- Kelly Johnson (engineer)
Clarence "Kelly" Johnson
Clarence Leonard "Kelly" Johnson
Born February 27, 1910
Ishpeming, Michigan, USA
Died December 21, 1990(aged 80) Nationality American Occupation aircraft engineer
Clarence Leonard "Kelly" Johnson (February 27, 1910 – December 21, 1990) was an aircraft engineer and aeronautical innovator. As a member and first team leader of the Lockheed Skunk Works, Johnson worked for more than four decades and is said to have been an "organizing genius". He played a leading role in the design of over forty aircraft, including several that were honored with the prestigious Collier Trophy, acquiring a reputation as one of the most talented and prolific aircraft design engineers in the history of aviation. In 2003, as part of its commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the Wright Brothers' flight, Aviation Week & Space Technology ranked Johnson 8th on its list of the top 100 "most important, most interesting, and most influential people" in the first century of aerospace. Hall Hibbard, Kelly's Lockheed boss, once remarked to Ben Rich: "That damned Swede can actually see air".
Kelly Johnson was born in the remote mining town of Ishpeming, Michigan. His parents were Swedish, from the city of Malmö, county of Scania. Kelly was ashamed of his family's poverty, and vowed to return one day in prominence. Johnson was 13 years old when he won a prize for his first aircraft design. He worked his way through Flint Central High School and graduated in 1928, then went to Flint Junior College, now known as Mott Community College, and finally to the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, where he received a Master's Degree in Aeronautical Engineering.
While attending grade school in Michigan, he was ridiculed for his name, Clarence. Some boys started calling him "Clara". One morning while waiting in line to get into a classroom, one boy started with the normal routine of calling him "Clara". Johnson tripped him so hard the boy broke a leg. The boys then decided that he wasn't a "Clara" after all, and started calling him "Kelly". The nickname came from the popular song at the time, "Kelly With the Green Neck Tie". Henceforth he was always known as "Kelly" Johnson.
In 1937, Johnson married Althea Louise Young, who worked in Lockheed's accounting department; she died in December 1969. In May 1971, he married his secretary Mary Ellen Elberta Meade of New York; she died after a long illness on October 13, 1980, aged 38. He married Meade's friend Nancy Powers Horrigan in November 1980.
At the University of Michigan, he conducted wind tunnel tests of Lockheed's proposed twin-engined Lockheed Model 10 Electra airliner. He found that the aircraft did not have adequate directional stability, but his professor felt it did and reported so to Lockheed. Upon completing his master's degree in 1933, Johnson joined the Lockheed Company as a tool designer at a salary of $83 a month. Shortly after starting at Lockheed, Johnson convinced Hall Hibbard, the chief engineer, that the Lockheed Model 10 Electra was unstable. Hibbard sent Johnson back to Michigan to conduct more tests. Johnson eventually made multiple changes to the wind tunnel model, including adding a "H" tail, to address the problem. Lockheed accepted Johnson's suggestions and the Model 10 went on to be a success. This brought Johnson to the attention of Lockheed management, and he was promoted to aeronautical engineer.
After assignments as flight test engineer, stress analyst, aerodynamicist, and weight engineer, he became chief research engineer in 1938. In 1952, he was appointed chief engineer of Lockheed's Burbank, California, plant, which later became the Lockheed-California Company. In 1956 he became Vice President of Research and Development.
Johnson became Vice President of Advanced Development Projects (ADP) in 1958. The first ADP offices were nearly uninhabitable; the stench from a nearby plastic factory was so vile that one of the engineers began answering the intra-Lockheed "house" phone "Skonk Works!" Big Barnsmell's Skonk Works — spelled with an "o" — was where Kickapoo Joy Juice was brewed in Al Capp's comic strip L'il Abner. When the name "leaked" out, Lockheed ordered it changed to "Skunk Works" to avoid potential legal trouble over use of a copyrighted term. The term rapidly circulated throughout the aerospace community, and became a common nickname for research and development offices; however, reference to "The Skunk Works" means the Lockheed ADP shop. Here, the F-104 Starfighter and the secret reconnaissance planes U-2 and SR-71 Blackbird were developed.
