List of ancient cities in Thrace and Dacia


List of ancient cities in Thrace and Dacia

This is a list of ancient cities, towns, villages, and fortresses in and around Thrace and Dacia. A number of these settlements were Dacian and Thracian, but some were Celtic, Greek, Roman, Paeonian, or Persian.

A number of cities in Dacia and Thrace were built on or close to the sites of preexisting Dacian or Thracian settlements. Some settlements in this list may have a double entry, such as the Paeonian Astibo and Latin Astibus. It is believed that Thracians did not build true cities even if they were named as such; the largest Thracian settlements were large villages.[1] The only known attempt to build a polis by the Thracians was Seuthopolis.[2][3] Some of the Dacian settlements and fortresses employed the traditional Murus Dacicus construction technique.

Note: Throughout these lists, an asterisk [*] indicates that the toponym is reconstructed.

Contents

Dacian

Dacian towns and fortresses in Dacia during Burebista

Many city names of the Dacians were composed of an initial lexical element affixed to -dava, -daua, -deva, -deba, -daba, or -dova, which meant "city" or "town" in the Dacian language.

Onomastic range of the Dacian towns with the dava ending, covering Dacia, Moesia, Thrace and Dalmatia
Onomastic range of the Dacian towns with the dava ending, covering Dacia, Moesia, Thrace and Dalmatia

Dacian town/fortresses with unknown name

Thracian

The endings -bria ("town, city"), -disza, -diza, -dizos ("fortress, walled settlement"), -para, -paron, -pera, -phara ("town, village") are from the Thracian language, as are numerous other lexical elements in this list. Strabo translated -bria as polis, but that may not be accurate.[17] Thracian -disza, -diza, and -dizos are derived from Proto-Indo-European *dheigh-, "to knead clay", hence to "make bricks", "build walls", "wall", "walls", and so on. These Thracian lexical items show a satemization of PIE *gh-. Cognates include Ancient Greek teichos ("wall, fort, fortified town", as in the town of Didymoteicho) and Avestan daēza ("wall").

Towns

Map of Ancient Thrace made by Abraham Ortelius,at 1585

Villages

Forts and walled settlements

Celtic

Tylis and the Gaulic invasion

Greek

Thrace, from Strymon to Nestos

Thrace, from Nestos to Hebros

Inland Thrace

Thracian Chersonesos

Propontic Thrace

West Thracian and Dacian coast

Other

Roman

Thrace and Dacia as Roman provinces
Part of Tabula Peutingeriana showing Western Moesia Inferior, Western Dacia and Macedonia

A large number of Roman castra, towns and cities were built after the conquest of Thrace, Moesia, and Dacia. Many were constructed on top of existing Dacian and Thracian structures, often inheriting their native names, usually in a Latinized form.

Some were built near the ruins of destroyed native settlements or fortresses, and in such cases mostly Roman structures survived. All of these towns were connected on Roman road networks built throughout the region, as described in ancient sources like Ptolemy's Geographia (c. 150 AD) and Tabula Peutingeriana (2nd century AD). Many fortified settlements were also part of limes.

