Coronation of Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof


Coronation of Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof
Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof

King of Sine.

The Antelope Represents His Family Totem.
King of The Kingdom of Sine. The antelope is the totem of his family (The Joof Family). In the mythology of the Serer people. It symbolises grace, royalty, wisdom, hardwork and protector.
Reign 1853 - 23 August 1871
Coronation of Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof 1853
Predecessor Maat Sine Ama Joof Gnilane Faye Joof
Heir-apparent Maat Sine Sanou Moon Faye
Full name
Kumba Ndoffene Joof
House Kerr Semou Njekeh, The Royal House of Buur Semou Njekeh Joof
Father Buur Souka Ndella Joof
Mother Lingeer Gnilane Jogoy Joof
Born 1810
Diakhao, Kingdom of Sine,
Modern day Senegal
Religion Serer Religion

Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof (see also: Maat Sine Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof - many variations as well as spellings: “Maad” or “Maat Siin Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof”; “Mad a Sinig” ; “Maat Sine Coumba Ndoffène Fa mak Diouf” ; “Maat Sin Coumba Ndoffène Fa mak Diouf”; also “Buur Siin Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof”; “Bur Siin Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof”; “Bour Sine Koumba Ndoffène Famak Diouf” , “Coumba N’Doffène Diouf” or “Coumba N’Doffène Diouf I”) (c. 1810[1] - 23rd August 1871.[2]was the King of the Serer Kingdom of Sine in modern day Senegal. “Maat Sine” or “Buur Sine” or “Mad a Sinig” means King of Sine. He ruled from 1853 until his death on 23rd of August 1871. He was the son of Buur Souka Ndella Joof and Lingeer Gnilane Jogoy Joof. His father “Souka Ndella” came from the Royal House of Buur Semou Njekeh Joof who was the founder of the third and last Royal House of The Joof Paternal Dynasty of Sine and Saloum in the 18th century.[3]His paternal family ruled three Kingdoms: Sine, Saloum and previously Baol – they were the descendants of Buur Ndaah Njemeh Joof the 13th century King of Lâ in Baol[4][5]

His mother Gnilane Jogoy Joof, came from the Maternal Dynasty of Guelowar. The Geulowars had ruled two Senegambian Kingdoms: Sine and Saloum. They had also provided two Kings of Jolof [6] and heirs to the thrones of Cayor and Baol. They originated from the royal family of Kaabu in the 14th century who were granted asylum by the Serer nobility of Sine following the Battle of Turubang (1335) in Kaabu. [7]The name “Famak” (also “Fa mak”) means “the elder” in the Serer language. He should not be confused with his successor Maat Sine Kumba Ndoffene Fandeb Joof (also known as "Coumba N’Doffène Diouf II") who reigned from 1897 to 1924. The name “Fandeb” (also “Fa ndeb”) means “the younger” in the Serer-Sine language.

Contents

Succession to the throne

Kumba Ndoffene Famak came to the throne in 1853 following the early death of the young King of Sine Maat Sine Ama Joof Gnilane Faye Joof – one of the most charismatic Kings of Senegambia. Highly fluent in several languages including European and African languages, he lived a very colourful life and was immortalised in a portrait by L'abbé David Boillat in 1850, three years before his death. [8]Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof therefore, had a very tough act to follow when he succeeded his cousin in 1853.

Kumba Ndoffene Famak’s family along with Sanou Moon Faye’s (who would become his "Buumi" (heir apparent) and later become King of Sine (Maat Sine Sanou Moon Faye) family lodge their applications before the Jaraff (head of The Noble Council of Electors responsible for electing the Kings from the Royal Family - according to custom, though there were exceptions) for their respective sons to inherit the throne. The Jaraff decided that it was Kumba Ndoffene’s family that lodged his application first but after examining the family status and welfare of each candidate, made his choice having consulted the Members of The Noble Council of Electors. Although Sanou Moon Faye and Kumba Ndoffene Famak shared the same date of birth - according to tradition, Kumba Ndoffene's birth was reported first to the Grand Jaraff. As a result, Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof was declared Buumi (heir apparent) of Ama Joof Gnilane Faye Joof (reign: 1847 to 1853), "first come first serve" though there were exceptions as can be seen above. The Jaraff and The Council must satisfy themselves about the family status and welfare of each candidate.[9]

The coronation

Kumba Ndoffene was declared heir apparent of the reigning King of Ama Joof and in September 1853 after taking the sacred bathing, Kumba Ndoffene’s moment came to be crowned as King of Sine. In the presence of the Government of Sine made up of notables from various parts of Sine, the people and his paternal and maternal family, the Great Jaraff presided over the sacred ceremony.

After the religious rituals, prayers and oath, The Crown was placed on his head and the Jaraff greeted the Monarch with the words “Dali” (Your Majesty). He was Crowned King Kumba Ndoffene Joof from The Royal House of Semou Njekeh. The Jaraff made his usual speech directed to the Monarch:

"From today, you are King… We greet you with hundred..." (in order words, for the King’s reign to last for one hundred years).