Johnson led or contributed to the development of a number of aircraft. A few examples illustrate the influence of his work. In the late 1930s, Johnson helped lead the team that developed the P-38 Lightning. Eventually, almost 10,000 of these fighters were built. They played a significant role in World War II. In 1943, responding to United States Army Air Forces' concerns about Germany's development of high performance jet fighters, Johnson proposed to develop a jet airplane in six months. The result, the P-80 Shooting Star, was completed on time and became America's first operational jet fighter. The need to find space to develop the P-80 also led to the creation of the facility that would be later called the Skunk Works. Johnson also led the development of the SR-71 Blackbird family of aircraft. Through a number of significant innovations, Johnson's team was able to create an aircraft that flew so high and fast that it could not be intercepted or shot down. No other jet airplane has matched the Blackbird's performance.
In 1955, at the request of the Central Intelligence Agency, Johnson initiated construction of the airbase at Groom Lake, Nevada, later known as Area 51. This project provided a secret location for flight testing the U-2.
He served on Lockheed's board of directors from 1964 to 1980, becoming a senior vice president in 1969. He officially retired from Lockheed in 1975 and was succeeded by Ben Rich, but continued as a consultant at the Skunk Works. In June 1983, the Lockheed Rye Canyon Research and Development Center in Santa Clarita was renamed Kelly Johnson Research and Development Center, Lockheed-California Company, in honor of Johnson's 50 years of service to the company.
A number of factors contributed to Johnson's extraordinary career. He was a very talented designer and engineer. For instance, he could quickly and accurately estimate design characteristics such as weight, characteristics that usually were determined through long calculations. He was also ambitious and an excellent salesman, aggressively promoting ideas while also earning others' trust. In addition, he created teams and a work environment where creativity and productivity could flourish.
While at Lockheed, Johnson designed the P-38 Lightning fighter, made Fowler flaps work on the Model 14 Super Electra, and played a major role in converting the type into the Royal Air Force's Lockheed Hudson on short notice in 1938. He worked on the development of the Constellation for Howard Hughes' TWA airline.
Johnson contributed to the design of the following Lockheed aircraft:
- Orion 9D
- Model 10 Electra/XC-35/C-36/Y1C-37
- Model 12 Electra Junior
- Model 14 Super Electra
- Model 18 Lodestar
- PV-1 Ventura/B-37
- P-38 Lightning
- Constellation family
- L-049 Constellation
- L-149 Constellation
- C-69 Constellation
- L-649 Constellation
- L-749 Constellation
- C-121A-B Constellation
- PO-1W/WV-1 Warning Star
- L-1049 Super Constellation
- C-121C-J/R7O/R7V Constellation
- PO-2W/WV-2/WV-3/EC-121 Warning Star
- YC-121F/R7V-2 Constellation
- L-1649 Starliner
- C-121C-J/R7O/R7V Constellation
- L-749 Constellation
- L-049 Constellation
- F-80 Shooting Star, the first successful American jet fighter;
- T-33 and TV-2 trainers
- P2V Neptune
- F-94 Starfire
- F-104 Starfighter
- F-117A Nighthawk
- C-130 Hercules
- Blackbird family: A-12, YF-12, SR-71, M-21, and D-21
Kelly Johnson's 14 Rules of Management
- The Skunk Works manager must be delegated practically complete control of his program in all aspects. He should report to a division president or higher.
- Strong but small project offices must be provided both by the military and industry.
- The number of people having any connection with the project must be restricted in an almost vicious manner. Use a small number of good people (10% to 25% compared to the so-called normal systems).
- A very simple drawing and drawing release system with great flexibility for making changes must be provided.
- There must be a minimum number of reports required, but important work must be recorded thoroughly.
- There must be a monthly cost review covering not only what has been spent and committed but also projected costs to the conclusion of the program. Don't have the books 90 days late, and don't surprise the customer with sudden overruns.
- The contractor must be delegated and must assume more than normal responsibility to get good vendor bids for subcontract on the project. Commercial bid procedures are very often better than military ones.
