 Computer for operations with functions

Computer for operations with mathematical functions (unlike the usual computer) operates with functions at the hardware level (i.e. without programming these operations).^{[1]}^{[2]}^{[3]}
Contents
History
A thingy machine for operations with functions has been presented and developed and by Kartsev in the year 1967 ^{[1]}. Among the operations of this computing machine were the functions addition, subtraction and multiplying, functions comparison, the same operations between a function and a number, finding the function maximum, computing indefinite integral, computing definite integral of derivative of two functions, derivative of two functions, shift of a function along the along Xaxis etc. By its architecture this computing machine was (using the modern terminology) a vector processor. In itthere has been used the fact that many of these operations may be interpreted as the known operation on vectors: addition and subtraction of functions  as addition and subtraction of vectors, computing a definite integral of two functions derivative— as computing the vector product of two vectors, function shift along the Xaxis – as vector rotation about axes, etc.^{[1]} In the year 1966 Khmelnik had proposed a functions coding method ^{[2]}, i.e. the functions representation by a "uniform" (for a function as a whole) positional code. And so the mentioned operations with functions are performed as unique computer operations with such codes on a "single" arithmetic unit.^{[3]}
Positional codes of onevariable functions ^{[2]}^{[3]}
The main idea
Positional code of an integer number A is a numeral notation of this digit α in a certain positional number system of the following form:
Such code may be called "linear". Unlike it a positional code of onevariable x function F(x) has the form:
and so it is flat and "triangular", as the digits in it comprise a triangle.
Such positional code of an integer number corresponds to a sum of the following form: ,.
where ρ — is the radix of the said number system. Positional code of onevariable function correspond to a "double' code f the form:
 ,
where R — is an integer positive number, the number of a digit's values α, y — is a certain function of argument x.
Addition of positional codes of numbers is associated with the carry transfer to a highest digit according to the scheme: .
Addition of positional codes of onevariable functions is also associated with the carry transfer to a highest digits according to the scheme:
 .
Here the same transfer is carried simultaneously to "two" highest digits.
Rnary triangular code
A triangular code is called Rnary (and is denoted as TK_{R}), if the numbers α_{mk} take their values from the set
 где и .
For example, a triangular code is a ternary code TK_{3}, if , and quaternary TK_{4}, if .
For Rnary triangular codes the following equalities are valid: ,
where a is an arbitrary number. There exists TK_{R} of an arbitrary integer real number. In particular, TK_{R}(α) = α. Also there exists TK_{R} of any function of the form y^{k}. For instance, .
Singledigit addition
in Rnary triangular codes consists in the following:
 in the given (mk)digit there is determined the sum of the digits that are being added and two carries , transferred into this digit from the left, i.e.
 ,
 this sum is presented in the form , where ,
 σ_{mk} is written in the (mk)digit of summary code, and the carry p_{mk} from the given digit is carried into (m,k + 1)digit and (m + 1,k + 1)digit.
This procedure is described (as also for onedigit addition of the numbers) by a table of onedigit addition, where all the values of the terms and must be present and all the values of carries appearing at decomposition of the sum . Such a table may be synthesized for R > 2.
Below we have written the table of onedigit addition for R = 3:Smk TK(Smk) . . 0 . . 0 0 0 0 0 . . 0 . . 1 1 0 1 0 . . 0 . . (1) (1) 0 (1) 0 . . 1 . . 2 (1) 1 (1) 1 . . 1 . . 3 0 1 0 1 . . 1 . . 4 1 1 1 1 . . (1) . . (2) 1 (1) 1 (1) . . (1) . . (3) 0 (1) 0 (1) . . (1) . . (4) (1) (1) (1) (1) Onedigit subtraction
in Rnary triangular codes differs from the onedigit addition only by the fact that in the given (mk)digit the value is determined by the formula
 .
Onedigit division by the parameter R
in Rnary triangular codes is based on using the correlation:
 ,
from this it follows that the division of each digit causes carries into two lowest digits. Hence, the digits result in this operation is a sum of the quotient from the division of this digit by R and two carries from two highest digits. Thus, when divided by parameter R
 in the given (mk)digit the following sum is determined
 ,
 this sum is presented as , where ,
 σ_{mk} is written into (mk)digit of the resulting code, and carry p_{mk} from the given digit is transferred into the (m − 1,k − 1)digit and (m − 1,k)digit.
This procedure is described by the table of onedigit division by parameter R, where all the values of terms and all values of carries, appearing at the decomposition of the sum , must be present. Such table may be synthesized for R > 2.
Below the table will be given for the onedigit division by the parameter R for R = 3:Smk TK(Smk) . . 0 . . 0 0 0 0 0 . . 1 . . 1 0 0 1 0 . . (1) . . (1) 0 0 (1) 0 . . 0 . . 1/3 1 (1/3) 0 1 . . 1 . . 2/3 (1) 1/3 1 (1) . . 1 . . 4/3 1 (1/3) 1 1 . . 2 . . 5/3 (1) 1/3 2 (1) . . 0 . . (1/3) (1) 1/3 0 (1) . . (1) . . (2/3) 1 (1/3) (1) 1 . . (1) . . (4/3) (1) 1/3 (1) (1) . . (2) . . (5/3) 1 (1/3) (2) 1 Addition and subtraction
of Rnary triangular codes consists (as in positional codes of numbers) in subsequently performed onedigit operations. Mind that the onedigit operations in all digits of each column are performed simultaneously.
