- Coal in South Africa
South Africa produces in excess of 260 million tonnes of coal (2003 estimate) and consumes almost three quarters of that domestically. Around 77% of South Africa's energy needs are directly derived from coal and 92% of coal consumed on the African continent is produced in South Africa.
The use of coal in South Africa dates back to 300 AD when coal furnaces were used to melt iron and copper, but large-scale exploitation did not occur until the mid-19th century.
The largest coal deposits in South Africa are to be found in the Ecca Group, a stratum of the Karoo Supergroup, dating from between 280 and 250 Ma. The Ecca Group is extensive, covering around two thirds of South Africa and contains more than a third of all coal reserves in the Southern Hemisphere.
Notable coalfields are:
More than a quarter of coal mined in South Africa is exported, most of which leaves the country via Richards Bay. Coal is South Africa's third largest source of foreign exchange; platinum being the largest and gold second. Around 15% of the country's GDP (2000 estimate) is spent on energy and 77% of that is derived from coal.
The Witbank Coalfield accounts for 40% of South Africa's coal production.
Electricity generation accounts for 43% of all coal consumed in South Africa (1997 estimate).
Many of the country's coal-fired power station are located in close proximity to a coal mine and are supplied with fuel directly from the mine. The Grootegeluk open cast mine on the Waterberg Coalfield in Limpopo is one of the largest in the country and feeds the Matimba Power Station with about 14.6 million tons of coal a year via a conveyor system. The mine is also contracted to supply the new Medupi Power Station.
In 1995 around a million lower-income households in South Africa depended on coal as their primary energy source for cooking, lighting and heating. This number has been decreasing steadily during the first decade of the 21st century due to the expansion of electricity supply to lower-income households and rural regions.
Environmentalists in South Africa and abroad have criticized the decision of the World Bank's approval for a $3.75 billion loan to build the world’s 4th largest coal-fired power in South Africa. The plant will increase the demand for coal mining and production. Protesters are urging the bank to stop supporting the development of coal plants and other large emitters of greenhouse gas and polluting operations from coal mining. 
Usage of coal and liquid fuel derived from coal accounts for around 86% of the 113 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions South Africa produces annually (2006 estimate) and represents around 40% of Africa's total coal derived CO2 emissions.
Some coal mines have been abandoned by their owners, mainly due to companies ceasing to exist. Many of these mines, such as the Transvaal and Delagoa Bay Collieries (T&DB) outside Witbank, have not been rehabilitated prior to being abandoned and are a major source of water and air pollution. It is estimated that clean-up and rehabilitation of the T&DB Collieries will cost around R100 million. Coal seam fires were common, but controlled, at T&DB Collieries during the mines operation, but the fires have been left to burn out of control since the mine was closed in 1953, to the extend that in 1995 flames could be seen above ground.
- ^ "Production and consumption of coal (2003 estimates)" (in Planete Energies). http://www.planete-energies.com/content/coal/production.html. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- ^ a b c d e f "Coal". Department of Minerals and Energy (South Africa). http://www.dme.gov.za/energy/coal.stm. Retrieved 8 January 2010.
- ^ a b "International Energy Outlook 2009, Chapter 4 - Coal". Energy Information Administration. 2009-05-27. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/coal.html. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- ^ "Draft EIR Bravo 5". Eskom. pp. 83. http://www.eskom.co.za/content/10637%20-%20Draft%20EIR%20Bravo%205%20Chapter%207d.pdf. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- ^ a b c Schmidt, Stephan. "Coal deposits of South Africa - the future of coal mining in South Africa". Institute for Geology, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg. http://www.geo.tu-freiberg.de/oberseminar/os07_08/stephan_Schmidt.pdf. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- ^ Schlüter & Trauth 2006, p. 214
- ^ a b c d e f "About SA coalfields". Keaton Energy. http://www.keatonenergy.co.za/cm/sa_coal.asp. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- ^ "Coal Mining". World Coal Institute. http://www.worldcoal.org/coal/coal-mining/. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- ^ a b c "HOW ENERGY GENERATION CAUSES ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN SOUTH AFRICA". Department of Environmental Affairs (South Africa). http://www.environment.gov.za/soer/nsoer/drivers/general/Energy.doc. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- ^ "Mining industry 2004". Statistics South Africa. 2004. http://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/P2001/P20012004.pdf. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- ^ Schlüter & Trauth 2006, p. 216
- ^ "EI, Grootgeluk Coal Mine move to electronic knowledge management". Aardvark Communication. 2003-06-20. http://ww2.itweb.co.za/office/nokusaei/0306200757.htm. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- ^ a b "Mine to double its coal sales to Eskom". Business Report. 2007-04-02. http://www.busrep.co.za/index.php?fSectionId=&fArticleId=3761314. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- ^ "MINING AND INDUSTRY". Lephalale Local Municipality. http://www.lephalale.com/?item=45&MenuID=36. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- ^ "Preliminary study on Sasol fuel plant due in 2008 - CEO". Engineering News (Creamer Media). 2007-11-08. http://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/preliminary-study-on-sasol-fuel-plant-due-in-2008-ceo-2007-11-08. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- ^ "Sasol orders new reactor as part of Synfuels expansion to meet SA growing demand for fuel". Sasol. 2007-11-18. http://www.sasol.com/sasol_internet/frontend/navigation.jsp;jsessionid=FFY0C0AITMKPVG5N4EZSFEQ?articleTypeID=2&articleId=19700001&navid=4&rootid=4. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- ^ "Social Impacts on the Environment: # 1". Department of Environmental Affairs (South Africa). http://www.environment.gov.za/enviro-info/sote/nsoer/issues/social/impact.htm. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- ^ "Household energy source". Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (South Africa). http://soer.deat.gov.za/indicator.aspx?m=455. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- ^ Word Bank approves coal plant is South Africa April 9 2010 Democracy Now!