- The inspection system as currently used by the Skunk Works, which has been approved by both the Air Force and Navy, meets the intent of existing military requirements and should be used on new projects. Push more basic inspection responsibility back to subcontractors and vendors. Don't duplicate so much inspection.
- The contractor must be delegated the authority to test his final product in flight. He can and must test it in the initial stages. If he doesn't, he rapidly loses his competency to design other vehicles.
- The specifications applying to the hardware must be agreed to well in advance of contracting. The Skunk Works practice of having a specification section stating clearly which important military specification items will not knowingly be complied with and reasons therefore is highly recommended.
- Funding a program must be timely so that the contractor doesn't have to keep running to the bank to support government projects.
- There must be mutual trust between the military project organization and the contractor with very close cooperation and liaison on a day-to-day basis. This cuts down misunderstanding and correspondence to an absolute minimum.
- Access by outsiders to the project and its personnel must be strictly controlled by appropriate security measures.
- Because only a few people will be used in engineering and most other areas, ways must be provided to reward good performance by pay not based on the number of personnel supervised.
Note that Kelly had a 15th rule that he passed on by word of mouth. According to the book "Skunk Works" the 15th rule is: "Starve before doing business with the damned Navy. They don't know what the hell they want and will drive you up a wall before they break either your heart or a more exposed part of your anatomy."
Honors and awards
- 1932 (September) Sheehan Fellowship in Aeronautics, at the University of Michigan.
- 1937 Lawrence Sperry Award, Presented by the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences for "Important improvements of aeronautical design of high speed commercial aircraft."
- 1940 The Wright Brothers Medal, presented by SAE for "Rudder control problems on four-engined airplanes."
- 1956 The Sylvanus Albert Reed Award, presented by the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences, for "Design and rapid development of high performance subsonic and supersonic aircraft."
- 1956 Elected Aviation Man of the Year by a group of Aviation writers and editors appointed by the Airlines Activities Committee, representing 7,000 airline employees.
- 1958 Elected Distinguished Member of the Jet Pioneers Association of U.S.A.
- 1959 Co-Recipient of the Collier Trophy as designer of the airframe of the F-104 Starfighter, sharing the honor with General Electric (J79 engine) and U.S. Air Force (Flight Records). The F-104 was designated the previous year's "Greatest achievement in aviation in America."
- 1960 The General Hap Arnold Gold Medal, presented by the Veterans of Foreign Wars for "Design of the U-2 high altitude research plane."
- 1961 Chosen as one of 50 outstanding Americans of meritorious performance in the fields of endeavor, to be honored as a Guest of Honor to the first annual banquet of the Golden Plate. Honor was awarded by vote of the National Panel of Distinguished Americans of the Academy of Achievement of Monterey, California.
- 1963 The Theodore von Karman Award, presented by the Air Force Association for "Designing and directing development of the U-2, thus providing the Free World with one of its most valuable instruments in the defense of freedom."
- 1963 Elected an Honorary Member of the Aerospace Medical Association, in appreciation of his sincere and effective interest and activities in behalf of their work.
- 1964 The Medal of Freedom, presented by President Lyndon B. Johnson in ceremonies at the White House. The highest civil honor the President can bestow, this recognizes "Significant contributions to the quality of American life." Johnson was cited for his advancement of aeronautics.
- 1964 The Award of Achievement, presented by the national Aviation club of Washington D.C., for "Outstanding achievement in airplane design and development over many years, including such models as the Constellation, P-80, F-104, JetStar, the U-2, and climaxed by the metallurgical and performance breakthroughs of the A-11 (YF-12A).
- 1964 The Collier Trophy (his second), following his work on the YF-12 Interceptor, capable of flying at more than 2,000 mph. His achievement for the previous year was called the greatest in American aviation.
- 1964 The Theodore von Karman Award (his second), presented by the Air force Association for his work with the A-11 (YF-12A) Interceptor.
- 1964 Honorary degree of Doctor of Engineering, University of Michigan.
- 1964 Honorary degree of Doctor of Science, University of Southern California.