Paeonian

Paeonian cities and surrounding regions

Persian

Mythological

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond ,ISBN 0-521-22717-8, 1992, page 612: "Thrace possessed only fortified areas and cities such as Cabassus would have been no more than large villages. In general the population lived in villages and hamlets..."
  2. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 888, "It was meant to be a polis but this was no reason to think that it was anything other than a native settlement."
  3. ^ The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 by Christopher Webber, ISBN 1-84176-329-2, 2001, page 1, "...the city of Seuthopolis seems to be the only significant town in Thrace not built by Greeks..."
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Grumeza 2009, p. 13.
  5. ^ Velkov 1977, p. 92.
  6. ^ a b Olteanu.
  7. ^ *Procopii Caesariensis opera omnia. Edited by J. Haury; revised by G. Wirth. 3 vols. Leipzig: Teubner, 1976-64. Greek text.
  8. ^ TSR9, Proc. 123. 26
  9. ^ Schütte 1917, p. 96.
  10. ^ a b c d Grumeza 2009, p. 12.
  11. ^ Grumeza 2009, p. 88.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Grumeza 2009, p. 14.
  13. ^ a b Ethnic continuity in the Carpatho-Danubian area by Elemér Illyés, 1988, ISBN 0-88033-146-1, page 223
  14. ^ Five Roman emperors: Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Nerva, Trajan, A.D. 69-117 - by Bernard William Henderson - 1969, page 278,"At Thermidava he was warmly greeted by folk quite obviously Dacians"
  15. ^ The Geography by Ptolemy, Edward Luther Stevenson, 1991, page 36
  16. ^ Taylor & 2001 214.
  17. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond, ISBN 0-521-22717-8, 1992, page 612: "According to Strabo (vii.6.1cf.st.Byz.446.15) the Thracian -bria word meant polis but it is an inaccurate translation."
  18. ^ The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 by Christopher Webber, ISBN 1-84176-329-2, 2001, page 1, "...the city of Seuthopolis seems to be the only significant town in Thrace not built by Greeks..."
  19. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 856, "A thracian settlement"
  20. ^ A New Classical Dictionary Of Greek And Roman Biography, Mythology And Geography V2, 2006, ISBN 1-4286-4561-6, page 196, "Subzupara (now in Zarvi), a town in Thrace on the road from Phillipopolis to Hadrianopolis..."
  21. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 1: The Prehistory of the Balkans, the Middle East and the Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, N. G. L. Hammond, and E. Sollberger,1982, page 876: "... proper and the southern Danube borderland, e.g. in Bessapara, Keipenapa, Tranupara; of -dita 'fortified town', found only in Thracia proper; ..."
  22. ^ A History of the Byzantine State and Society by Warren Treadgold, 1997, page 419: "...Internal Reforms, 780-842 419 army, refounding Thracian Beroea under the name of Irenopolis, and reaching Philippopolis..."
  23. ^ Livy: History of Rome, VII, Books 26-27 (Loeb Classical Library No. 367) by Livy and Frank Gardner Moore, 1943, page 96: "... waste the country and to besiege the city of Iamphorynna, the capital and citadel of Maedica..."
  24. ^ The History of Rome, Volume 4 by Theodor Mommsen, 2009, page 53: "... defeated the Bessi in their mountains, took their capital Uscudama (Adrianople), and compelled them to submit to the Roman supremacy."
  25. ^ Bulgaria Nagel's encyclopedia-guide by Charles Jacques Veyrenc, page 413, History in the 3rd century BC. "The Celts established on the site now occupied by Vidin a fortress to which they gave the name of Dunonia, 'fortified hill.'"
  26. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC, by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond, ISBN 0-521-22717-8, 1992, page 600: "In the place of the vanished Treres and Tilataei we find the Serdi for whom there is no evidence before the first century BC. It has for long being supposed on convincing linguistic and archeological grounds that this tribe was of Celtic origin."
  27. ^ Celts and the Classical World, by David Rankin, ISBN 0-415-15090-6, 1996, page 188: "... of the survivors of Brenus expedition the Scordisci founded Singidunum in Yugoslavia"
  28. ^ The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth, 2003, page 429: "... Roman fleets, the Pannonian based on the upper course at Taurunum above Belgrade and the Moesian on the lower at Noviodunum ..."
