- Coal in Australia
Coal in Australia is mined primarily in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. It is used to generate electricity and 75% of the coal mined in Australia is exported, mostly to eastern Asia. In 2000/01, 258.5 million tonnes of coal was mined, and 193.6 million tonnes exported. Coal also provides about 85% of Australia's electricity production. In fiscal year 2008/09, 487 million tonnes of coal was mined, and 261 million tonnes exported. Australia is the world's leading coal exporter.
Coal mining in Australia has been the subject of criticism from members of the environmental movement, because burning coal releases carbon dioxide, which is generally believed to contribute to climate change, global warming, sea level rise and the effects of global warming on Australia.  The burning of coal produces 42.1% of Australia's greenhouse gas emissions, not counting export coal, based on 2004 GHG inventory. 
Both Greenpeace Australia Pacific (Energy [R]evolution  and Beyond Zero Emissions (Zero Carbon Australia 2020  have produced reports claiming a transition can be made to renewable energy and Greenpeace has called for a just transition for coal based communities,  but others argue at present there is no strong evidence of a viable alternative for the vast majority of Australia's electricity generation, or for the significant economic and social benefits coal mining delivers to regional communities. Coal Seam Gas, methane-based gas associated with deposits of coal has historically been flared, however over the past 10 years has been recovered and used to generate further electricity.
The proposed Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme which followed the draft report of the Garnaut Climate Change Review would put a price on carbon through a reducing cap and trade emissions trading scheme and this would be likely to impact most heavily on brown coal usage within Australia (particularly in the Latrobe Valley in Victoria) for power generation.
Forms of coal
Two forms of coal are mined in Australia, depending on the region: high-quality black coal and lower-quality brown coal.
Black coal is found in Queensland and New South Wales, and is used for both domestic power generation and for export overseas. It is generally mined underground before being transported by rail to power stations, or export shipping terminals. Black coal was also once exported to other Australian states for power generation and industrial boilers.
Brown coal is found in Victoria and South Australia, and is of lower quality due a higher ash and water content. As a result Victoria adopted German power station and briquette technology in the 1920s to utilise the brown coal reserves of the Latrobe Valley. Today there are three open cut brown coal mines in Victoria used for baseload power generation.
Mine State Location Ultimate Owner Lat & Long Type of Coal Million Tons Mined PA Million Tons Exported PA Major Buyers Major Method Anglesea VIC Anglesea Alcoa of Australia Lignite ? nil Anglesea Power Station Open Cut Beltana NSW Singleton Xstrata Thermal 7.6 ? ? Underground Bengalla NSW Muswellbrook Coal and Allied Thermal ? ? ? Open Cut Callide QLD Callide (Biloela) Anglo American  Thermal ? ? ? Open Cut Capcoal QLD Middlemount Anglo American Hard Coking Coal & PCI 7 ? ? Open Cut & Underground Dawson QLD Dawson (Moura) Anglo Coal Soft Coking & Thermal 7 ? ? Open Cut Drayton NSW Hunter Valley Anglo Coal Soft Coking & Thermal 7 ? ? Open Cut Broadmeadows QLD Moranbah BMA Hard Coking Coal 4 ? ? Underground Blackwater QLD Duringa BMA Thermal/Coking 13 ? ? Open Cut Blair Athol  QLD Clermont Rio Tinto Thermal 12 ? ? Open Cut Burton QLD Nebo Peabody Energy Australia Thermal/Coking 4 ? ? Open Cut Callide QLD Biloela Anglo American ? 4 ? ? Open Cut Collinsville QLD Collinsville Xtrata Thermal/Coking 5 ? ? Open Cut Coppabella QLD Coppabella Macarthur Coal ? 7 ? ? Open Cut Curragh QLD Blackwater Wesfarmers Thermal/Coking 7 ? ? Open Cut Goonyella/Riverside QLD Moranbah BMA Hard Coking Coal 11 ? ? Open Cut/Underground Griffin Coal WA Collie Ric Stowe Bitumous 5 nil Bluewaters Power, Synergy Power Open Cut Hail Creek Qld Nebo Rio Tinto Coal Australia (RTCA) Hard Coking Coal 4.5 all ? Open Cut Leigh Creek SA Leigh Creek NRG Flinders Lignite ? ? Port Augusta Power Stations Open Cut Loy Lang VIC Traralgon Loy Yang Power Lignite ? nil Loy Yang Power Station Open Cut Moorvale QLD Moranbah Macarthur Coal Thermal/PCI ? ? ? Open Cut Mount Arthur Coal (MAC) NSW Muswellbrook BHP Billiton Thermal 15 12 ? Open Cut Mount Thorley Warkworth (MTW) NSW Singleton Coal & Allied Thermal/Coking ? ? ? Open Cut Moranbah North QLD Moranbah Anglo American Hard Coking Coal 4.5 ? ? Underground Morwell VIC Morwell International Power Lignite 20 nil Hazelwood Power Station,
