- Henry Pelham
Infobox Prime Minister
The Right Honourable
office=Prime Minister of Great Britain
term_start =27 August 1743
term_end =6 March 1754
monarch =George II
predecessor =The Earl of Wilmington
successor =The Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne
birth_date =birth date|1694|9|25|df=y
death_date =death date and age|1754|3|6|1694|9|25|df=y
alma_mater =Hart Hall, Oxford
Chancellor of the Exchequer
term_start2=12 December 1743
term_end2=6 March 1754
monarch2 =George II
For the first year of his premiership, real power was held by the
Secretary of State for the Northern Department, Lord Carteret, who headed the Carteret Ministry(Pelham was First Lord of the Treasury, Chancellor of the Exchequerand Leader of the House of Commons). Thereafter, he shared power with his brother, the Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. This period was relatively uneventful in terms of domestic affairs (Great Britain fought in several wars, however). Upon his death, his brother took full control of the ministry.
Pelham, Newcastle's younger brother, was a younger son of the 1st Baron Pelham of Laughton and of Lady Grace Holles, daughter of the 3rd
Earl of Clare. He was educated at Westminster and at Hart Hall, Oxford. Hertford College Oxford, the present-day incarnation of Hart Hall, still honours him in the title of its most prestigious drinking club, the Sir Henry Pelham Gentlemen's Sporting Society. As a volunteer he served in Dormer's regiment at the Battle of Preston in 1715, spent some time on the Continent, and in 1717 entered Parliament for Seaford in Sussexwhich he represented until 1722.Through strong family influence and the recommendation of Robert Walpolehe was chosen in 1721 a Lord of the Treasury. The following year he was returned for Sussex county. In 1724 he entered the ministry as Secretary at War, but this office he exchanged in 1730 for the more lucrative one of Paymaster of the Forces. He made himself conspicuous by his support of Walpole on the question of the excise and, like Walpole, he served as a founding governor of the popular charity the Foundling Hospitalwhen it opened its doors in 1739. In 1742 a union of parties resulted in the formation of an administration in which Pelham became Prime Minister the following year, with the additional offices of First Lord of the Treasury, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons. The following year Carteret was forced out of the ministry and Pelham was regarded as the leading figure, but rank and influence made his brother very powerful in the Cabinet, and, in spite of a genuine attachment, there were occasional disputes between them, which led to difficulties.
Being strongly in favour of peace, Pelham carried on the
War of the Austrian Successionwith languor and indifferent success, but the country, wearied of the interminable struggle, was disposed to acquiesce in his foreign policy almost without a murmur. King George II, thwarted in his own favourite schemes, made overtures in 1746 to Lord Bath, but his purpose was upset by the resignation of the two Pelhams (Henry and Newcastle), who, at the King's request, resumed office.In 1749, the Consolidation Actwas passed, reorganising the Royal Navy. On 20 March 1751, the British calendar was reorganised as well (New Year's Day became 1 January); Britain would adopt the Gregorian calendarone year later. One of Pelham's final acts was the Marriage Act 1753, which enumerated the minimum age of consent for marriage. Upon his death, his brother (the aforementioned Duke of Newcastle) took over government.
His very defects were among the chief elements of Pelham's success, for one with a strong personality, moderate self-respect, or high conceptions of statesmanship could not have restrained the discordant elements of the cabinet for any length of time. Moreover, he possessed tact and a thorough acquaintance with the forms of the House of Commons. Whatever quarrels or insubordination might exist within the cabinet, they never broke out into open revolt. Nor can a high degree of praise be denied to his financial policy, especially his plans for the reduction of the national debt and the simplification and consolidation of its different branches.
Pelham had married Lady Catherine Manners, daughter of the 2nd Duke of Rutland, in 1726, and one of his daughters married Henry Clinton, who by this marriage subsequently became the 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne.
Pelham's personal papers were inherited by his son-in-law and now form part of the Newcastle (Clumber) Collection held at the department of
Manuscripts and Special Collections, The University of Nottingham
Titles from birth to death
*Mr. Henry Pelham (1694-1706)
*The Hon. Henry Pelham (1706-1717)
*The Hon. Henry Pelham, MP (1717-1725)
*The Rt. Hon. Henry Pelham, MP (1725-1754)
* [http://pm.gov.uk/output/Page172.asp More about Henry Pelham] on the Downing Street website.
* [http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/mss/online/family-estate/collections/newcastle/henry_pelham.phtml Biography of Henry Pelham, with links to online catalogues]
*Some material has been adapted from the
1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
NAME= Pelham, Henry
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Prime Minister of Great Britain (1743 - 1754)
DATE OF BIRTH=25 September 1694
PLACE OF BIRTH=Laughton,
DATE OF DEATH=6 March 1754
PLACE OF DEATH=
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