- Twin towns and sister cities
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
In the United Kingdom, the term twin towns is most commonly used, generally referring to town-twinning with Europe, differentiating with the term sister cities, which is used for agreements with towns and cities in the United States. In Europe, a variety of terms are used; most commonly twin towns, but partnership towns, partner towns and friendship towns, are also used. Germany uses Partnerstadt (Partner Town/City), France uses Ville Jumelée (Twinned Town/City). In the Netherlands, the term Stedenband (City bond) is used. North America, South America, South Asia, Australasia and Asia generally use the term sister cities. In the former Soviet Bloc countries twin towns is used, as well as the term brother cities.
The earliest form of town twinning in Europe was between the German city of Paderborn and the French city of Le Mans in 836. Keighley, West Yorkshire, England had a "sister cities" arrangement with Suresnes and Puteaux, France starting in 1905. The first recorded modern twinning agreement was between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord, Nord, France in 1920 following the end of World War I. This was initially referred to as an adoption of the French town, with formal twinning charters not being exchanged until 1986.
The practice was continued after the Second World War as a way to bring European people into a closer understanding of each other and to promote cross-border projects of mutual benefit. For example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad (now Volgograd) and later with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been heavily bombed during the war. Each twin city country is represented in a specific ward of the city and in each ward has a peace garden dedicated to that twin city. Another early example of town twinning dates back to 1947 when Bristol Corporation (later Bristol City Council) sent five 'leading citizens' on a goodwill mission to Hanover.
Within Europe, town twinning is supported by the European Union. The support scheme was established in 1989. In 2003 an annual budget of about 12 million euros was allocated to about 1,300 projects. The Council of European Municipalities and Regions also works closely with the Commission (DG Education and Culture) to promote modern, high quality twinning initiatives and exchanges that involve all sections of the community. It has launched a website dedicated to town twinning.
Many German cities still are twinned with other German cities. The partnerships were established in the last years of former East Germany. Famous examples are the partnerships of Hanover and Leipzig (both having important trade fair grounds) or between Hamburg and Dresden.
The first city in North America to establish a sister city relationship was Toledo, Ohio, United States with Toledo, Spain in 1931. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada was also a notable city to enter into an intercontinental twinning arrangement when, in 1944, it twinned with the Ukrainian city of Odessa, which at the time was part of the Soviet Union. This was based on aiding the allied port city during the Second World War.
Tashkent, the Uzbek capital, then part of the Soviet Union, was twinned with Seattle, Washington in 1973 and became the first Soviet city to be twinned with one in the US. Another first for town twinning occurred in 1967 when Rochester, Minnesota and Knebworth, UK teamed up to bring a primary medical research front.
The phrase "sister cities" is sometimes used to refer to cities without a formal agreement that have similar cultures and/or historical backgrounds, such as Galveston, Texas and New Orleans, two cities that were historically major Southern ports on the Gulf coast.
- European congress on citizenship and twinning
- Cross-border town naming
- List of twin towns and sister cities
- Partnership 2000
- World City
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- ^ "Douzelage.org: Home". www.douzelage.org. http://www.douzelage.org/. Retrieved 2009-10-21.
- ^ a b c d "The Origins of Town Twinning". Inverness: The City of Inverness Town Twinning Committee. 8 December 2008. http://www.highland.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/1C07A195-EF04-454D-81B8-ADAEE15058FC/0/ICC9908.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-30.
- ^ Frank Crane (2008). War and World Government. BiblioBazaar, LLC. p. 200. ISBN 9780559443817. http://books.google.com/books?id=NvKQhry_9Q0C&lpg=PA200&dq=sister%20cities&pg=PA200#v=onepage&q=sister%20cities&f=false. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- ^ a b "France Magazine - Twin Towns". www.francemag.com. http://www.francemag.com/france-travel-travel-guide-and-information-twin-towns--211. Retrieved 2009-11-06.
- ^ Handley, Susan (2006). Take your partners: The local authority handbook on international partnerships. London: Local Government International Bureau. p. 4. http://www.lga.gov.uk/lga/aio/190428. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
- ^ "Keighley celebrates twin town jubilee". Telegraph & Argus. Newsquest Media Group. 2002. http://archive.thisisbradford.co.uk/2002/3/28/128275.html. Retrieved 2009-01-05.
- ^ "Ghajnsielem.com - Twinning". www.ghajnsielem.com. http://www.ghajnsielem.com/twinning/index.html. Retrieved 2009-10-10.
- ^ "Twin Towns". www.amazingdusseldorf.com. http://www.amazingdusseldorf.com/community-local/people/twin-towns.html. Retrieved 2009-10-29.
- ^ "Disney seeks UK twin". www.ukprwire.com. http://www.ukprwire.com/Detailed/Travel_Tourism/Disney_seeks_UK_twin_55125.shtml. Retrieved 2009-10-30.
- ^ "Twinnings". Twinning.org. http://www.twinning.org. Retrieved 2009-06-16.
- Twinnings for Tomorrow's World - A Practical Handbook. Brussels: CEMR Council of European Municipalities and Regions. http://admin5.geniebuilder.com/users/ccre/bases/T_599_46_3524.pdf. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- Germany and the town twinning movement
- Town twinning in Europe's municipalities, towns and regions
- Town twinning in Britain since 1945
- Twinning in Europe
- UK Town Twinning Portal
Twin towns and sister cities Lists by continent Lists by country (incl. territory)
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Czech Republic
- Faroe Islands
- South Korea
- Kosovo 1
- Palestinian territories
- United Kingdom
- United States
Lists by state/province/city
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