- UNASUR Constitutive Treaty
Constitutive Treaty Treaty establishing the Union of South American Nations Signed May 23, 2008 Location Brasília, Brazil Effective March 11, 2011 Condition Ratified by 12 Member States Signatories Parties 12 Depositary Government of Ecuador Languages Dutch, English, Portuguese and Spanish Constitutive Treaty of the Union of South American Nations at Wikisource
The Constitutive Treaty of the Union of South American Nations was signed on May 23, 2008 during the Third Summit of Heads of State and Government held in Brasília, Brazil. It officially established the Union of South American Nations, a supranational continental union of twelve South American nations.
On behalf of Signed by Ratified Date of ratification Argentina Cristina Kirchner Yes August 2, 2010 Bolivia Evo Morales Yes March 11, 2009 Brazil Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva Yes July 14, 2011 Chile Michelle Bachelet Yes November 22, 2010 Colombia Álvaro Uribe Yes January 28, 2011 Ecuador Rafael Correa Yes July 15, 2009 Guyana Bharrat Jagdeo Yes February 12, 2010 Paraguay Nicanor Duarte Yes Jun 9, 2011 Peru Alan García Yes May 11, 2010 Suriname Ronald Venetiaan Yes November 5, 2010 Uruguay Rodolfo Nin Novoa Yes February 9, 2011 Venezuela Hugo Chávez Yes March 13, 2010
The treaty consists of 27 relatively short sections, and is the constitution of the new union. It outlines its structure and organs, and assumes that additional documents fill in the details.
The treaty declares the establishment and objects of the Union (in §§ 1-3), its organs (§§ 4-10 and 17), juridical foundation (§§ 11-13 and 22-27), and financial foundation (§ 16). It regulates the acceptance of new associate or full members and the right of cessation from the union in §§ 19, 20, 24, and 26, and the rules for adopting amendments to the treaty in § 25. Finally, §§ 14, 15, 18, and 21 declare the intent to employ dialogue among the member states, with its citizens, with third parties, and as the means for conflict resolution.
The 12 original signatories of the document have presented documentation of ratification to the Ecuadorian government. Other Latin American and Caribbean states may be admitted as associated members. An associated member may apply for and be granted full membership, but only after having been associated for at least four years, and only after five years have elapsed since the treaty came into force. This implies that no new full members outside the original twelve can be admitted before March 11, 2016.
A full or associated member state may unilaterally withdraw from the union. To do so, the state must deposit their cessation documentation in a similar manner as the ratification, and the cessation will take effect six months after the deposition. However, cessation of membership will not free states from any financial debts to the Union for unpaid membership fees or otherwise.
At the time the treaty came into force on March 11, 2011, it had been ratified by Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The two other original signatories, Brazil and Paraguay, had not yet completed the ratification process by that date.
Any member state may suggest amendments to the constitutional treaty. In order to be adopted, an amendment must be approved by the Council of Heads of State and Government, and then ratified by at least nine member states.
On November 26, 2010, during the 2010 South American Summit, representatives introduced a democratic clause to the Constitutive Treaty of the Union of South American Nations. The amendment specifies measures to be taken against member-states whose political processes are not respected. The clause establishes sanctions, such as shutting down borders and the suspension of trade against the country that suffers an attempted coup.
The decision to include a democratic clause was made after the recent upheaval in Ecuador that briefly threatened the administration of President, Rafael Correa. The additional protocol was signed by all member-states of UNASUR.
Entering into force
On March 11, 2011, when the Constitutive Treaty entered into legal force, establishing the Union of South American Nations as an international legal personality, the Foreign Ministers of the UNASUR member states met at Mitad del Mundo, Ecuador, to celebrate the event and lay the foundation stone of the UNASUR Secretariat headquarters.
- ^ South America nations found union BBC, accessed on May 23, 2008.
- ^ Argentina ratified UNASUR Constitutive Treaty Unasur. Retrieved on 2010-11-25.
- ^ Bolivia ratifica el tratado constitutivo de la UNASUR El Ciudadano. Retrieved on 2010-11-25. (Spanish).
- ^  Correio do Brasil. Retrieved on 2011-07-14. (Spanish).
- ^ Santiago ratifico el tratado constitutivo de la unasur Yahoo! Noticias. Retrieved on 2010-11-25. (Spanish).
- ^  El Universal. Retrieved on 2011-2-17. (Spanish).
- ^ Ecuador segundo país en ratificar Tratado Constitutivo de UNASUR Flacso. Retrieved on 2010-11-25. (Spanish).
- ^ Guyana ratificó tratado constitutivo de Unasur Como tu quieras. Retrieved on 2010-11-25. (Spanish).
- ^ Paraguay approved UNASUR Constitutive Treaty on 6-9-2011. (Spanish).
- ^ Perú ratifica Tratado Constitutivo de UNASUR Flacso. Retrieved on 2010-11-25. (Spanish).
- ^ Surinam ratifica el Tratado Constitutivo de Unasur El Ciudadano. Retrieved on 2010-11-25. (Spanish).
- ^ Entrada em vigor do Tratado Constitutivo da UNASUL Brazilian Foreign Ministry. Retrieved on 2011-02-14. (Portuguese).
- ^ Venezuela ratificó el Tratado Constitutivo de Unasur El Universal. Retrieved on 2010-11-25. (Spanish).
- ^ Entrada em vigor do Tratado Constitutivo da UNASUL ("Entry into force of the Unasur Constitutive Treaty") Ministry of External Relations of Brazil. Retrieved on 2011-02-15. (Portuguese).
- ^ Constitutive Treaty of the Union of South American Nations Ministry of External Relations, accessed on May 25, 2008.
- ^ UNASUR Summit condemned attempt of coup d´etat in Ecuador and reasserted commitment to democratic institutions Telam. Retrieved on 2010-11-27.
- ^ Additional Protocol to the Constitutive Treaty of the Union of South American Nations on Commitment to Democracy Guyana: Government Information Agency. Retrieved on 2010-11-27.
- ^ (Spanish)"Sede de Unasur llevará el nombre de Néstor Kirchner". telesur. 09-03-2011. http://www.telesurtv.net/secciones/noticias/89973-NN/sede-de-unasur-llevara-el-nombre-de-nestor-kirchner.
- The text of the Treaty translated in English on Wikisource
Union of South American Nations Member states Summits2004 South American Summit · 2008 South American Summit · 2009 South American Summit · 2010 South American Summit · 2011 South American Summit Topics
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