Co-phenotrope


Co-phenotrope
Comprehensive information about Lomotil and allied drugs is under the article Diphenoxylate.
Co-phenotrope
Combination of
Diphenoxylate mu opiate receptor agonist
Atropine muscarinic acetylcholine receptors antagonist
Clinical data
Pregnancy cat.  ?
Legal status POM (UK) Schedule V (US)
Routes Oral
Identifiers
ATC code  ?
ChemSpider 12919 YesY
 YesY(what is this?)  (verify)

The drug combination diphenoxylate/atropine (trade name Lomotil) is a popular oral anti-diarrheal in the United States, manufactured by Pfizer. Its UK BAN generic name is co-phenotrope.

Its active ingredients are diphenoxylate and atropine. Diphenoxylate is anti-diarrheal and atropine is anticholinergic. Diphenoxylate is chemically related to the opioid drug meperidine. A subtherapeutic amount of atropine sulfate is present to discourage deliberate overdosage. Atropine has no anti-diarrheal properties, but will cause tachycardia when overused. The medication diphenoxylate works by slowing down the movement of the intestines.

The inactive ingredients of Lomotil (as a liquid; it comes in pill form as well) are cherry flavor, citric acid, ethyl alcohol 15%, FD&C Yellow No. 6, glycerin, sodium phosphate, sorbitol, and water.

Other trade names for the same therapeutic combination are Lofene, Logen, Lomanate and Lonox, among others. In other countries, Lomotil may have other names.

In the United States, Lomotil is classified as a Schedule V controlled substance by federal law, and is available only for a medical purpose.[1]

Contents

Contraindications

Absolute contraindications for Lomotil are:

Interactions

Interactions with other drugs:

Diarrhea that is caused by some antibiotics such as cefaclor, erythromycin or tetracycline can worsen with Lomotil.[citation needed]

Safety

The drug combination is generally safe in short-term use and with recommended dosage. Long-term use may present problems of mild drug dependency. The dosage should be reduced after 48 h.

Lomotil may cause several side-effects, such as dry mouth, headache, constipation and blurred vision. Since it may also cause drowsiness or dizziness, Lomotil should not be used by motorists, operators of hazardous machinery, etc. It is not recommended for children under two years of age. In rare cases lomotil may cause paresthesia.[citation needed]

Toxicity

Lomotil may cause serious health problems when overdosed. Signs and symptoms of adverse effects may include any or several of the following: convulsions, respiratory depression (slow or stopped breathing), dilated eye pupils, nystagmus (rapid side-to-side eye movements), erythema (flushed skin), gastrointestinal constipation, nausea, vomiting, paralytic ileus, tachycardia (rapid pulse), drowsiness, coma and hallucinations. Symptoms of toxicity may take up to 12 hours to appear.

Treatment of Lomotil overdose must be initiated immediately after diagnosis and may include the following: emesis (induced vomiting), gastric lavage, ingestion of activated charcoal, laxative and a counteracting medication (narcotic antagonist).

Prompt and thorough treatment of overdose leads to a favorable outcome. After a narcotic antagonist is given, recovery is usually within 24 to 48 hours. Children are at risk of a very poor outcome and must be kept for observation.

References

External links

Source


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • co-phenotrope — n. a drug administered by mouth in the treatment of diarrhoea. It consists of a mixture of diphenoxylate hydrochloride (an opioid that reduces peristalsis) and atropine (which relaxes the smooth muscle of the gut) in a ratio of 100 to 1. Trade… …   Medical dictionary

  • co-phenotrope — n. a drug administered by mouth in the treatment of diarrhoea. It consists of a mixture of diphenoxylate hydrochloride (an opioid that reduces peristalsis) and atropine (which relaxes the smooth muscle of the gut) in a ratio of 100 to 1. Trade… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • Diarrhea — For other uses, see Diarrhea (disambiguation). Diarrhea An electron micrograph …   Wikipedia

  • British Approved Name — A British Approved Name (BAN) is the official non proprietary or generic name given to a pharmaceutical substance, as defined in the British Pharmacopoeia (BP). The BAN is also the official name used in many countries across the world, especially …   Wikipedia

  • Lomotil — Drugbox type = combo component1 = Diphenoxylate class1 = mu opiate receptor agonist component2 = Atropine class2 = muscarinic acetylcholine receptors antagonist CAS number = ATC prefix = ATC suffix = PubChem = DrugBank = pregnancy AU = pregnancy… …   Wikipedia

  • diphenoxylate — di·phen·oxy·late .dī .fen äk sə .lāt n an antidiarrheal agent chemically related to meperidine and administered in the form of its hydrochloride C30H32N2O2·HCl in combination with the sulfate of atropine see LOMOTIL * * * n. see co phenotrope …   Medical dictionary

  • Lomotil — Lo·mo·til lō mə .til, lō mōt əl trademark used for a preparation of the hydrochloride of diphenoxylate and the sulfate of atropine * * * n. see co phenotrope * * * Lo·mo·til (loґmo til) trademark for combination preparations of diphenoxylate… …   Medical dictionary

  • diphenoxylate — n.; see co phenotrope …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • Lomotil — n.; see co phenotrope …   The new mediacal dictionary