Henry Pelham


Henry Pelham

Infobox Prime Minister
honorific-prefix = The Right Honourable
name=Henry Pelham


office=Prime Minister of Great Britain
term_start =27 August 1743
term_end =6 March 1754
monarch =George II
predecessor =The Earl of Wilmington
successor =The Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne
birth_date =birth date|1694|9|25|df=y
birth_place =Laughton, Sussex
death_date =death date and age|1754|3|6|1694|9|25|df=y
death_place =London
alma_mater =Hart Hall, Oxford
party=n/a (Whig)
order2=Chancellor of the Exchequer
term_start2=12 December 1743
term_end2=6 March 1754
monarch2 =George II
predecessor2=Samuel Sandys
successor2=William Lee|

Henry Pelham (25 September 1694 – 6 March 1754) was a British Whig statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 27 August 1743 until his death in 1754.

Biography

Career

For the first year of his premiership, real power was held by the Secretary of State for the Northern Department, Lord Carteret, who headed the Carteret Ministry (Pelham was First Lord of the Treasury, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons). Thereafter, he shared power with his brother, the Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. This period was relatively uneventful in terms of domestic affairs (Great Britain fought in several wars, however). Upon his death, his brother took full control of the ministry.

Pelham, Newcastle's younger brother, was a younger son of the 1st Baron Pelham of Laughton and of Lady Grace Holles, daughter of the 3rd Earl of Clare. He was educated at Westminster and at Hart Hall, Oxford. Hertford College Oxford, the present-day incarnation of Hart Hall, still honours him in the title of its most prestigious drinking club, the Sir Henry Pelham Gentlemen's Sporting Society. As a volunteer he served in Dormer's regiment at the Battle of Preston in 1715, spent some time on the Continent, and in 1717 entered Parliament for Seaford in Sussex which he represented until 1722.Through strong family influence and the recommendation of Robert Walpole he was chosen in 1721 a Lord of the Treasury. The following year he was returned for Sussex county. In 1724 he entered the ministry as Secretary at War, but this office he exchanged in 1730 for the more lucrative one of Paymaster of the Forces. He made himself conspicuous by his support of Walpole on the question of the excise and, like Walpole, he served as a founding governor of the popular charity the Foundling Hospital when it opened its doors in 1739. In 1742 a union of parties resulted in the formation of an administration in which Pelham became Prime Minister the following year, with the additional offices of First Lord of the Treasury, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons. The following year Carteret was forced out of the ministry and Pelham was regarded as the leading figure, but rank and influence made his brother very powerful in the Cabinet, and, in spite of a genuine attachment, there were occasional disputes between them, which led to difficulties.

Being strongly in favour of peace, Pelham carried on the War of the Austrian Succession with languor and indifferent success, but the country, wearied of the interminable struggle, was disposed to acquiesce in his foreign policy almost without a murmur. King George II, thwarted in his own favourite schemes, made overtures in 1746 to Lord Bath, but his purpose was upset by the resignation of the two Pelhams (Henry and Newcastle), who, at the King's request, resumed office.In 1749, the Consolidation Act was passed, reorganising the Royal Navy. On 20 March 1751, the British calendar was reorganised as well (New Year's Day became 1 January); Britain would adopt the Gregorian calendar one year later. One of Pelham's final acts was the Marriage Act 1753, which enumerated the minimum age of consent for marriage. Upon his death, his brother (the aforementioned Duke of Newcastle) took over government.

Achievements

His very defects were among the chief elements of Pelham's success, for one with a strong personality, moderate self-respect, or high conceptions of statesmanship could not have restrained the discordant elements of the cabinet for any length of time. Moreover, he possessed tact and a thorough acquaintance with the forms of the House of Commons. Whatever quarrels or insubordination might exist within the cabinet, they never broke out into open revolt. Nor can a high degree of praise be denied to his financial policy, especially his plans for the reduction of the national debt and the simplification and consolidation of its different branches.