Open Cut Norwich Park QLD Dysart BMA Soft Coking Coal 6 all ? Open Cut Newlands QLD Glenden Xstrata Thermal/Coking 12 ? ? Open Cut & Underground Peak Downs QLD Moranbah BMA Hard Coking Coal 13 all ? Open Cut Saraji QLD Dysart BMA Hard Coking Coal 7.5 all ? Open Cut Ulan NSW Ulan via Mudgee Xstrata Thermal 5 ? ? Open Cut & Underground Wesfarmers Premier Coal WA Collie Wesfarmers Bitumous 3.5 nil Synergy Power Open Cut Yallourn VIC Yallourn TRUenergy Lignite ? nil Yallourn Power Station Open Cut Bulga Coal NSW Singleton Oakbridge Group (Managed by Xstrata Coal) Thermal/Coking 10.8 All Japan, Nippon Steal, Nippon Oil Open Cut
Major export markets for Australian coal
Major Export Markets For Australian Coal (2008–2009) Country/Area Million Tons Coking Million Tons Steaming Million Tons Total Rank % of exports Japan 43.3 61.5 104.8 1 39.8 Korea (ROK) 15.1 27.9 43.1 2 16.3 Taiwan 6.1 20.0 26.1 3 9.9 China 15.5 9.5 25.0 4 9.5 India 23.8 0.9 24.7 5 9.4 Europe 18.6 2.3 20.9 6 7.9
Major coal export ports
Major Australian Coal Export Ports Port State Million Tons
Newcastle NSW 92.8 91.4 Hay Point QLD 82.4 80.4 Gladstone QLD 56.2 54.1 Abbot Point QLD 14.4 12.5 Port Kembla NSW 13.7 13.3 Brisbane QLD 6.3 5.5
Major coal mining companies
Major Australian Coal Mining Companies) Company Main Mines Total Coal Mined (Million Tons) Anglo American Metallurgical Coal Ltd a. Anglo Coal Callide Mine, Queensland b. Anglo Coal Capcoal Mine Via Middlemount Middlemount QLD c. Anglo Coal Dartbrook Mine PO Box 517 Muswellbrook NSW 2333 d. Anglo Coal Drayton Mine PMB 9 Muswellbrook NSW e. Anglo Coal Foxleigh Mine PO Box 21 Middlemount QLD f. Anglo Coal Grasstree Mine Via Middlemount Private Mail Bag Middlemount QLD g. Anglo Coal Moranbah North Mine PO Box 172 Moranbah QLD h Dawson mine, one of Queensland’s leading export coal operations, is owned by the Moura Joint Venture, comprising Anglo Coal Australia Pty Ltd (51 %) and Mitsui Coal Holdings Pty Ltd (49 %) 32.0 Bloomfield Collieries Pty Ltd Bloomfield at East Maitland and Rix’s Creek at Singleton 0.88 BHP Billiton - Hunter Valley Energy Coal Mount Arthur Coal, Muswellbrook, Hunter Valley NSW 15.0 (FY2009 est.) BHP Billiton Mitsubishi Alliance (BMA) Coal Operations Pty Ltd a. Blackwater b.Broadmeadow Mine c. Goonyella Riverside d. Gregory Crinum e. Peak Downs Mine f. Saraji Mine g. South Walker Creek Mine h. Poitrel Mine is situated south-east of the town of Moranbah i. Hay Point Coal Terminal, located 38 km south of Mackay 58.0 Centennial Coal Company Ltd Newstan, Awaba, Myuna, Mandalong, Mannering, Angus Place, Springvale, Charbon, Berrima, Clarence, Cooranbong (Closed), Munmorah (Closed) ? Coalpac Pty Ltd Cullen Valley Mine located in the Western Coalfield of New South Wales, Australia 1.2 Cornwall Coal Company NE Tasmania 0.725 Donaldson Coal Pty Ltd Hunter Valley 2.5 Enhance Place Pty Ltd Colliery near Lithgow, NSW 0.2 Ensham Resources Pty Ltd Pits A,B,C & D either side of the Nogoa River - referred to as the ‘Ensham Project’ - and the ‘Yongala’ pit, which is located approximately 5 km to the north of the main Ensham operation 9.0 Felix Resources Limited a. Singleton in the Hunter Valley b. Central Queensland’s Bowen Basin c. Emerald in Queensland’s Bowen Basin d. The Moolarben coal project is a world class coal asset located 40 km east of Mudgee in the Upper Hunter Valley e.Harrybrandt exploration project, near Nebo in Queensland’s Bowen Basin 3.9 Foxleigh Joint Venture Central Queensland ? Gloucester Coal Ltd Stratford and Duralie, both located in the Gloucester Geological Basin 1.9 Idemitsu Australia Resources Pty Ltd western Bowen Basin 8.0 BHPBilliton Illawarra Coal Appin, Westcliff & Dendrobium Collieries