- 1965 Honorary degree of Doctor of Laws, University of California at Los Angeles.
- 1965 San Fernando Valley Engineer of the Year, so designated by the San Fernando, California, Valley Engineers Council.
- 1965 Elected a Member of the National Academy of Engineering.
- 1965 Elected a Member of the National Academy of Sciences.
- 1965 Selected as one of the first 20 men to be included in the International Aerospace Hall of Fame in San Diego, California.
- 1966 The Sylvanus Albert Reed Award (his second) given by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics "In recognition of notable contributions to the aerospace sciences resulting from experimental or theoretical investigations."
- 1966 National Medal of Science, presented by President Lyndon B. Johnson at the White House.
- 1966 The Thomas D. White National Defense Award, presented by the U.S. Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado, in recognition of "your great contributions to the national defense and security of the United States"
- 1967 Elected Honorary Fellow of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
- 1968 Elected a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society.
- 1969 The General William Mitchell Memorial Award, presented by the Aviators Post #743 of the American Legion.
- 1970 Awarded the Spirit of St. Louis Medal by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
- 1970 On behalf of Lockheed's Advanced Development Projects facility, which he directed until his retirement in 1975, accepted the first annual Engineering Materials Achievements Award of the American Society for Metals.
- 1970 The Engineering Merit Award-Presented by the Institute for the Advancement of Engineering, Beverly Hills, California.
- 1970 Honored by the Air Force Association, Washington D.C., for design of the P-38 Lightning.
- 1971 Awarded the Sixth Annual Founders Medal by the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) at the Statler-Hilton Hotel, Washington D.C.. in recognition of his fundamental contributions to engineering.
- 1972 Awarded the Silver Knight Award by the Lockheed Management Club of California at the Hollywood Palladium for his contributions to Lockheed's success.
- 1973 Awarded the first "Clarence L. Johnson Award" by The Society of Fight Test Engineers in Las Vegas, Nevada, for his contributions to aviation and flight test engineering.
- 1973 Civilian Kitty Hawk Memorial Award by Los Angeles Area Chamber of Commerce for his outstanding contributions in the field of aviation.
- 1974 Air Force Exceptional Service Award for his many outstanding contributions to the United States Air Force. Presented by the Secretary of the Air force, John McLucas.
- 1974 Enshrined in the National Aviation Hall of Fame in Dayton, Ohio for his outstanding contributions to aviation.
- 1975 Awarded the Central Intelligence Agency's Distinguished Intelligence Medal for his work on reconnaissance systems.
- 1975 Awarded the Wright Brothers Memorial Trophy for his vital and enduring contributions over a period of 40 years to the design and development of military and commercial aircraft.
- 1978 The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics presented "A Salute to Kelly Johnson" night.
- 1980 Awarded the Bernt Balchen Trophy, the highest award of the New York State Air Force Association. The trophy is presented annually to "An individual of national prominence whose contribution to the field of aviation has been unique, extensive or of great significance." It followed announcement of the A-12.
- 1981 Presented the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service. Presented by Harold Brown.
- 1981 Honored by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) for his ability to motivate a small staff to work within a tight time frame and budget in creating revolutionary aircraft design.
- 1981 The U.S. Air Force creates the "Kelly Johnson Blackbird Achievement Trophy" to recognize the individual or group who has made the most significant contribution to the U-2, SR-71 or the TR-1 Program since the previous annual reunion.
- 1981 The Daniel Guggenheim Medal, "For his brilliant design of a wide range of pace-setting, commercial, combat and reconnaissance aircraft, and for his innovative management techniques which developed these aircraft in record time at minimum cost."
- 1982 The Meritorious Service to Aviation Award from National Business Aircraft Association, recognizing design of more than 40 aircraft, including the world's first business jet, the JetStar.
- 1983 The Aero Club of Southern California presented the Howard Hughes Memorial Award for 1982 to C. L. "Kelly" Johnson as a leader in aviation. The recipient must have devoted a major portion of his life to the pursuit of aviation as a science and as an art. Engraved on the medal was the sentence: "His vision formed the concept, His courage forged the reality".