  29. ^ The central Balkan tribes in pre-Roman times: Triballi, Autariatae, Dardanians, Scordisci and Moesians by Fanula Papazoglu, ISBN 90-256-0793-4, 1978: "Boii are connected with Taurunum, or Bononia..."
  30. ^ Kontakte längs der Bernsteinstrasse: (zwischen Caput Adriae und den ..., by Zenon Woźniak, Muzeum Archeologiczne w Krakowie, 1996, page 29: "...Taurunum (present-day Zemun), where a long-settled Scordisci community buried their dead in the cemetery at Karaburma..."
  31. ^ Polybius, History, IV.46.
  32. ^ a b c d e An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 856
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, Index
  34. ^ a b An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 855: "The Thasians... they founded Krenides and Daton"
  35. ^ Hatzfeld, Jean. History of Ancient Greece (trans. by Andre Aymard, 1968, W.W. Norton & Co., New York), p. 34-35.
  36. ^ a b An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 782, "The Thasians are said to have colonised the Hedonian city of Myrkinos, Galepsos and Oisyme..."
  37. ^ a b c d e An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 857
  38. ^ Readings in Greek History: Sources and Interpretations by D. Brendan Nagle and Stanley M. Burstein, 2006, page 232: A GREEK TRADING POST IN THRACE"... Maronea, Apollonia, and Thasos living in the trading post of Pistiros."
  39. ^ The Histories, by Herodotus, Carolyn Dewald, and Robin Waterfield, 2008, page 442: "... bed of the Lisus, Xerxes passed the Greek towns of Maronea, Dicaea, and Abdera. His route also took him past a..."
  40. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation, by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 870: "Colonists from Mytilene and Kyme founded Ainos"
  41. ^ a b The Histories by Herodotus, Carolyn Dewald, and Robin Waterfield, 2008, page 442: "... bed of the Lisus, Xerxes passed the Greek towns of Maronea, Dicaea, and Abdera. His route also took him past a ..."
  42. ^ Back Matter: "... sites identified solely by coins' location site Thessaly, Atrax, Kieron, Larissa, Thrace, Ainos, Bizye, Byzantium, Deultum, Maroneia, Mesembra, Pantalia..."
  43. ^ Hammond Concise Atlas of World History by Geoffrey Barraclough, 2001, Index, "Mesembria/Greek Colony"
  44. ^ The Histories, by Herodotus, John M. Marincola, and Aubery de Selincourt, 2003, page 451: "... most westerly of which is Mesembria; the next place is Stryme, a town belonging to the Thasians. ..."
  45. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation, by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 892
  46. ^ Women and slaves in Greco-Roman culture: differential equations, by Sandra Rae Joshel, Sheila Murnaghan, 1998, page 214: "Philip II founded cities at Beroe, Kabyle, and Philippopolis in 342/1, and Aegean-style urban life began to penetrate Thrace."
  47. ^ Late Roman villas in the Danube-Balkan region, by Lynda Mulvin, 2002, page 19: "Other roads went through Beroe (founded by Philip II of Macedon)"
  48. ^ Philip of Macedon, by Louïza D. Loukopoulou, 1980, page 98: "Upriver in the valley between the Rhodope and Haimos Philip founded Beroe (Stara Zagora) and Philippolis (Plovdiv)."
  49. ^ Velkov 1977, p. 128.
  50. ^ From Mycenae to Constantinople: Major Cities of the Greek and Roman World, by Richa Tomlinson, 1992, page 8: "...this means, a Macedonian city established in a non-Macedonian area (Philippopolis in Thrace, for example) becomes a means of establishing a..."
  51. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation, by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 895: "The emporion of Pistiros was a was an inland trading station originally founded by merchants coming from the polis of Pistiros a dependancy of Thasos situated piston the Thracian coast"
  52. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation, by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 903: "Aigos potamoi is called a deserted polichne by Strabo and a polis by Steph.Byz."
  53. ^ a b An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation, by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 636: "In the archaic period Athens colonised Sigeion, Elaious, Chersonesus, Paktye, Sestus, Kardia..."
  54. ^ The Penguin Historical atlas of Ancient Greece by Robert Morkot, page 48
  55. ^ Texas edu Colonies and Metropoleis
  56. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation, by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 910: "Sestos was colonised by Lesbians"
