Amphioctopus marginatus

Amphioctopus marginatus
Amphioctopus marginatus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Cephalopoda
Order: Octopoda
Family: Octopodidae
Genus: Amphioctopus
Species: A. marginatus
Binomial name
Amphioctopus marginatus
(Taki, 1964)
  • Octopus marginatus
    Taki, 1964
  • Octopus striolatus
    Dong, 1976

Amphioctopus marginatus, also known as the coconut octopus and veined octopus, is a medium-sized cephalopod belonging to the genus Amphioctopus. It is found in tropical waters of the western Pacific Ocean. It commonly preys upon shrimp, crabs, and clams, and displays unusual behaviour, including bipedal walking and gathering and using coconut shells and seashells for shelter.


Size and description

The main body of the octopus is typically around 8 centimeters (3 in) in size, and, with arms, approximately 15 centimeters (6 in) long. The octopus displays a typical color pattern with dark ramified lines similar to veins, usually with a yellow siphon. The arms are usually dark in color, with contrasting white suckers. In many color displays, a lighter trapezoidal area can be seen immediately below the eye.

Behavior and habitat

Small (4-5 cm diameter) individual using a nut shell and clam shell as shelter

The coconut octopus is found on sandy bottoms in bays or lagoons. It frequently buries itself in the sand with only its eyes uncovered.[citation needed]

In March 2005, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, published an article in Science in which A. marginatus was reported to have a bipedal behavior.[1] It is one of only two octopus species known to display such behavior, the other species being Abdopus aculeatus. According to the article, this behavior was discovered in an area off Sulawesi, Indonesia, where the sandy bottom was littered with coconut shells. The bipedal motion appears to mimic a floating coconut.[2]

Researchers from the Melbourne Museum in Australia observed the creature's use of tools for defense, and the use of available debris to create a defensive fortress. The discovery of this behavior, observed in Bali and North Sulawesi in Indonesia between 1998 and 2008, was published in the journal Current Biology in December 2009.[3][4][5] The researchers filmed A. marginatus collecting coconut shells, discarded by humans, from the sea floor, carrying them up to 20 meters (66 ft), and arranging the shells to form a spherical hiding place akin to a clamshell.[4][6] Although octopuses often use foreign objects as shelter, the sophisticated behavior of A. marginatus when they select materials, carry and reassemble them, is far more complex.[4]

See also


  1. ^ Sanders, Robert: Octopuses occasionally stroll around on two arms, UC Berkeley biologists report, University of California, Berkeley, March 24, 2005.
  2. ^ Christine L. Huffard, Farnis Boneka, Robert J. Full: Underwater Bipedal Locomotion by Octopuses in Disguise, Science, March 25, 2005.
  3. ^ Finn, Julian K.; Tregenza, Tom; Norman, Mark D. (2009), "Defensive tool use in a coconut-carrying octopus", Curr. Biol. 19 (23): R1069–R1070, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.10.052, PMID 20064403 .
  4. ^ a b c Gelineau, Kristen (2009-12-15). "Aussie scientists find coconut-carrying octopus". The Associated Press. Retrieved 2009-12-15. 
  5. ^ Harmon, Katherine (2009-12-14). "A tool-wielding octopus? This invertebrate builds armor from coconut halves". Scientific American. 
  6. ^ Henderson, Mark (2009-12-15). "Indonesia's veined octopus 'stilt walks' to collect coconut shells". Times Online. 

External links


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