Personal life

Pelham had married Lady Catherine Manners, daughter of the 2nd Duke of Rutland, in 1726, and one of his daughters married Henry Clinton, who by this marriage subsequently became the 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne.

Pelham's personal papers were inherited by his son-in-law and now form part of the Newcastle (Clumber) Collection held at the department of Manuscripts and Special Collections, The University of Nottingham

Titles from birth to death

*Mr. Henry Pelham (1694-1706)
*The Hon. Henry Pelham (1706-1717)
*The Hon. Henry Pelham, MP (1717-1725)
*The Rt. Hon. Henry Pelham, MP (1725-1754)

External links

* [http://pm.gov.uk/output/Page172.asp More about Henry Pelham] on the Downing Street website.
* [http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/mss/online/family-estate/collections/newcastle/henry_pelham.phtml Biography of Henry Pelham, with links to online catalogues]

References

*Some material has been adapted from the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.

Persondata
NAME= Pelham, Henry
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Prime Minister of Great Britain (1743 - 1754)
DATE OF BIRTH=25 September 1694
PLACE OF BIRTH=Laughton, Sussex, England
DATE OF DEATH=6 March 1754
PLACE OF DEATH=London, England


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Henry Pelham — Mandats 3e Premier ministre de Grande Bretagne …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Henry Pelham — (* 25. September 1694 in Laughton, Sussex; † 6. März 1754 in London) war Premierminister von Großbritannien vom 14. Februar 1743 bis zu seinem Tode. Familie Henry Pelham war der jü …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Henry Pelham — Henry Pelham. Henry Pelham (25 de septiembre de 1694 en Laughton, Sussex– 6 marzo de 1754 en Londres) fue un político británico whig, quien se desempeñó como Primer Ministro de Gran Bretaña desde 27 de agosto de 1743, hasta su muerte en 1754. Fue …   Wikipedia Español

  • Henry Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne — Henry Fiennes Pelham Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle under Lyne, KG, PC (16 April 1720 – 22 February 1794) was born in London, the second son of the 7th Earl of Lincoln. The Clintons were an ancient English family, whose forbears fought with… …   Wikipedia

  • Henry Pelham (engraver) — Henry Pelham (February 14, 1748/49 1806), American painter, engraver, and cartographer, was born in Boston, where his father, Peter Pelham, limner, engraver, and schoolmaster, had married Mary (Singleton) Copley, widow of Richard Copley and… …   Wikipedia

  • Henry Pelham-Clinton, 5th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne — Henry Pelham Pelham Clinton, 5th Duke of Newcastle under Lynecite web|url=http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/person.asp?LinkID=mp03280|title = Pictures Of Henry Pelham Clinton] , KG, PC (22 May 1811 ndash;18 October 1864), styled Earl of Lincoln… …   Wikipedia

  • Henry Pelham-Clinton, 4th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne — KG (31 January 1785 12 January 1851), known as Earl of Lincoln from 1794 to 1795, was a British nobleman and politician.Pelham Clinton was the eldest son of Thomas Pelham Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle under Lyne, and his wife Lady Anna Maria… …   Wikipedia

  • Henry Pelham-Clinton, Earl of Lincoln — Henry Fiennes Pelham Clinton, Earl of Lincoln (5 November 1750 ndash; 18 October 1778) was a short lived British politician, the second son of the 2nd Duke of Newcastle under Lyne.Lincoln became heir to his father on the death of his elder… …   Wikipedia

  • Henry Pelham-Clinton, 6th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne — Henry Pelham Alexander Pelham Clinton was born in 1834 and died in 1879. He was an English nobleman.Known as Lord Clinton until 1851, and then Lord Lincoln until he inherited the dukedom in 1864, the 6th Duke was educated at Eton College and then …   Wikipedia

  • Henry Pelham Lee — (1877 ndash;1953) was an English engine pioneer.BiographyLee was born in Putney the son of a London architect. Following his education at Bradfield College he studied electrical engineering in Kensington. He served with the Royal Buckinghamshire… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.