The Golden Rule


The Golden Rule
  This term refers to the maxim "do as you would be done by". For other uses, see Golden Rule (disambiguation).
The maxim of the "golden rule" is exemplified in many Christian stories, such as the Parable of the Good Samaritan, which are unadorned replications of the Jewish Torah: "Love your neighbor as yourself: I am the LORD."(Leviticus 19:18 —NJPS)[1]

The Golden Rule or ethic of reciprocity is a maxim,[2] ethical code, or morality[3] that essentially states either of the following:

  • (Positive form): One should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself.[2]
  • (Negative/prohibitive form, also called The Silver Rule): One should not treat others in ways that one would not like to be treated.

The Golden Rule is arguably the most essential basis for the modern concept of human rights, in which each individual has a right to just treatment, and a reciprocal responsibility to ensure justice for others.[4]

The notion that the Golden Rule pertains to "rights" per se is a contemporary interpretation and has nothing to do with its origin. The development of human "rights" is a modern political ideal that began as a philosophical concept promulgated through the philosopy of Jean Jacques Rousseau in 18th century France, among others. His writings influenced Thomas Jefferson, who then incorporated Rousseau's reference to "inalienable rights" into the Declaration of Independence. To confuse the Golden Rule with human rights is to apply contemporary thinking to ancient concepts. 

A key element of the Golden Rule is that a person attempting to live by this rule treats all people with consideration, not just members of his or her in-group. The Golden Rule has its roots in a wide range of world cultures, and is a standard way that different cultures use to resolve conflicts.[2][5]

The Golden Rule has a long history, and a great number of prominent religious figures and philosophers have restated its reciprocal, bilateral nature in various ways (not limited to the above forms).[2] As a concept, the Golden Rule has a history that long predates the term "Golden Rule" (or "Golden law", as it was called from the 1670s).[2][6] The ethic of reciprocity was present in certain forms in the philosophies of ancient Babylon, Egypt, Persia, India, Greece, Judea, and China.[citation needed]

Statements that mirror the Golden Rule appear in Ancient Egypt in the story of The Eloquent Peasant.[7] Rushworth Kidder states that "the label 'golden' was applied by Confucius (551–479 B.C.), who wrote a version of the Silver Rule. Kidder notes that this framework appears prominently in many religions, including "Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Zoroastrianism, and the rest of the world's major religions",[8] and Simon Blackburn states that the Golden Rule can be "found in some form in almost every ethical tradition".[9]

Even though the Golden Rule certainly is part of the concept of reciprocity, one thing that separates and distinguishes it from the Silver Rule and other similar concepts of reciprocity is that, whereas the Silver Rule simply serves as a prohibition against negative action, the Golden Rule actually serves as a motivation toward positive action. As Dr. Frank Crane put it, "The Golden Rule is of no use to you whatsoever unless you realize that it's your move!"[10]

Contents

Antiquity

Ancient Babylon

Some early incarnations of the Golden Rule, found in the Code of Hammurabi, (1780 BCE),[11] and in the Torah, dealt with ethical reciprocity in ways, such by limiting retribution to only that which was equal and equitable, as they did concepts of retribution ("an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth").

Ancient Egypt

An early example of the Golden Rule that reflects the Ancient Egyptian concept of Maat appears in the story of The Eloquent Peasant, which dates to the Middle Kingdom (c. 2040–1650 BCE): "Now this is the command: Do to the doer to cause that he do thus to you."[7] An example from a Late Period (c. 664 BCE – 323 BCE) papyrus: "That which you hate to be done to you, do not do to another."[12]

Ancient Greece

The Golden Rule in its prohibitive form was a common principle in ancient Greek philosophy. Examples of the general concept include:

  • "Do not to your neighbor what you would take ill from him." – Pittacus[13] (c. 640–568 BCE)
  • "Avoid doing what you would blame others for doing." – Thales[14]
  • "What you do not want to happen to you, do not do it yourself either. " – Sextus the Pythagorean.[15] The oldest extant reference to Sextus is by Origin in the third century of the common era.[16]
  • "Do not do to others what would anger you if done to you by others." – Isocrates[17]
  • "What thou avoidest suffering thyself seek not to impose on others." – Epictetus[18]
  • "It is impossible to live a pleasant life without living wisely and well and justly (agreeing 'neither to harm nor be harmed'[19]), and it is impossible to live wisely and well and justly without living a pleasant life." – Epicurus[20]
  • "...it has been shown that to injure anyone is never just anywhere." - Socrates, in Plato's Republic. Plato is the first person known to have said this.[21]