in the Illawarra and Wollondilly regions south of Sydney, New South Wales 8 Jellinbah Resources Pty Ltd Jellinbah East Mine in the Bowen Basin of central Queensland 4.0 Lithgow Coal Company Pty Ltd Cullen Valley Mine located in the Western Coalfield of New South Wales 1.0 Macarthur Coal Limited Queensland¡¯s Bowen Basin 5.5 Muswellbrook Coal Company Ltd a. Drayton Mine – is an open-cut coal mine operated by Anglo Coal (Drayton Management) Pty Ltd. It is located approximately 13 kilometres south east of Muswellbrook ? New Hope Corporation Ltd Acland on the Darling Downs and at Rosewood near Ipswich 3.92 Peabody Pacific Pty Ltd a.Burton mine is located in the Bowen Basin b. North Goonyella underground and Eaglefield open-cut mines are located at the northern end of the Bowen Basin c. Millennium mine is located near the town of Moranbah in the Bowen Basin d. Wilkie Creek mine is located in the Surat Basin of south-east Queensland e. Wilpinjong mine is located 10 kilometres south-east of Ulan mine and 40 kilometres north-east of Mudgee f.Wambo is one of Peabody's largest operating mines and is located in the Hunter Valley g. Chain Valley is located in the Newcastle coalfield on the southern shore of Lake Macquarie h. Metropolitan is located in the Southern coalfields, about 50 kilometres south of Sydney. 22.0 Rio Tinto Coal Australia Pty Ltd Blair Athol, Hail Creek and Kestrel Mines and is currently constructing the Clermont Mine Project, all in Queensland and in New South Wales, Rio Tinto Coal Australia manages Coal & Allied's operations at Mount Thorley Warkworth, Hunter Valley Operations and Bengalla 5.8 Vale (a) Integra Coal, Hunter Valley, open cast and underground mines, 61.2% owned by Vale. (b) Carborough Downs Mine, Central Queensland, underground longwall mine owned 80% by Vale. (c) Isaac Plains Joint Venture, Central Queensland, open cast mine owned 50% by Vale. 8.0 Wesfarmers Coal Ltd a. Curragh mine in Queensland’s Bowen Basin b. Premier Coal mine at Collie in Western Australia’s south west c. Bengalla mine in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales 2.157 Whitehaven Coal Mining Pty Ltd Gunnedah Region of New South Wales 1.0 Xstrata Coal Pty Ltd a. Westside, New South Wales, Australia b. West Wallsend, New South Wales Australia c. Bulga, New South Wales d. Beltana, New South Wales e. Narama, New South Wales f.Mangoola, Hunter Valley, New South Wales g.Mount Owen - The Mount Owen Complex consists of the Mount Owen, Ravensworth East and Glendell open cut coal mines h.Ravensworth, New South Wales i.Ulan Coal m. Baal Bone, New South Wales j. Cumnock, New South Wales k. Narama, New South Wales 29.3
The Australian community is understandably concerned about any mining activity that could place private or public property or valuable landscapes at risk. The coal industry claims however that extensive rehabilitation of areas mined helps to ensure that land capability, after coal mining, meets agreed and appropriate standards.
Coal is the principal fossil fuel used in power generation not only in Australia but in many other countries. Links between coal mining, coal burning, and climate change are being discussed widely in Australia.
On 27 November 2006 the NSW Land & Environment Court judge Justice Nicola Pain made the historic decision to set aside the Director-General's acceptance of the Environmental Assessment for the Anvil Hill coal mine, on the grounds that it did not include a comprehensive greenhouse gas assessment, even though the proposed mining of coal was for export. However, on 7 June 2007 the planning minister for NSW Frank Sartor reversed this decision and approved the mine, attaching a list of 80 conditions to the mines operation including conservation offsets.
Clean coal technologies
The Federal Government has, as part of its pledge to mitigate global warming, committed A$100 million to commission a climate change-fighting "clean coal" and carbon sequestration research institute to make Australia a leader in this emerging technology. Carbon sequestration technology is not expected to be commercially viable for at least 5 to 10 years, but the Federal Labor government believes it is a vital technology given Australia's reliance on coal-fired electricity.
