --> Pierre de Nice, évêque de Sisteron (1043–1059) BishopCoA PioM.svg
             |
             | --> Jauccara de Nice
             |      x  Amic de Vence-Avignon
             |
             | --> Gerberge de Nice
             |       x  fr:Bérenger d’Avignon:Bérenger d’Avignon.
             |
             | --> Rambaud de Nice (1006–1073) Blason Raymond IV des Baux.svg
                    x 1032 Accelena d’Apt
                    |
                    | --> Laugier d’Apt
                          x Amancia de Lacoste-Castellane
                    |
                    | --> Odila de Nice
                         x Boniface de Reillanne
                    |
                    | --> Gisla de Nice
                          x Rostang d'Agoult Blason ville fr Sault (Vaucluse).svg
                          |
                          | -->  Laugier d'Agout, évêque d'Apt, croisé BishopCoA PioM.svg
                    |
                    | --> Pierre II de Nice évêque de Sisteron, puis  évêque de Vaison BishopCoA PioM.svg
                    |
                    | --> Rostan de Fréjus
                          x Accelena de Marignane
                    |
                    | --> Rambaud de Nice, seigneur de Gréolières (+ jeune)
                    |
                    x  Bélieldis de Marseille
                    |
                    | --> Amic
                    |
                    | --> Guillaume
                    |
                    x avant 1045 Azalaïs de Reillanne, veuve de Guilhem d'Agoult Blason reillanne.jpg
                    |
                    | --> Bertrand-Rambaud d’Orange Blason Raymond IV des Baux.svg
                          x 1068 Adélaïde de Cavenez, veuve de Guillaume V Bertrand de Provence Insigne des Bosonides
                          |
                          | --> Léger ou Laugerus, évêque d’Avignon(1124 ou 1126-1142) BishopCoA PioM.svg
                          |
                          | --> Jausserand Laugier, seigneur de Gréolières
                          |
                          x 1064 Gerberge, fille de Foulques Bertrand de Provence Insigne des Bosonides
                          |
                          | --> Pierre
                          |
                          | --> Rambaud II d'Orange, the crusader or English WikiRambaud II d'Orange.jpg
                                |
                                | --> Thiburge d'Orange Blason Raymond IV des Baux.svg
                                     x 1104 Giraud Adhémar de Monteil Armoiries de Triconville 3.svg
                                     |
                                     x 1129 Guillaume d'Aumelas Seigneurs de Montpellier.svg
                                     |
                                     | --> Raimbaut d'Orange, the famous troubadour. or English WikiRambautz d'Aurenga.jpg
                                     |
                                     | --> Thiburge II d'OrangeBlason Raymond IV des Baux.svg
                                     |   x 1171 Bertrand des Baux Blason Baux de Provence.svg
                                         |
                                         | --> Hughes IV
                                         |
                                         | --> Bertrand II
                                         |
                                         | --> Thiburge
                                         |
                                         | --> Guillaume des Baux or English Wiki Blason Baux-Orange.svg
                                              x Ermengarde de Mévouillon
                                              |
                                              | --> Guillaume II des Baux or English Wiki Blason Baux-Orange.svg

