Convoy HG 76


Convoy HG 76
Convoy HG 76
Part of World War II
Date 19-23 Dec 1941
Location eastern Atlantic
Result British victory
Belligerents
War Ensign of Germany 1938-1945.svg Germany Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom
Commanders and leaders
Admiral Karl Dönitz Commodore:
Escort Cdr: Capt. Frederic John Walker
Strength
Seeräuber
10 U-boats
HG 76
32 Ships
17 Escorts
Casualties and losses
4 U-boats destroyed 2 Ships sunk
2 Escorts sunk

HG 76 was an Allied convoy of the HG (Homeward from Gibraltar) series during World War II .

It was notable in seeing the destruction of 4 U-Boats for the loss of 4 ships and is regarded as the first major victory for the Allies in the Battle of the Atlantic.

Contents

Background

HG 76 comprised 32 ships homeward bound from Gibraltar, many in ballast, or carrying trade goods.

There was a strong escort, consisting of 36th Escort Group, usually 2 sloops (corvettes (Convulvulus, Gardenia, Marigold, Penstemon, Rhodedendron, Samphire and Vetch) under the command of FJ Walker; this force was augmented by the new escort carrier Audacity, and her 3 escorting destroyers, HMS Blanckney, HMS Stanley (I73) and HMS Exmoor II plus 5 other warships, the sloops HMS Fowey and HMS Black Swan, And the corvettes Carnation and La Malouine: A total of 17 warships.

Ranged against them was the wolfpack Seeräuber ( Sea Robber, or Pirate) of 6 U-boats (U-67, U-107, U-108, U-131, U-434 and U-574), reinforced later by a further 3 boats.

Action

HG 76 sailed from Gibraltar on 15 December 1941, and was reported almost immediately by German agents across the bay in neutral Spain; these were able to report the convoy’s composition, escort strength and departure time.

HG 76 was also sighted later that day by U-74, on route to the Mediterranean, but was lost in poor visibility, while BdU was confused by an agents report that the convoy had returned to port.

The Sea Robbers were arrayed in a patrol line south of Cape St Vincent, but HG 76 was able to pass through he line without detection.

Meanwhile one of the boats, U-127 was detected on a routine ASW sweep by a group of 4 destroyers from Gibraltar; but after a brief but devastating attack U-127 was destroyed, the credit going to the Australian destroyer HMAS Nestor.

On 16 Dec HG 76 was sighted by a Fw 200 Condor patrolling from Bordeaux; from this U-108 gained contact and commenced shadowing whilst the other Sea Robbers closed in.

During the night of the 16th/17th the wolf pack closed in until by morning on the 17th 4 boats were in contact.

However vigorous patrolling by the escorts, and aircraft from Audacity, led to U-131 being detected; she was attacked by Stork, with Penstemon and the 3 destroyers in concert. U-131 was driven to the surface and sunk, though not before shooting down one of the Martlets.

On the night of 17/18th the U-boats attacked again; aggressive counter-measures prevented any hits, while at dawn on the 18th U-434 was sighted by the destroyers; she was attacked and rammed by Blankney, which was damaged in the process.

During the rest of the day several of the escorts had to leave; the sloops Black Swan , Fowey, with the corvettes Carnation and La Malouine returned to Gibraltar to re-fuel, while Blankney departed for repairs, escorted by Exmoor II.

On the night of 18/19 Stanley sighted U-574 astern, shadowing the convoy; she attacked, but was herself torpedoed and sunk. Stork and Samphire followed up the attack and destroyed U-574, picking up survivors from both. Also during the night U-108 attacked successfully, torpedoing Ruckinge, which was abandoned, to be sunk later by Samphire.

On the 19th the convoy was attacked by a force of Condors; they caused no damage, but 2 were shot down, and another damaged, by Martlets from Audacity. Also that day the Sea Robbers were joined by 3 more boats from Bordeaux, U-71, U-567 (captained by U-boat ace KL Endrass), and U-751. Were dispatched to join the sea robbers; they were to arrive on the 21st. Over the next 3 days The 3 remaining boats from Seeräuber, U-67, U-107 and U-108 continued to shadow, attacking without result.

On 21st the 3 boats from Bordeaux, and the U-boats again prepared to attack.

Walker attempted to draw off the attack by having Deptford make a demonstration some way off from the convoy; This was unsuccessful, as some of the merchant ships were confused by the display, and also fired star-shells, revealing their position. U-567 was able to sink Annavore, while Bigalk, in U-751 sighted Audacity, zig-zagging behind the convoy without her escort. He fired, and Audacity was sunk, hit by 3 torpedoes. Marigold, Vetch and Samphire counter-attacked, but without result.

Later that night Deptford spotted a U-boat on the surface; she attacked, and dropped depth-charges, with no apparent result; however, post-war analysis revealed that she had sunk U-567. Following this Deptford collided with Stork, damaging them both.

During 22 Dec U-71 and U-751 remained in contact, to be joined by U-125 (en route to America), while HG 76 was reinforced by the destroyers Vanquisher and Witch.

On 23 Dececember Donitz, shaken by his losses, and the lack of success, called off the attack; U-67, U-107, U-108 and U-751 returned to bases in France.

Conclusion

Despite the loss of Audacity and the 3 other ships, the safe arrival of 30 ships and the destruction of 3 U-boats ( U-127 was not included, and U-567 not confirmed until after the war) was judged to be an outstanding victory. It also confirmed Walker as the Royal Navy’ s foremost expert in anti submarine warfare.

By contrast Adm Donitz and the U-boat Arm was shaken by their losses, particularly Endrass, who was the leading U-boat ace at that time.

Tables

Allied ships lost

Date Name Nationality Casualties Tonnage Sunk by…
19 Dec Ruckinge. British 2 2869 GRT U-108
21 Dec Annavore British 34 3324GRT U-567

Allied warships lost

Date Name Nationality Casualties Type Sunk by…
19 Dec HMS Stanley British Destroyer U-574
21 Dec HMS Audacity British Escort Carrier U-571

Axis submarines destroyed

Date Number Type Captain Casualties Sunk by…
17 Dec U-131 Type IX KK Bauran none HMS Stork
18 Dec U-434 Type VIIC KL Heyda 2 HMS Blankney,
HMS Stanley
19 Dec U-574 Type VIIC OL Gengelbach 27 HMS Stork
21 Dec U-567 Type VIIC KL Endrass 47 HMS Deptford

External links

References


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