Apollonius of Tyre


Apollonius of Tyre

Apollonius of Tyre is the subject of an ancient short novella, popular during medieval times. Existing in numerous forms in many languages, the text is thought to be translated from an ancient Greek manuscript, now lost.

In most versions, the eponymous hero is hunted and persecuted after he reveals a king's incestuous relationship with his daughter. After many travels and adventures, in which Apollonius loses both his wife and his daughter and thinks them both dead, he is eventually reunited with his family through unlikely circumstances or intercession by gods. The major themes are the punishment of inappropriate lust—the incestuous king invariably comes to a bad end—and the ultimate rewards of love and fidelity.

The story is first mentioned in Latin by Venantius Fortunatus in his "Carmina" (Bk. vi. 8, 11. 5-6) during the late 6th century; it is conjectured, based on similarities with the "Ephesian Tale" of Xenophon of Ephesus and idioms awkward in Latin but typical in Greek, that the original was a Greek romance of the 3rd century. The riddles with which the king tests the hero in many versions may be a later addition to the story. Some scholars also believe the incest story to have been a later addition, however, many experts such as Elizabeth Archibald (author of, amongst other works, "Apollonius of Tyre: Medieval and Renaissance Themes and Variations") see it as an integral thematic element of the tale.

The earliest manuscripts of the tale, in a Latin version, date from the 9th or 10th century; the most widespread Latin versions are those of Gottfried von Viterbo, who incorporated it into his "Pantheon" of 1185 as if it were actual history, and a version in the "Gesta Romanorum". The earliest vernacular translation is an incomplete Old English prose text from the 11th century, sometimes called the first English novel; the existence of this text is something of a mystery, since secular prose fiction was extremely rare at the time. Various versions of the tale were subsequently written in most European languages.

A notable English version is the eighth book of John Gower's "Confessio Amantis", which uses it as an exemplum against incest.Fact|date=September 2007 Robert Copeland wrote an early 16th century prose version; Shakespeare's "Pericles, Prince of Tyre" was based in part on Gower's version, with the change of name probably inspired by Philip Sidney's "Arcadia". It was also a source for "Twelfth Night" and "The Comedy of Errors".

External links

* [http://www.chss.montclair.edu/classics/petron/ApolloniusT.html Plot summary]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Apollonius of Tyre — ▪ literary character       chief personage in a medieval Latin romance of unknown authorship, which may be assumed to derive from a lost Greek original. The story enjoyed long and widespread popularity in European literature, and versions of it… …   Universalium

  • Apollonius of Tyre (stoic) — Apollonius of Tyre, was a Stoic philosopher, who lived c. 60 BC.He is mentioned by Diogenes Laërtius [Diogenes Laërtius, vii.] as the author of a work on Zeno. Strabo [Strabo, xvi.] mentions a work of his which he calls a tabulated account of the …   Wikipedia

  • Apollonius — may be:;Historical people:* Apollonius Cronus (fl. 4th century BC), philosopher of the Megarian school * Apollonius Dyscolus (fl. 2nd century), grammarian * Apollonius Molon (fl. 70 BC), rhetorician * Apollonius of Athens (fl. 1st century BC),… …   Wikipedia

  • Tyre — may refer to: * The outer part of a wheel, see tireLocations *Tyre, Lebanon, the Phoenician city *Tyre, New York, a town in the United States *Tyre, Michigan, a hamlet in the United StatesHistorical events * Siege of Tyre, battle in 332 BC *… …   Wikipedia

  • Apollonius von Tyrus — Apollonius von Tyrus,   der Held eines wohl ursprünglichen griechischen Romans über das Leben des Prinzen (später Königs) Apollonius. Das Werk verarbeitet u. a. die Motive der Freierprobe in Form eines zu lösenden Rätsels, des Inzests, der… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Pericles, Prince of Tyre — This article is about Shakespeare s play. For other uses, see Pericles (disambiguation). Richard Pelzman as Simonides, Colleen Delany as Thaisa and Ryan Artzberger as Pericles in the Shakespeare Theatre Company s 2007 production of Pericles… …   Wikipedia

  • Pericles, Prince of Tyre — Péricles, prince de Tyr Pour les articles homonymes, voir Périclès (homonymie). Péricles, prince de Tyr est une pièce de théâtre en partie écrite par William Shakespeare, et incluse dans les éditions modernes de ses œuvres complètes. Les… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Аполлоний Тирский — (Apollonius of Tyre) герой романтической легенды, которая была широко распространена в Средние века и эпоху Ренессанса. Шекспир использовал ее в сюжете Комедии ошибок . Эта же легенда легла в основу пьесы Перикл …   Шекспировская энциклопедия

  • Historia Apollonii regis Tyri — Die Historia Apollonii regis Tyri („Geschichte von Apollonius, dem König von Tyros“) ist ein antiker Roman in lateinischer Sprache, der auf griechische oder lateinische Quellen zurückgeht. Sein Autor ist nicht bekannt, die Datierung fällt in das… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Historia Apollonii — Die Historia Apollonii regis Tyri („Geschichte von Apollonius, dem König von Tyros“) ist ein antiker Roman in lateinischer Sprache, der auf griechische oder lateinische Quellen zurückgeht. Sein Autor ist nicht bekannt, die Datierung fällt in das… …   Deutsch Wikipedia