  57. ^ Ancient Greek Colonies in the Black Sea 2, Dēmētrios V. Grammenos, ISBN 1-4073-0110-1, 2007, page 1182
  58. ^ Velkov 1977, p. 124.
  59. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation, by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 914: "Bisanthe was a colony founded by the Samians"
  60. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation, by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 918
  61. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation, by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 913
  62. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation, by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 919: "Heraion Teichos was a colony of Samos"
  63. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation, by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 465: "Megara was principal or sole founder of...Kalchedo...Selymbria...Byzantion...Astakos...Herakleia pontike and possible Olbia..."
  64. ^ a town near Perinthus, Xerxes' commissariat there: Hdt. 7.25
  65. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation, by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 912: "The European coast of Propontis was settled by Megarians and Samians.By 480 four colonies are recorded ; viz from the east to the west, Megarian Byzantion and Selymbria and Samian Perinthos and Bisanthe along with two smaller and presumbaly dependant settlements, Tyrodiza and Heraion."
  66. ^ Grumeza 2009, p. 132.
  67. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation, by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 934: "Kallatis was colonized by Herakleia"
  68. ^ Demosthenes, Speeches 1-10, On the Chersonese, 8.44: "For no man is so simple as to believe that though Philip covets these wretched objects in Thrace--for what else can one call Drongilus and Cabyle and Mastira and the other places that he is now occupying and equipping?--and though he endures toil and winter storms and deadly peril for the privilege of taking them"
  69. ^ A Companion to Archaic Greece, by Kurt A. Raaflaub and Hans van Wees, 2009, page 337: "... On the western shore, Odessos was founded by the Milesians, and the expansion of existing Greek cities in the western ..."
  70. ^ Katičic', Radoslav. Ancient Languages of the Balkans, Part One. Paris: Mouton, 1976: 147
  71. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 6: The Fourth Century BC, by D. M. Lewis, page 469: "Philip's new foundation at Heracle Sintica"
  72. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 913, "Identified with the Roman Mutatio Bedizo, halfway between Rhaidestos and Apros"
  73. ^ Rethinking Roman history, by J. P. Toneris, ISBN 090667249X, 2002: "...only one of the Roman sites explored in this award-winning travel book which touches Roman Sofia and Plovdiv and Vidin (Roman Dunonia)..."
  74. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History Volume 3, Part 3: The Expansion of the Greek World, Eighth to Sixth Centuries BC, by John Boardman and N. G. L. Hammond, 1982, page 278: "...Paeonian kings, as we know from later writings, was at Astibus, from which Stip is derived, but a royal cemetery of..."
  75. ^ Branigan, Keith. Lexicon of the Greek and Roman cities and place names in antiquity, ca. 1500. Adolf M. Hakkert. ISBN 90-256-0985-6,1992. Text says: "Unlocated town in Macedonia, also called Astraion, mentioned by Ptolemy and Pliny..."
  76. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe), by John Wilkes, 1996, page 18: "... mountains to join the Vardar below Titov Veles near the ancient Paeonian capital of Stobi (Gradsko). Though marshy in some areas this plain..."
  77. ^ Rome's Mediterranean Empire Book 41-45 and the Periochae (Oxford World's Classics) (Books 41-45), by Livy and Jane D. Chaplin, 2007, page 143: "...to order the Gallic band to move their camp to Bylazora, a place in Paeonia, while the leaders were to gather together and come to..."
  78. ^ The Greek Wars: The Failure of Persia, by George Cawkwell, 2006, page 58: "... 'The lands beyond the sea' Persian city, Boryza' on the Black Sea coast (FGH t Fí66) but that ..."
  79. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 891, "Note that the only one which is explicitly called a polis by Hekataios is Boryza (fr.166) and here we learn that it is a polis inhabited by Persians i.e not by Greeks or Thracians."

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