Hwando Mountain Fortress

Hwando Mountain Fortress
Hwando Mountain Fortress
Hwando Mountain Fortress 3.JPG
Ruins of a Hwando watchtower
Chinese name
Chinese 丸都山城
Korean name
Hangul 환도산성
Hanja 丸都山城

Hwando Mountain Fortress, also known as Wandu Mountain City, along with Gungnae Fortress, served as the second capital of the Korean kingdom Goguryeo (Hangul: 고구려, Hanja: 高句麗). The remains of this city are a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in 2.5 kilometers to the west of Ji'an, Jilin, China.


  • "On October of the 22nd year (of Yuri of Goguryeo), the Yuri King moved the capital to Gungnae Fortress, and built the Wina Rock fortress".[1] Since the 1st year of Yuri of Goguryeo is 19 BC, the 22nd year is 3 AD. Gungnae Fortress was a fortress on Yalu River's plain, while "Wina Rocks fortress" ((Hangul: 위나암성, Hanja: 尉那巖城) was a fortified city in the mountain which was later renamed to Hwando,(丸都) by Sansang of Goguryeo.
  • "On February of the 2nd year (of Sansang of Goguryeo), Hwando City was built". "On October (of the 13th year of Sansang of Goguryeo), the Sansang King moved the capital to Hwando".[2]). Since the 1st year of Sansang of Goguryeo is 197 AD, the 2nd year is 198 and the 13th year is 209.

See also


  1. ^ Volume 13(page 18) of Samguk Sagi
  2. ^ Volume 16(pages 21 and 23) of Samguk Sagi

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