- 1983 The National Security Medal was presented by President Ronald Reagan to Clarence L. Johnson for "Exceptional meritorious service performed in a position of high responsibility and have made an outstanding contribution to the National Security of the Nation".
- 1984 Honorary Royal Designer for Industry (HonRDI), in recognition of achievements in aircraft design, conferred by the Royal Society for the encouragement of the Arts, Manufacturers, and Commerce, London.
- 2003 Listed at number eight in Aviation Week's "All-Time Top 100 Stars of Aerospace and Aviation".
- ^ Bennis, Warren and Patricia Ward Biederman. Organizing Genius: The Secrets of Creative Collaboration. Perseus Books, 1997.
- ^ All-Time Top 100 Stars of Aerospace and Aviation Announced | SpaceRef. June 18 2003
- ^ Jim Wilson. Kelly Johnson's Skunk Works Created The World's Most Amazing Planes. Popular Mechanics, September 1999
- ^ Garrison, Peter (March 2010), "Head Skunk", Air & Space 24 (7): 33–34, http://www.airspacemag.com/history-of-flight/Head-Skunk.html .
- ^ Garrison, Peter (March 2010), "Head Skunk", Air & Space 24 (7): 34, http://www.airspacemag.com/history-of-flight/Head-Skunk.html .
- ^ Garrison, Peter (March 2010), "Head Skunk", Air & Space 24 (7): 34–35, http://www.airspacemag.com/history-of-flight/Head-Skunk.html .
- ^ Garrison, Peter (March 2010), "Head Skunk", Air & Space 24 (7): 35–36, http://www.airspacemag.com/history-of-flight/Head-Skunk.html .
- ^ Garrison, Peter (March 2010), "Head Skunk", Air & Space 24 (7): 36–37, http://www.airspacemag.com/history-of-flight/Head-Skunk.html .
- ^ Rich, Ben; Janos, Leo. (1996) Skunk Works. Little, Brown & Company, ISBN 0-316-74300-3
- ^ Garrison, Peter (March 2010), "Head Skunk", Air & Space 24 (7): 38, http://www.airspacemag.com/history-of-flight/Head-Skunk.html .
- ^ Garrison, Peter (March 2010), "Head Skunk", Air & Space 24 (7): 35, http://www.airspacemag.com/history-of-flight/Head-Skunk.html .
- ^ Garrison, Peter (March 2010), "Head Skunk", Air & Space 24 (7): 37–38, http://www.airspacemag.com/history-of-flight/Head-Skunk.html .
- ^ Aviation Week. June 18, 2003. All-Time Top 100 Stars of Aerospace and Aviation Announced'.
- Lockheed Martin Corporation, How the Skunk Works got its name.
- Lockheed Martin Corporation, P-38 Lightning.
- Lockheed Martin Corporation, Kelly's 14 Rules.
- Lockheed Martin Corporation, The Skunk Works Today.
- Lockheed Martin Corporation, Collier Trophy.
- Rich, Ben; Janos, Leo. (1996) Skunk Works. Little, Brown & Company, ISBN 0-316-74300-3
- Honorary fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
- Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society
- Member of the Society of Automotive Engineers
- Member of Tau Beta Pi engineering fraternities.
- Member of Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society
- Johnson, Clarence L. "Kelly", and Maggie Smith, 1985. Kelly: More Than My Share of It All. Smithsonian Institution Press, ISBN 0-87474-564-0
- Johnson, Clarence L., Lockheed Aircraft Corporation. The Design of High-Speed Military Airplanes (1941). Reprinted from the Journal of Aeronautical Sciences
- Rich, Ben, and Leo Janos, 1996. Skunk Works. Little, Brown & Company, ISBN 0-316-74300-3
- Clarence Leonard (Kelly) Johnson.
- Kelly Johnson's rules for Skunk Works aircraft.
- "Lord of the Skunk Works," from Air Force Magazine.
- Clarence Johnson on Find-A-Grave.
