Council of People's Commissars


Council of People's Commissars

The Council of People's Commissars (Russian: Совет народных коммиссаров or Совнарком, translit. Soviet Narodnykh Kommissarov or Sovnarkom, also as generic SNK), was a government institution formed shortly after the October Revolution in 1917. Created in the Russian Republic the council laid foundations in restructuring the country to form the Soviet Union. It evolved to become the highest government authority of executive power under the Soviet system in states which came under the control of Bolsheviks.

Leon Trotsky devised the names commissar and council to avoid the more "bourgeois" terms minister and cabinet. The 1918 Constitution of the RSFSR formalised the role of the Sovnarkom of the RSFSR: it was to be responsible to the Congress of Soviets for the "general administration of the affairs of the state."
The constitution enabled the Sovnarkom to issue decrees carrying the full force of law when the Congress was not in session. The Congress then routinely approved these decrees at its next session.

When the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was established in December 1922, the USSR Sovnarkom was modelled on the RSFSR Sovnarkom. It was transformed in 1946 into the Council of Ministers.[1]


Contents


The Original People's Commissars

The first council elected by the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets was composed as follows:

People's Commissar Original incumbent Death
Chairman Vladimir Lenin Natural causes 1924
Secretary Nikolai Gorbunov Executed 1938
People's Commissariat for Agriculture of the RSFSR Vladimir Milyutin Died in prison 1937
People's Commissariat for Military Affairs of the RSFSR Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko

Nikolai Krylenko

Executed 1939

Executed 1938

People's Commissariat for Naval Affairs of the RSFSR Pavel Dybenko Executed 1938
People's Commissariat for Trade and Industry of the RSFSR Viktor Nogin Natural causes 1924
People's Commissariat for Education of the RSFSR Anatoly Lunacharsky Natural causes 1933
People's Commissariat for Food Ivan Teodorovich Executed 1937
People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs of the RSFSR Leon Trotsky Assassinated 1940
People's Commissariat for Interior Affairs of the RSFSR Alexei Rykov Executed 1938
People's Commissariat for Justice of the RSFSR Georgy Oppokov Executed 1937
People's Commissariat for Labour of the RSFSR Alexander Shlyapnikov Executed 1937
People's Commissariat of Nationalities Joseph Stalin Died (Poisoned?) 1953
People's Commissariat for Posts and Telegraphs of the RSFSR Nikolai Glebov-Avilov Executed 1937
People's Commissariat for Railways of the RSFSR (vacant)
People's Commissariat for Finance Ivan Skvortsov-Stepanov Natural causes 1928


A Sovnarkom session between December 1917 and January 1918, with (from the left) Isaac Steinberg, Ivan Skvortsov-Stepanov, Boris Kamkov, Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich, V.E. Trutovsky, Alexander Shlyapnikov, P.P. Proshyan, Lenin, Stalin, Alexandra Kollontai, Pavel Dybenko, E.K. Kosharova, Nikolai Podvoisky, Nikolai Gorbunov, V.I. Nevsky, Alexander Shotman, Georgy Chicherin


All-Union Sovnarkom

Upon the creation of the USSR in 1922, the Union's government was modelled after the first Sovnarkom. The Soviet republics retained their own governments which dealt with domestic matters.

Sovmin

In 1946, the Sovnarkoms were transformed into the Council of Ministers (Sovmin) at both all-Union and Union Republic level.[1][2][3]

Councils by administrative division

Soviet Republics

Soviet Union

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the Soviet Union



Atlas
 USSR Portal
view · talk · edit

  • Council of People's Commissars (Soviet Union)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Russia)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Ukraine) (Temporary government of Workers and Peasants of Ukraine), initially as the People's Secretariat of the Ukrainian People's Republic
  • Council of People's Commissars (Belarus), including LitBel
  • Council of People's Commissars (Azerbaijan)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Fae East)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Armenia)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Bukhara)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Khorezm)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Georgia)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Abkhazia), including as autonomous
  • Council of People's Commissars (Turkestan)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Transcaucasia)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Kazakhstan), including as autonomous Kyrgyz (before 1925)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Turkmenistan)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Kyrgyzstan), including as autonomous Kyrgyz (after 1925)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Uzbekistan)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Tajikistan), including as autonomous
  • Council of People's Commissars (Karelia-Finland), including as autonomous Karelia
  • Council of People's Commissars (Moldova), including as autonomous
  • Council of People's Commissars (Lithuania)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Latvia)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Estonia)

Autonomous Republics

  • Council of People's Commissars (Adjara)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Volga German)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Bashkorstan)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Buryat-Mongolia)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Mountainous)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Dagestan)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Kabardin-Balkaria), including Kabardin (1944-1957)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Cossack)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Kalmykia)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Karakalpakistan)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Komi)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Crimea)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Mari)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Mordva)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Nakhichevan)
  • Council of People's Commissars (North Osetia)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Tatarstan)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Tuva)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Udmurtia)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Chechnia-Ingushetia)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Chuvashia)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Yakutia)

Failed or quasi

  • Council of People's Commissars (Donetsk-Krivoi Rog)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Odessa), initially as Rumcherod
  • Council of People's Commissars (Poland)
  • Council of People's Commissars (Galicia)

References

See also


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Council of People's Commissars (Ukraine) — Council of People s Commissars of the Ukrainian SSR (Ukrainian: Рада Народних Комісарів УРСР, Раднарком, Radnarkom) was the highest governing body of executive power in Ukrainian SSR from January 1919 to 1946. The council replaced the Temporary… …   Wikipedia

  • Council of the People's Commissars — The Council of the People s Commissars, or the Council of People s Commissars, was the highest government authority under the Bolshevik system after the success of the Russian Revolution. An uprising had occurred on November 7, 1917, and the next …   Wikipedia

  • Council of People's Ministers — The Council of People s Ministers was the main executive institution of the Ukrainian People s Republic. It was reorganized out of the General Secretariat of Ukraine upon the proclamation of the 4th Universal and Independence on January 25, 1918 …   Wikipedia

  • Council of Ministers (Soviet Union) — Council of Ministers of the USSR Совет Министров СССР The former headquarters of the Council of Ministers Agency overview Formed 1946 Preceding agency …   Wikipedia

  • People's Commissariat of Nationalities — (abbreviation transliterated as Narkomnats) was the Government of the Soviet Union body set up to deal with non Russian nationalities. It was part of the Council of People s Commissars. Origins It was established even before the October… …   Wikipedia

  • Council of Labour and Defence — From 1920 22 and 1923 27 respectively, the Council of Labor and Defense of the Council of People s Commissars of the RSFSR and the Council of Labor and Defense of the Council of People s Commissars of the Soviet Union were agencies responsible… …   Wikipedia

  • Council of Ministers of Russia — The Russian Council of Ministers is an executive governmental body that brings together the principal officers of the Executive Branch of the Russian government. Contents 1 Imperial Russia 1.1 Committee of Ministers 1.1.1 Chairmen of the… …   Wikipedia

  • People's Liberation Army —   中国人民解放军   Emblem of the People s Liberation Army Founded August 1, 1927 Service branches …   Wikipedia

  • People's Republic of Poland — Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa Satellite state of the Soviet Union ← …   Wikipedia

  • People's Socialist Republic of Albania — Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë Satellite state of the Soviet Union (Until 1961) …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.