See also

References

  1. ^ "Histoire de la ville d'Orange". http://www.ville-orange.fr/sortir02.htm. Retrieved May 5, 2011. 
  2. ^ Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1861). Armorial général, contenant la description des armoiries des familles nobles et patriciennes de l'Europe: précédé d'un dictionnaire des termes du blason. G.B. van Goor. p. 746. 
  3. ^ Grew, Marion Ethel (1947). The House of Orange. 36 Essex Street, Strand, London W.C.2: Methuen & Co. Ltd. 
  4. ^ Geneviève Hasenohr and Michel Zink, ed (1992). Dictionnaire des lettres françaises: Le Moyen Age. Paris: Fayard. ISBN 2-2530-5662-6. 
  5. ^ Rowen, Herbert H. (1988). The princes of Orange: the stadholders in the Dutch Republic. Cambridge University Press. p. 11. ISBN 0806348119. 
  6. ^ van Prinsterer, et. al., F.Groen (1835-1915). Archives ou correspondance inedite de la Maison d'Orange-Nassau. 1. 1. Leiden and Utrecht. p. 232. 
  7. ^ Pontbriant, A. de (1891, Copyright : domaine public) (in French). Histoire de la principauté d'Orange ; suivie de lettres inédites des princes d'Orange, des rois de France, du Cte de Grignan, etc., etc. Avignon: Seguin frères. p. 262. http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb341253894. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k298581f/f41.tableDesMatieres. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  8. ^ Pontbriant, A. de (1891, Copyright : domaine public) (in French). Histoire de la principauté d'Orange ; suivie de lettres inédites des princes d'Orange, des rois de France, du Cte de Grignan, etc., etc. Avignon: Seguin frères. p. 262 & following, 273 & following. http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb341253894. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k298581f/f41.tableDesMatieres. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  9. ^ Vast, , Henri (1847-1921). Éditeur scientifique (11 April 1713). Treaty ceding the Principality to Louis XIV "Traité de paix d'Utrecht entre Louis XIV et Frédéric-Guillaume, roi de Prusse" (in French). Les grands traités du règne de Louis XIV ([Reprod.]) publ. par Henri Vast. IDC (Leiden). p. 125 (article X.). http://visualiseur.bnf.fr/CadresFenetre?O=NUMM-96031&I=128&M=tdm Treaty ceding the Principality to Louis XIV. Retrieved 16 May 2011. 
  10. ^ Vast, , Henri (1847-1921). Éditeur scientifique (11 April 1713). "Traité de paix d'Utrecht entre Louis XIV et Frédéric-Guillaume, roi de Prusse [Peace treaty of Utrecht between Louis XIV and Frédéric-Guillaume, King of Prussia]" (in French). Les grands traités du règne de Louis XIV ([Reprod.]) publ. par Henri Vast. IDC (Leiden). p. 126 (article X.). http://visualiseur.bnf.fr/CadresFenetre?O=NUMM-96031&I=128&M=tdm. Retrieved 16 May 2011. 
  11. ^ > The New American Cyclopædia. 16 volumes complete.. article on Principality of Orange: D. Appleton And Company. 1873. 
  12. ^ Velde, François (The Treaty was ratified by Prussia on May 30, by Orange-Nassau on 30 June 1732.). "Treaty between Prussia and Orange-Nassau, Berlin, 1732" (in French). Preussens Staatsvertraege aus der Regierungzzeit König Friedrich Wilhelms I.. 33 CTS 487. p. 404. http://www.heraldica.org/topics/royalty/berlin1732.htm. Retrieved 16 May 2011. 
  13. ^ Dumont, Jean, Baron de Carlscroon ( continued after Dumonts death by J. Rousset) (The Treaty was ratified by Prussia on May 30, by Orange-Nassau on 30 June 1732.). "Treaty between Prussia and Orange-Nassau, Berlin, 1732" (in French). Corps universel diplomatique du droit des gens, contenant un recueil des traités de paix, d'alliance, &c., faits en Europe, depuis Charlemagne jusqu'à present, Supplement. Amsterdam. p. 335. http://www.heraldica.org/topics/royalty/berlin1732.htm. Retrieved 16 May 2011. 
  14. ^ Blok, Petrus Johannes (1970). The History of the People of the Netherlands. 5, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. New York, NY: AMS Press. p. 60. 
  15. ^ Pontbriant, A. de (1891, Copyright : domaine public) (in French). Histoire de la principauté d'Orange ; suivie de lettres inédites des princes d'Orange, des rois de France, du Cte de Grignan, etc., etc. Avignon: Seguin frères. p. 262 & following. http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb341253894. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k298581f/f41.tableDesMatieres. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  16. ^ Grew, Marion Ethel (1947). The House of Orange. 36 Essex Street, Strand, London W.C.2: Methuen & Co. Ltd. 
  17. ^ [|Ross, Kelley L. Ph.D.]. "Princes of Orange, 1171-1584 AD". http://www.friesian.com/lorraine.htm#orange. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  18. ^ Grew, Marion Ethel (1947). The House of Orange. 36 Essex Street, Strand, London W.C.2: Methuen & Co. Ltd. 
