- Conquest of Cochinchina
Following the Second Opium War, the French government of Napoleon III, with the help of Spanish and Filipino troops arriving from the Philippines (which was a Spanish colony at the time), decided to take over the southern part of Vietnam.
First phase of colonialization
Napoleon III was instrumental in establishing the stronger French presence in the region. In 1858, the emperor approved a naval operation under Rigault de Genouilly, initially said to provide security for French Catholic missionaries there. The operation escalated, and by 1861, it had turned into an invasion. By 1862, hostilities ceased and in the following negotiations Vietnam was forced to cede three provinces to the French. This eventually became French Cochinchina.
French Cochinchina opened three major ports for essentially unrestricted French trade and allowed French navy ships free passage to Cambodia. Although French Cochinchina also gave French missionaries free rein, it did not stop hostilities between the Vietnamese and the Christian missionaries and their Vietnamese converts.
Timeline of the first phase
On September 1, 1858, France occupied Đà Nẵng (Tourane). On 18 February 1859, they conquered Saigon and three southern Vietnamese provinces: Biên Hòa, Gia Định and Đinh Tường; on 13 April 1862, the Vietnamese monarchic government was forced to cede those territories to France as part of the Treaty of Saigon.
Timeline of the second phase
In 1867, French authorities claimed that Emperor Tự Đức was not abiding by the treaty and that he was secretly supporting Vietnamese guerrillas who were trying to drive the French out of the three provinces. They used this to justify another attack to gain three more provinces. The provinces of Châu Đốc, Hà Tiên and Vĩnh Long were added to French controlled territory. In 1874, all the French territories in southern Vietnam were declared to be the new French colony of Cochinchina.
BackgroundFrance-Asia relations · French colonial empire · France–Vietnam relations · France–Thailand relations · France–China relations
EventsFrench assistance to Nguyen Anh (1777–1820) · Le Van Khoi revolt (1833–1835) · Bombardment of Tourane (1847) · Siege of Tourane (1858) · Cochinchina campaign (1858–62) · Tonkin campaign (1883–1886) · Sino-French War (1884–1885) · Pacification of Tonkin · Franco-Siamese War (1893) · World War I · 1916 Cochinchina uprising · Thai Nguyen uprising · Bazin assassination · Yen Bai mutiny · French–Thai War (1940–1941) · Japanese invasion of French Indochina · World War II · August Revolution · Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam · First Indochina War · Battle of Dien Bien Phu · Partition of Vietnam Treaties French personalities Organisations Wars in Vietnam (1858–1886) Preceding 1st French invasion (1858–1862) 2nd French invasion (1873–1874) 3rd French invasion (1882–1886) Issues Treaties
- First Battle of the Citadel of Hanoi
- Capture of Hải Dương
- Capture of Ninh Bình
- Capture of Nam Định (1873)
- Battle of Cầu Giấy (1873)
- Conquest of Cochinchina
- Pacification of Tonkin
- French Indochina
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