- Australian Coal Alliance
- Carbon capture and storage in Australia
- Coal Mining
- Coal phase out
- Clarke Energy - Australian Coal Seam Gas Generation
- Energy in Victoria
- Greenhouse Mafia
- List of proposed coal fired power stations in Australia
- List of collieries in Newcastle (Australia)
- List of active power stations in New South Wales
- List of active power stations in Western Australia
- List of active power stations in South Australia
- List of active power stations in Victoria, Australia
- List of active power stations in Queensland
- Mining in Australia
- Mining in Western Australia
- Mitigation of global warming in Australia
- Peak coal
- Wallarah 2 Coal Project
- ^ a b "The Importance of Coal in the Modern World - Australia". Gladstone Centre for Clean Coal. Archived from the original on 2007-02-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20070208111031/http://gc3.cqu.edu.au/modern-world/index.php#australia. Retrieved 2007-03-17.
- ^ "Australia Mineral Statistics 2009- June Quarter". Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics. http://www.abareconomics.com/publications_html/ams/ams_09/ams_sept09.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-03.
- ^ International Energy Agency. (2008-08-31) Coal Information 2008. Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development. ISBN 92-64-04241-5
- ^ NSW Greens coal policy: http://nsw.greens.org.au/policies/coal
- ^ Greens Queensland. 2010. Upper Hunter Valley coal mining shows dangers for Queensland. Tuesday 13 April. Media Release: http://qld.greens.org.au/media-releases/upper-hunter-valley-coal-mining-shows-dangers-for-queensland
- ^ CSIRO's Climate Change Impacts on Australia and the Benefits of Early Action to Reduce Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions"
- ^ http://www.csiro.au/files/files/p6fy.pdf
- ^ 
- ^ http://www.greenpeace.org/australia/resources/reports/climate-change/energy-revolution-scenario-full
- ^ http://beyondzeroemissions.org/zero-carbon-australia-2020
- ^ http://www.greenpeace.org/australia/resources/reports/climate-change/just-transition-report
- ^ NSW Department of Planning. 2008. Impacts of underground coal mining on natural features in the Southern Coalfield: strategic review. State of New South Wales: http://www.planning.nsw.gov.au/planningsystem/pdf/report_southern_coalfields_final_jul08.pdf
- ^ GE's ecomagination™ Certified Jenbacher Power Plant Commissioned at Australian Coal Mine to Help Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions, www.gepower.com, Accessed 14.04.2011
- ^ Queensland Government Inaugurates Alternative Energy Plant Powered by GE's Jenbacher Waste Coal Mine Gas Engines, www.v1energy.com, Accessed 11.05.2011
- ^ Clarke Generates Interest at Blackwater, Clarke Energy article in www.gastoday.com.au, Accessed 11.05.2011
- ^ http://www.australiancoal.com.au/
- ^ http://www.worldenergy.org/wec-geis/publications/reports/ser/coal/coal.asp
- ^ http://www.australiancoal.com.au/the-australian-coal-industry_coal-exports_coal-export-details.aspx
- ^ http://www.pwcs.com.au/display/assets/download.php?id=384
- ^ a b c d http://www.transport.qld.gov.au/resources/file/eb3e0c4a36b1d25/Pdf_port_of_abbot_point_cape_flattery.pdf
- ^ http://www.portkembla.com.au/page/port-operations/trade---cargo/
- ^ http://www.australiancoal.com.au/members.htm
- ^ http://www.bhpbilliton.com/bb/ourBusinesses/energyCoal/mtArthurCoal.jsp
- ^ Reducing the Environmental Impacts of Coal Mining
- ^ Australian coal mine blocked over climate impact
- ^ Climate concerns fuel coal mine opposition campaign
- ^ NSW Govt approves Anvil Hill coal mine
- ^ http://www.ret.gov.au/energy/energy%20programs/cei/ccsfp/Pages/default.aspx
- ^ . http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,24368848-2702,00.html. [dead link]
- "Sonoma Coal" - Sonoma Coal Project
- "Illawarra Coal" - An unofficial history of coal mining in the Illawarra
- "Collinsville Coalface Experience" 
- Can geosequestration save the coal industry?
Coal in Oceania Sovereign states
- East Timor (Timor-Leste)
- Marshall Islands
- Federated States of Micronesia
- New Zealand
- Papua New Guinea
- Solomon Islands
- American Samoa
- Christmas Island
- Cocos (Keeling) Islands
- Cook Islands
- Easter Island
- French Polynesia
- New Caledonia
- Norfolk Island
- Northern Mariana Islands
- Pitcairn Islands
- Wallis and Futuna
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