Symplocarpus foetidus


Symplocarpus foetidus
Eastern Skunk Cabbage
Skunk Cabbage in early spring
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Alismatales
Family: Araceae
Subfamily: Orontioideae
Genus: Symplocarpus
Species: S. foetidus
Binomial name
Symplocarpus foetidus
Salisb.
Synonyms

Dracontium foetidum L.
Spathyema foetida (L.)Raf.

Eastern Skunk Cabbage, Clumpfoot Cabbage, Foetid Pothos, Meadow Cabbage, Polecat Weed, Skunk Cabbage, or Swamp Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus), commonly known as simply Skunk Cabbage, is a low growing, foul smelling plant that prefers wetlands. It can be found naturally in eastern North America, from Nova Scotia and southern Quebec west to Minnesota, and south to North Carolina and Tennessee, and also in northeastern Asia, in eastern Siberia, northeastern China, Korea and Japan. Skunk cabbage is protected as a state endangered plant in Tennessee.[1]

Contents

Symplocarpus foetidus leafs out later in the summer

Description

Eastern skunk cabbage has leaves which are large, 40–55 cm long and 30–40 cm broad. It flowers early in the spring when only the flowers are visible above the mud. The stems remain buried below the surface of the soil with the leaves emerging later. The flowers are produced on a 5–10 cm long spadix contained within a spathe, 10–15 cm tall and mottled purple in colour. The rhizome is often 30 cm thick.

Ecology

Breaking or tearing a leaf produces a pungent but not harmful odor, the source of the plant's common name. The plant is not poisonous to the touch. The foul odor attracts its pollinators, scavenging flies, stoneflies, and bees. The odor in the leaves may also serve to discourage large animals from disturbing or damaging this plant which grows in soft wetland soils.

Skunk cabbage is notable for its ability to generate temperatures of up to 15-35°C above air temperature by cyanide resistant cellular respiration in order to melt its way through frozen ground,[2] placing it among a small group of plants exhibiting thermogenesis. Even though it flowers while there is still snow and ice on the ground it is successfully pollinated by early insects that also emerge at this time. Some studies suggest that beyond allowing the plant to grow in icy soil, the heat it produces may help to spread its odor in the air.[2] Carrion-feeding insects that are attracted by the scent may be doubly encouraged to enter the spathe because it is warmer than the surrounding air, fueling pollination.[3]

Eastern Skunk Cabbage has contractile roots which contract after growing into the earth. This pulls the stem of the plant deeper into the mud, so that the plant in effect grows downward, not upward. Each year, the plant grows deeper into the earth, so that older plants are practically impossible to dig up. They reproduce by hard, pea-sized seeds which fall in the mud and are carried away by animals or by floods.

Uses

In the 19th century the U.S. Pharmacopoeia listed eastern skunk cabbage as the drug "dracontium". It was used in the treatment of respiratory diseases, nervous disorders, rheumatism, and dropsy. In North America and Europe, skunk cabbage is occasionally cultivated in water gardens.[4] Skunk cabbage was used extensively as a medicinal plant, seasoning, and magical talisman by various tribes of Native Americans.[5] While not considered edible raw, because the roots are toxic and the leaves can burn the mouth, the leaves may be dried and used in soups and stews.[6]

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ USDA PLANTS Database: S. foetidus
  2. ^ a b Thorington, Katherine K.: "Pollination and Fruiting Success in the Eastern Skunk Cabbage", The Journal of Biospheric Science , vol 1 no. 1 April 1999, accessed March 4, 2007, <http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/mmcmenam/journal.html
  3. ^ Marinelli, Janet: "Turning Up the Heat on Your Property", Backyard Habitat - National Wildlife Magazine, vol. 45 no. 1 Dec/Jan 2007, accessed March 3, 2007, <http://www.nwf.org/nationalwildlife/article.cfm?issueID=112&articleID=1418
  4. ^ Flora of North America: S. foetidus
  5. ^ Dr. Moerman's Native American Ethnobotanical Database: S. foetidus
  6. ^ http://www.mdflora.org/plantinfo/plantofthemonth/pim_skunk_cabbage.html

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Symplocarpus foetidus — Symplocarpus foetidus …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Symplocarpus foetidus — Symplocarpus foetidus …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Symplocarpus foetidus — dvokusis lipšnis statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Aroninių šeimos vaistinis nuodingas augalas (Symplocarpus foetidus), paplitęs rytų Azijoje ir Šiaurės Amerikoje. atitikmenys: lot. Symplocarpus foetidus angl. skunk cabbage pranc. chou puant; …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • Symplocarpus foetidus — ID 82414 Symbol Key SYFO Common Name skunk cabbage Family Araceae Category Monocot Division Magnoliophyta US Nativity Native to U.S. US/NA Plant Yes State Distribution CT, DC, DE, IA, IL, IN, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, TN, VA …   USDA Plant Characteristics

  • Symplocarpus foetidus — noun deciduous perennial low growing fetid swamp plant of eastern North America having minute flowers enclosed in a mottled greenish or purple cowl shaped spathe • Syn: ↑skunk cabbage, ↑polecat weed, ↑foetid pothos • Hypernyms: ↑marsh plant, ↑bog …   Useful english dictionary

  • Symplocarpus foetidus — Skunk Skunk, n. [Contr. from the Abenaki (American Indian) seganku.] (Zo[ o]l.) Any one of several species of American musteline carnivores of the genus {Mephitis} and allied genera. They have two glands near the anus, secreting an extremely… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Salisb. ex Nutt. — Symbol SYFO Common Name skunk cabbage Botanical Family Araceae …   Scientific plant list

  • Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Salisb. ex Nutt. — Symbol SYFO Common Name skunk cabbage Botanical Family Araceae …   Scientific plant list

  • СИМПЛОКАРПУС ВОНЮЧИЙ (SYMPLOCARPUS FOETIDUS (L.) NUTT.) — см. Многолетник с коротким утолщенным корневищем диаметром 2 7 см и многочисленными толстыми пахнущими чесноком корнями. Листья длинночерешковые, сердцевидные или овально сердцевидные, длиной 20 40 см. , толстые, с дуговидным жилкованием.… …   Лесные травянистые растения

  • Symplocarpus — Symplocarpus …   Wikipédia en Français