Multiplication
of Rnary triangular codes. Multiplication of a code TK_{R}' by (mk)digit of another code TK_{R}'' consists in (mk)shift of the code TK_{R}', i.e. its shift k columns left and m rows up. Multiplication of codes TK_{R}' and TK_{R}'' consists in subsequent (mk)shifts of the code TK_{R}' and addition of the shifted code TK_{R}' with the partproduct (as in the positional codes of numbers).
Derivation
of Rnary triangular codes. The derivative of function F(x), defined above, is
 .
So the derivation of triangular codes of a function F(x) consists in determining the triangular code of the partial derivative and its multiplication by the known triangular code of the derivative . The determination of the triangular code of the partial derivative is based on the correlation
 .
The derivation method consists of organizing carries from mkdigit into (m+1,k)digit and into (m1,k)digit, and their summing in the given digit is performed in the same way as in onedigit addition.
Coding and decoding
of Rnary triangular codes. A function represented by series of the form
 ,
with integer coefficients A_{k}, may be represented by Rnary triangular codes, for these coefficients and functions y^{k} have Rnary triangular codes (which was mentioned in the beginning of the section). On the other hand, Rnary triangular code may be represented by the said series, as any term α_{mk}R^{k}y^{k}(1 − y)^{m} in the positional expansion of the function (corresponding to this code) may be represented by a similar series.
Truncation
of Rnary triangular codes. This is the name of an operation of reducing the number of "non"zero columns. The necessity of truncation appears at the emergence of carries beyond the digit net. The truncation consists in division by parameter R. All coefficients of the series represented by the code are reduced R times, and the fractional parts of these coefficients are discarded. The first term of the series is also discarded. Such reduction is acceptable if it is known that the series of functions converge. Truncation consists in subsequently performed onedigit operations of division by parameter R. The onedigit operations in all the digits of a row are performed simultaneously, and the carries from lower row are discarded.
Scale factor
Rnary triangular code is accompanied by a scale factor M, similar to exponent for floatingpoint number. Factor M permits to display all coefficients of the coded series as integer numbers. Factor M is multiplied by R at the code truncation. For addition factors M are aligned, to do so one of added codes must be truncated. For multiplication the factors M are also multiplied.
Positional code for functions of many variables ^{[4]}
Positional code for function of two variables is depicted on Figure 1. It corresponds to a "triple" sum of the form:: ,
where R is an integer positive number, number of values of the figure α_{m1,m2,k}, and — certain functions of arguments correspondingly. On Figure 1 the nodes correspond to digits α_{m1,m2,k}, and in the circles the values of indexes m1,m2,k of the corresponding digit are shown. The positional code of the function of two variables is called "pyramidal". Positional code is called Rnary (and is denoted as PK_{R}), if the numbers α_{m1,m2,k} assume the values from the set D_{R}. At the addition of the codes PK_{R} the carry extends to four digits and hence .A positional code for the function from several variables corresponds to a sum of the form
 ,
where R is an integer positive number, number of values of the digit , and y_{i}(x_{i}) certain functions of arguments x_{i}. A positional code of a function of several variables is called "hyperpyramidal". Of Figure 2 is depicted for example a positional hyperpyramidal code of a function of three variables. On it the nodes correspond to the digits α_{m1,m2,m3,k}, and the circles contain the values of indexes m1,m2,m3,k of the corresponding digit. A positional hyperpyramidal code is called Rnary (and is denoted as GPK_{R}), if the numbers assume the values from the set D_{R}. At the codes addition GPK_{R} the carry extends on adimensional cube, containing 2^{a} digits, and hence .
References
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} Malinovsky, B.N. (1995 (see also here http://www.sigcis.org/files/SIGCISMC2010_001.pdf and english version here)). The history of computer technology in their faces (in Russian). Kiew: Firm "KIT". ISBN 5770761318.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} Khmelnik, S.I. (1966 (http://lib.izdatelstwo.com/Papers2/s7.pdf see also here in Russian)). Coding of functions. 4. Cybernetics, USSR Academy of Sciences.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} Khmelnik, S.I. (2004 (http://lib.izdatelstwo.com/Papers2/s7.pdf see also here in Russian)). Computer Arithmetic of Functions. Algorithms and Hardware Design. Israel: "Mathematics in Computers". ISBN 9780557075201.
 ^ Khmelnik, S.I. (1970 (http://lib.izdatelstwo.com/Papers2/s17.pdf see also here in Russian)). Several types of positional functions codes. 5. Cybernetics, USSR Academy of Sciences.
Categories: Encodings
 Computer hardware
 Russian inventions
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