  19. ^ a b c d Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1861). Armorial général, contenant la description des armoiries des familles nobles et patriciennes de l'Europe: précédé d'un dictionnaire des termes du blason. G.B. van Goor. p. 746. 
  20. ^ Rowen, Herbert H. (1988). The princes of Orange: the stadholders in the Dutch Republic. Cambridge University Press. p. 29. ISBN 0806348119. 
  21. ^ "The Official Website of the Dutch Royal House in English, see tour of Noordeinde Palace, Royal Archives, Front Entrance Hall". http://www.koninklijkhuis.nl/english/Palaces/Virtual_tour/Noordeinde_Palace/Royal_Archives/Front_entrance_hall.html. Retrieved 1 June 2011. 
  22. ^ Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1861). Armorial général, contenant la description des armoiries des familles nobles et patriciennes de l'Europe: précédé d'un dictionnaire des termes du blason. G.B. van Goor. p. 746. "Philip William used his father's original arms" 
  23. ^ Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1861). Armorial général, contenant la description des armoiries des familles nobles et patriciennes de l'Europe: précédé d'un dictionnaire des termes du blason. G.B. van Goor. p. 746. "a la exception de celebre prince Maurice qui portai les armes ..." 
  24. ^ Haley, K(enneth) H(arold) D(obson) (1972). The Dutch in the Seventeenth Century. Thames and Hudson. p. 78. ISBN 0155184733. 
  25. ^ Anonymous. "Wapenbord van Prins Maurits met het devies van de Engelse orde van de Kouseband". Exhibit of a painted woodcut of Maurice's Arms encircled by the Order of the Garter in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. http://www.rijksmuseum.nl/collectie/zoeken/asset.jsp?id=NG-NM-10152&lang=en. Retrieved 26 April 2011. 
  26. ^ ""Coat of Arms as depicted on the "Familiegraf van de Oranje-Nassau's in de Grote of Jacobijnerkerk te Leeuwarden"". Familiegraf van de Oranje-Nassau's in de Grote of Jacobijnerkerk te Leeuwarden. http://www.hethuisvanoranje.nl/14%20Familiegraven/IndexOranjegraven.html. Retrieved 9 November 2011. 
  27. ^ Website Dutch Royal House on Willem-Alexander
  28. ^ Rowen, Herbert H. (1988). The princes of Orange: the stadholders in the Dutch Republic. Cambridge University Press. p. 29. ISBN 0806348119. 
  29. ^ Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1861). Armorial général, contenant la description des armoiries des familles nobles et patriciennes de l'Europe: précédé d'un dictionnaire des termes du blason. G.B. van Goor. p. 746. 
  30. ^ Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (2003). Armorial general. vol.2. Genealogical Publishing Co.. p. 297. ISBN 0806348119. 
  31. ^ Haley, K(enneth) H(arold) D(obson) (1972). The Dutch in the Seventeenth Century. Thames and Hudson. p. 78. ISBN 0155184733. 
  32. ^ Anonymous. "Wapenbord van Prins Maurits met het devies van de Engelse orde van de Kouseband". Exhibit of a painted woodcut of Maurice's Arms encircled by the Order of the Garter in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. http://www.rijksmuseum.nl/collectie/zoeken/asset.jsp?id=NG-NM-10152&lang=en. Retrieved 26 April 2011. 
  33. ^ Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1861). Armorial général, contenant la description des armoiries des familles nobles et patriciennes de l'Europe: précédé d'un dictionnaire des termes du blason. G.B. van Goor. p. 746. 
  34. ^ Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (2003). Armorial general. vol.2. Genealogical Publishing Co.. p. 297. ISBN 0806348119. 
  35. ^ Post, Pieter (1651). "Coat of Arms as depicted in "Begraeffenisse van syne hoogheyt Frederick Hendrick"". engraving, in the collection of. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. http://www.rijksmuseum.nl/collectie/zoeken/asset.jsp?id=NG-793-53. Retrieved 1 June 2011. 

Literature

  • Herbert H. Rowen, The princes of Orange: the stadholders in the Dutch Republic. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
  • John Lothrop Motley, "History of the United Netherlands from the Death of William the Silent to the Synod of Dort". London: John Murray, 1860.
  • John Lothrop Motley, "The Life and Death of John of Barenvelt". New York & London: Harper and Brothers Publishing, 1900.
  • Petrus Johannes Blok, "History of the people of the Netherlands". New York: G. P. Putnam's sons, 1898.
  • Reina van Ditzhuyzen, Het Huis van Oranje: prinsen, stadhouders, koningen en koninginnen. Haarlem : De Haan, [1979].

External links


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