- ^ "Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from South Africa" (in Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center). http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/emis/tre_saf.html. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- ^ "Carbon dioxide emissions". Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (South Africa). http://soer.deat.gov.za/indicator.aspx?m=570. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- ^ Balmer, M (August 2007). "Household coal use in an urban township in South Africa". Journal of Energy in South Africa (Energy Research Institute) 18 (3). http://www.erc.uct.ac.za/jesa/volume18/18-3jesa-balmer2.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-15.
- ^ "The True Cost of Coal". Greenpeace. pp. 53. http://files.meetup.com/213689/The_true_cost_of_coal_.pdf. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- ^ "Sustainable Development in the life of coal mining in South Africa". The South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 2005-07-13. pp. 3. http://www.csmi.co.za/l/papers/Post_mining_landuse_Collieries_jul05.pdf. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- Thomas Schlüter & Martin H. Trauth (2006). "Geological atlas of Africa: with notes on stratigraphy, tectonics, economic geology, geohazards and geosites of each country", Birkhäuser, ISBN 9783540291442
Economy of South Africa Sub-national economiesEconomy of the Western Cape · Economy of Gauteng Natural resourcesMining industry (Coal) · Agriculture · Whaling Services Economic history Affirmative actionBlack Economic Empowerment · Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment · Qualifying Small Enterprises (Scorecard) · Exempted Micro Enterprises Macroeconomics Misc.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
South Africa — Republic of, a country in S Africa; member of the Commonwealth of Nations until 1961. 42,327,458; 472,000 sq. mi. (1,222,480 sq. km). Capitals: Pretoria and Cape Town. Formerly, Union of South Africa. * * * South Africa Introduction South Africa… … Universalium
South Africa — This article is about the modern country. For other uses, see South Africa (disambiguation). Republic of South Africa … Wikipedia
South Africa — <p></p> <p></p> Introduction ::South Africa <p></p> Background: <p></p> Dutch traders landed at the southern tip of modern day South Africa in 1652 and established a stopover point on the spice… … The World Factbook
South Africa, Republic of — a country in S Africa; member of the Commonwealth of Nations until 1961. 25,000,000; 472,000 sq. mi. (1,222,480 sq. km). Capitals: Pretoria and Cape Town. Formerly, Union of South Africa. * * * formerly Union of South Africa Southernmost country… … Universalium
Economy of South Africa — South Africa has a two tiered economy; one rivaling other developed countries and the other with only the most basic infrastructure. It is therefore a productive and industrialised economy that exhibits many characteristics associated with… … Wikipedia
Mining in South Africa — has been the main driving force behind the history and development of Africa s most advanced and richest economy. Large scale and profitable mining started with the discovery of a diamond on the banks of the Orange River in 1867 by Erasmus Jacobs … Wikipedia
Mittal Steel South Africa — is part of the steel company Arcelor Mittal. The company was originally Iscor Limited, a South African parastatal steel company. It was founded in 1928 and was first listed on the JSE Securities Exchange in 1989. Contents 1 History 1.1… … Wikipedia
General Motors South Africa — Type Wholly owned subsidiary Industry Automotive Predecessor Delta Motor Corporation (1987 2003) … Wikipedia
Disinvestment from South Africa — The campaign gained prominence in the mid 1980s on university campuses in the US. The debate headlined the October 1985 issue (above) of Vassar College s student newspaper. Disinvestment (or divestment) from South Africa was first ad … Wikipedia
Telecommunications in South Africa — Telecommunications infrastructure in South Africa provides modern and efficient service to urban areas, including cellular and internet services. In 1997, Telkom, the South African telecommunications parastatal, was partly privatised and entered… … Wikipedia