Wari’ language

Wari’ language


The Wari’ language (also Orowari, Wari, Pacaá Novo, Pacaás Novos, Pakaa Nova, Pakaásnovos) is the sole remaining vibrant language of the Chapacuran language family of the Brazilian-Bolivian border region of the Amazon. It has about 1300-1800 speakers, also called Wari’.

Wari’ has two phonetic oddities: its "skewed" vowel inventory, and the voiceless dental bilabially trilled affricate IPA| [t͡ʙ̥] , which is only reported from four other languages, and is only phonemic in Wari' and two neighbouring languages.


Wari’ syllables range in complexity from CV to CVVC. The only exceptions appear to be final consonant clusters involving a glottal stop (see below).


IPA|/t͡ʙ̥/ is a bilabial trill preceded by a dental stop, forming a single unit. Only about 24 words contain the sound, some of which are onomatopoeic.

Wari’ has words ending in consonant clusters IPA|mʔ and IPA|nʔ. These have been analysed as single sounds, but apparently only to avoid complicating the Wari’ syllable structure.


Vowels are generally expected to be somewhat evenly distributed in vowel space (that is, spread out rather than bunched up when represented on a vowel chart). Additionally, when a language has few vowels, they will normally be unrounded when front and rounded when back. Usually rounded front vowels and unrounded back vowels are only found in languages with large inventories such as German and Vietnamese. However, while Wari’ has only six vowels, four of these are high/mid front vowels, of which two are rounded (although IPA|/ø/ is somewhat rare). These contrast to only a single back vowel. The front vowels are so close that it is sometimes difficult for a non-native speaker to distinguish them. This results in what is probably the most asymmetrical vowel system known.


* Everett, Daniel; & Kern, B. (1996). "Wari’: The Pacaas Novos language of western Brazil". London: Routledge.
* Ladefoged, Peter; Everett, Daniel. (1996). The status of phonetic rarities. "Language", "72" (4), 794-800.
* Margaret MacEachern, Barbara Kern, Peter Ladefoged, 1996. "Wari’ phonetic structures". In "UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 93: Fieldwork Studies of Targeted Languages IV".

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Wari — may refer to:* the Amerindian nation Wari * the Wari’ language * the Huari Culture that existed in modern day Peru, sometimes written Wari in English * the board game Oware …   Wikipedia

  • Wari' — The Waricaca , also known as the Pakaa Nova, are an Amerindian nation indigenous to the Amazon rainforest. They are native to the state of Rondônia, Brazil and were first seen by European settlers at the shores of the river Pakaa Nova, which is a …   Wikipedia

  • Wari (Insel) — Vorlage:Infobox Insel/Wartung/Bild fehltVorlage:Infobox Insel/Wartung/Höhe fehlt Wari Gewässer Salomonensee Inselgruppe Louisiade Archipel Geographische Lage …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Pirahã language — Pirahã xapaitíiso Pronunciation [ʔàpài̯ˈt͡ʃîːsò] Spoken in Brazil Region Amazon River …   Wikipedia

  • Rama language — Infobox Language name=Rama nativename=Rama states=Nicaragua region=Rama Cay speakers=approx. 36 familycolor=American fam1=Chibchan fam2=Northern group fam3=Votic Subgroup lc1=rma|ld1=Rama |ll1=Rama languageRama is one of the indigenous languages… …   Wikipedia

  • Chibcha language — For other uses, see Chibcha language (disambiguation). Chibcha Muisca, Muyskkubun Spoken in Central highlands of Colombia Ethnicity Muisca Extinct …   Wikipedia

  • Oro Win language — Oro Win Spoken in Brazil Native speakers 6  (date missing) Language family Chapacuran Madeira Oro Win …   Wikipedia

  • Kakad Wari Dir Upper — Original name in latin Kakad Wari Dir Upper Name in other language State code PK Continent/City Asia/Karachi longitude 34.99798 latitude 72.07295 altitude 1409 Population 3000 Date 2012 12 03 …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Biak language — Infobox Language name=Biak familycolor=Austronesian region=Southeast Asia states=Indonesia speakers=about 30.000 speakers fam2=Malayo Polynesian fam3=Central Eastern Malayo Polynesian fam4=Eastern Malayo Polynesian fam5=South Halmahera West New… …   Wikipedia

  • Huari culture — This article is about the historical civilization and city located near present day Ayacucho. For the Province of the Ancash Region in Peru, see Huari Province Infobox Former Country native name = aut|Wari conventional long name = Huari Culture… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.