Lockheed and Lockheed Martin aircraft Manufacturer
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Lists relating to aviation General Military Accidents/incidents Records United States National Medal of Science laureates Behavioral and social science1960s1980s1990s2000s Chemistry1980s
1982: F. Albert Cotton · Gilbert Stork · 1983: Roald Hoffmann · George C. Pimentel · Richard N. Zare · 1986: Harry B. Gray · Yuan Tseh Lee · Carl S. Marvel · Frank H. Westheimer · 1987: William S. Johnson · Walter H. Stockmayer · Max Tishler · 1988: William O. Baker · Konrad E. Bloch · Elias J. Corey · 1989: Richard B. Bernstein · Melvin Calvin · Rudoph A. Marcus · Harden M. McConnell1990s
1990: Elkan Blout · Karl Folkers · John D. Roberts · 1991: Ronald Breslow · Gertrude B. Elion · Dudley R. Herschbach · Glenn T. Seaborg · 1992: Howard E. Simmons, Jr. · 1993: Donald J. Cram · Norman Hackerman · 1994: George S. Hammond · 1995: Thomas Cech · Isabella L. Karle · 1996: Norman Davidson · 1997: Darleane C. Hoffman · Harold S. Johnston · 1998: John W. Cahn · George M. Whitesides · 1999: Stuart A. Rice · John Ross · Susan Solomon2000s
2000: John D. Baldeschwieler · Ralph F. Hirschmann · 2001: Ernest R. Davidson · Gabor A. Somorjai · 2002: John I. Brauman · 2004: Stephen J. Lippard · 2006: Marvin H. Caruthers · Peter B. Dervan · 2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed · 2008: Joanna S. Fowler · JoAnne Stubbe · 2009: Stephen J. Benkovic · Marye Anne Fox
1962: Theodore von Kármán · 1963: Vannevar Bush · John Robinson Pierce · 1964: Charles S. Draper · 1965: Hugh L. Dryden · Clarence L. Johnson · Warren K. Lewis · 1966: Claude E. Shannon · 1967: Edwin H. Land · Igor I. Sikorsky · 1968: J. Presper Eckert · Nathan M. Newmark · 1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby1970s
1970: George E. Mueller · 1973: Harold E. Edgerton · Richard T. Whitcomb · 1974: Rudolf Kompfner · Ralph Brazelton Peck · Abel Wolman · 1975: Manson Benedict · William Hayward Pickering · Frederick E. Terman · Wernher von Braun · 1976: Morris Cohen · Peter C. Goldmark · Erwin Wilhelm Müller · 1979: Emmett N. Leith · Raymond D. Mindlin · Robert N. Noyce · Earl R. Parker · Simon Ramo1980s
1982: Edward H. Heinemann · Donald L. Katz · 1983: William R. Hewlett · George M. Low · John G. Trump · 1986: Hans Wolfgang Liepmann · T. Y. Lin · Bernard M. Oliver · 1987: R. Byron Bird · H. Bolton Seed · Ernst Weber · 1988: Daniel C. Drucker · Willis M. Hawkins · George W. Housner · 1989: Harry George Drickamer · Herbert E. Grier1990s
1990: Mildred S. Dresselhaus · Nick Holonyak Jr. · 1991: George Heilmeier · Luna B. Leopold · H. Guyford Stever · 1992: Calvin F. Quate · John Roy Whinnery · 1993: Alfred Y. Cho · 1994: Ray W. Clough · 1995: Hermann A. Haus · 1996: James L. Flanagan · C. Kumar N. Patel · 1998: Eli Ruckenstein · 1999: Kenneth N. Stevens2000s
Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences1960s1970s1980s1990s
1990: George F. Carrier · Stephen Cole Kleene · John McCarthy · 1991: Alberto Calderón · 1992: Allen Newell · 1993: Martin David Kruskal · 1994: John Cocke · 1995: Louis Nirenberg · 1996: Richard Karp · Stephen Smale · 1997: Shing-Tung Yau · 1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz · 1999: Felix Browder · Ronald R. Coifman2000s