The King then turned to his paternal family and made the usual proclamation:

"Now I am the King. Get off your horses and give them to me."

He then turned to his maternal family and made a similar proclamation. The paternal family gave gifts and several horses to the overseers of the Ceremony including the Jaraff. The maternal family gave gifts and slightly less horses. The King then crowned his sister (Lingeer Nadi Joof) as "Lingeer" (Queen). Had his mother been alive, she would have been Crowned "Lingeer" (Queen or Queen Mother in her case) and not Nadi Joof the King’s sister. Note that the King’s sister was not married to the King (her own brother). The "Lingeer" was only crowned in order to honor the maternal clan they both belonged. The Lingeer was the Queen of all women and presided over all women cases. She had her own palace and army just like the King. The King then gave gifts to the organizers of the Ceremony and then directed his message to his subjects, telling them how his predecessor had ruled. After that, the King appointed his Government.[10]

See Also

Notes

  1. ^ Mahawa Diouf. L’INFORMATION HISTORIQUE : L’EXEMPLE DU SIIN. Ethiopiques n°54 revue semestrielle de culture négro-africaine Nouvelle série volume 7 2e semestre 1991
  2. ^ Martin A. Klein. Islam and Imperialism in Senegal, Sine- Saloum 1847-1914, page 106. Published by Edingburg University Press (1968). ISBN: 85224 029 5. Also see footnote on that page: A letter from the Commandant of Gorée to the Governor of Senegal – Thursday 24th of August 1871, Archives de la République du Sénégal, Dakar (formerly the archives of the French West African Federation). Wednesday was when dues (taxes) were collected. Such activities like these are forbidden in Serer Religion. This means the King was killed on the previous day when he visited Joal to resolve the Joal crises with the French – see the section titled: “The assassination of Kumba Ndoffene Famak.” Also see: Issa Laye Thiaw, La Religiousite des Sereer, Avant et Pendant Leur Islamisation. Ethiopiques, No: 54, Revue Semestrielle de Culture Négro-Africaine. Nouvelle Série, Volume 7, 2e Semestre 1991. Also: A. Corre. “Les Sérères de Joal et de Portudal . (1883). Paris, Rev.)
  3. ^ Alioune Sarr,Histoire du Sine-Saloum. Introduction, bibliographie et Notes par Charles Becker, BIFAN, Tome 46, Serie B, n° 3-4, 1986–1987
  4. ^ L’EPOPEE DE SANMOON FAY. “La famille JUUF”. Ethiopiques n°54 revue semestrielle de culture négro-africaine Nouvelle série volume 7 2e semestre 1991.
  5. ^ Alioune Sarr. Histoire du Sine-Saloum. Introduction, bibliographie et Notes par Charles Becker, BIFAN, Tome 46, Serie B, n° 3-4, 1986–1987
  6. ^ Oumar Ndiaye Leyti. “Le Djoloff et ses Bourba.” Nouvelles Editions Africaines, 1981. ISBN: 2723608174
  7. ^ Alioune Sarr,Histoire du Sine-Saloum. Introduction, bibliographie et Notes par Charles Becker, BIFAN, Tome 46, Serie B, n° 3-4, 1986–1987
  8. ^ David Boilat. Esquisses Sénégalaises , Paris, Karthala, 1984.
  9. ^ Martin A. Klein. Islam and Imperialism in Senegal, Sine- Saloum 1847-1914, page 46. Published by Edingburg University Press (1968). ISBN: 85224 029 5.
  10. ^ Alioune Sarr,Histoire du Sine-Saloum. Introduction, bibliographie et Notes par Charles Becker, BIFAN, Tome 46, Serie B, n° 3-4, 1986–1987

Language Bibliography

English Language Bibliography

  • (English) Martin A. Klein. Islam and Imperialism in Senegal, Sine- Saloum 1847-1914. Published by Edingburg University Press (1968). ISBN: 85224 029 5. Also see footnote on that page: A letter

French Language Bibliography

  • (French) Mahawa Diouf. L’INFORMATION HISTORIQUE : L’EXEMPLE DU SIIN. Ethiopiques n°54 revue semestrielle de culture négro-africaine Nouvelle série volume 7 2e semestre 1991
  • (French) Alioune Sarr,Histoire du Sine-Saloum. Introduction, bibliographie et Notes par Charles Becker, BIFAN, Tome 46, Serie B, n° 3-4, 1986–1987
  • (French) L’EPOPEE DE SANMOON FAY. “La famille JUUF”. Ethiopiques n°54 revue semestrielle de culture négro-africaine Nouvelle série volume 7 2e semestre 1991.
  • (French) Oumar Ndiaye Leyti. “Le Djoloff et ses Bourba.” Nouvelles Editions Africaines, 1981. ISBN: 2723608174
  • (French) David Boilat. Esquisses Sénégalaises , Paris, Karthala, 1984.

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