1963: Luis W. Alvarez · 1964: Julian Schwinger · Harold Clayton Urey · Robert Burns Woodward · 1965: John Bardeen · Peter Debye · Leon M. Lederman · William Rubey · 1966: Jacob Bjerknes · Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar · Henry Eyring · John H. Van Vleck · Vladimir K. Zworykin · 1967: Jesse Beams · Francis Birch · Gregory Breit · Louis Hammett · George Kistiakowsky · 1968: Paul Bartlett · Herbert Friedman · Lars Onsager · Eugene Wigner · 1969: Herbert C. Brown · Wolfgang Panofsky1970s
1970: Robert H. Dicke · Allan R. Sandage · John C. Slater · John A. Wheeler · Saul Winstein · 1973: Carl Djerassi · Maurice Ewing · Arie Jan Haagen-Smit · Vladimir Haensel · Frederick Seitz · Robert Rathbun Wilson · 1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen · Paul Flory · William Alfred Fowler · Linus Carl Pauling · Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer · 1975: Hans A. Bethe · Joseph Hirschfelder · Lewis Sarett · E. Bright Wilson · Chien-Shiung Wu · 1976: Samuel Goudsmit · Herbert S. Gutowsky · Frederick Rossini · Verner Suomi · Henry Taube · George Uhlenbeck · 1979: Richard P. Feynman · Herman Mark · Edward M. Purcell · John Sinfelt · Lyman Spitzer · Victor F. Weisskopf1980s
1982: Philip W. Anderson · Yoichiro Nambu · Edward Teller · Charles H. Townes · 1983: E. Margaret Burbidge · Maurice Goldhaber · Helmut Landsberg · Walter Munk · Frederick Reines · Bruno B. Rossi · J. Robert Schrieffer · 1986: Solomon Buchsbaum · Horace Crane · Herman Feshbach · Robert Hofstadter · Chen Ning Yang · 1987: Philip Abelson · Walter Elsasser · Paul C. Lauterbur · George Pake · James A. Van Allen · 1988: D. Allan Bromley · Paul Ching-Wu Chu · Walter Kohn · Norman F. Ramsey · Jack Steinberger · 1989: Arnold O. Beckman · Eugene Parker · Robert Sharp · Henry Stommel1990s
1990: Allan M. Cormack · Edwin M. McMillan · Robert Pound · Roger Revelle · 1991: Arthur L. Schawlow · Ed Stone · Steven Weinberg · 1992: Eugene M. Shoemaker · 1993: Val Fitch · Vera Rubin · 1994: Albert Overhauser · Frank Press · 1995: Hans Dehmelt · Peter Goldreich · 1996: Wallace S. Broecker · 1997: Marshall Rosenbluth · Martin Schwarzschild · George Wetherill · 1998: Don L. Anderson · John N. Bahcall · 1999: James Cronin · Leo Kadanoff2000s
2000: Willis E. Lamb · Jeremiah P. Ostriker · Gilbert F. White · 2001: Marvin L. Cohen · Raymond Davis Jr. · Charles Keeling · 2002: Richard Garwin · W. Jason Morgan · Edward Witten · 2003: G. Brent Dalrymple · Riccardo Giacconi · 2004: Robert N. Clayton · 2005: Ralph A. Alpher · Lonnie Thompson · 2006: Daniel Kleppner · 2007: Fay Ajzenberg-Selove · Charles P. Slichter · 2008: Berni Alder · James E. Gunn · 2009: Yakir Aharonov · Esther M. Conwell · Warren M. Washington
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Tom Kelly (engineer) — Thomas Joseph Kelly (June 14, 1929 ndash; March 23, 2002) was an American aerospace engineer.Thomas J. Kelly graduated from Cornell University in 1951, where he was a member of the Quill and Dagger society.Kelly was the Project Engineer,… … Wikipedia
Area 51 — This article is about the U.S. Air Force installation in Nevada. For other uses, see Area 51 (disambiguation). Area 51 … Wikipedia
Skunk Works — is an official alias for Lockheed Martin’s Advanced Development Programs, formerly called Lockheed Advanced Development Projects. Skunk Works is responsible for a number of famous aircraft designs, including the U 2, the SR 71, the F 117, and the … Wikipedia