Ancient China

The Golden Rule existed among all the major philosophical schools of Ancient China: Mohism, Taoism, and Confucianism. Examples of the concept include:

  • "Zi Gong asked, saying, "Is there one word that may serve as a rule of practice for all one's life?" The Master said, "Is not RECIPROCITY such a word?" – Confucius[22][23]
  • "Never impose on others what you would not choose for yourself." – Confucius[24]
  • "If people regarded other people's families in the same way that they regard their own, who then would incite their own family to attack that of another? For one would do for others as one would do for oneself." – Mozi
  • "The sage has no interest of his own, but takes the interests of the people as his own. He is kind to the kind; he is also kind to the unkind: for Virtue is kind. He is faithful to the faithful; he is also faithful to the unfaithful: for Virtue is faithful." –Laozi[25]
  • "Regard your neighbor's gain as your own gain, and your neighbor's loss as your own loss." –Laozi[26]

Religion and philosophy

Global ethic

The "Declaration Toward a Global Ethic"[27] from the Parliament of the World’s Religions[28][29] (1993) proclaimed the Golden Rule ("We must treat others as we wish others to treat us") as the common principle for many religions.[30] The Initial Declaration was signed by 143 respected leaders from all of the world's major faiths, including Baha'i Faith, Brahmanism, Brahma Kumaris, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Indigenous, Interfaith, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, Native American, Neo-Pagan, Sikhism, Taoism, Theosophist, Unitarian Universalist and Zoroastrian.[30][31] In the folklore of several cultures{31} the Golden Rule is depicted by the allegory of the long spoons.

Bahá'í Faith

From the scriptures of the Bahá'í Faith:

Blessed is he who preferreth his brother before himself.
—Bahá'u'lláh[32][33]
And if thine eyes be turned towards justice, choose thou for thy neighbour that which thou choosest for thyself.
—Bahá'u'lláh[34][35]
Ascribe not to any soul that which thou wouldst not have ascribed to thee, and say not that which thou doest not.
Beware lest ye harm any soul, or make any heart to sorrow; lest ye wound any man with your words, be he known to you or a stranger, be he friend or foe.

Buddhism

Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama, c. 563 - c. 483 B.C.) made this principle one of the cornerstones of his ethics in the 5th century BCE. It occurs in many places and in many forms throughout the Tripitaka.

Comparing oneself to others in such terms as "Just as I am so are they, just as they are so am I," he should neither kill nor cause others to kill.
One who, while himself seeking happiness, oppresses with violence other beings who also desire happiness, will not attain happiness hereafter.
Dhammapada 10. Violence
Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful.
Udanavarga 5:18
Putting oneself in the place of another, one should not kill nor cause another to kill.[40]

Christianity

The "Golden Rule" has been attributed to Jesus of Nazareth: "Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them" (Matthew 7:12, see also Luke 6:31). The common English phrasing is "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you". A similar form appeared in a Catholic catechism around 1567 (certainly in the reprint of 1583).[41] The Golden Rule also has roots in the two old testament edicts, found in Leviticus 19:18 ("Do not seek revenge or bear a grudge against one of your people, but love your neighbor as yourself"; see also Great Commandment) and Leviticus 19:34 ("But the stranger that dwelleth with you shall be unto you as one born among you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God").

The Old Testament Deuterocanonical books of Tobit and Sirach, accepted as part of the Scriptural canon by Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, and the Non-Chalcedonian Churches, also express a negative form of the golden rule:

"Do to no one what you yourself dislike."
—Tobit 4:15
"Recognize that your neighbor feels as you do, and keep in mind your own dislikes."
—Sirach 31:15

At the time of Hillel, an elder contemporary of Jesus of Nazareth, the negative form of the golden rule already must have been proverbial, perhaps because of Tobit 4:15. When asked to sum up the entire Torah concisely, he answered:

"That which is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow. That is the whole Torah; the rest is the explanation; go and learn."
—Talmud, Shabbat 31a

Two passages in the New Testament quote Jesus of Nazareth espousing the golden rule:

Matthew 7:12

12Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them: for this is the law and the prophets.

Luke 6:31

31And as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise.

A similar passage, a parallel to the Great Commandment, is Luke 10:25-28

25And one day an authority on the law stood up to put Jesus to the test. “Teacher,” he asked, “what must I do to receive eternal life?”

26What is written in the Law?” Jesus replied. “How do you understand it?” 27He answered, “ ‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul. Love him with all your strength and with all your mind.’(Deuteronomy 6:5) And, ‘Love your neighbor as you love yourself.’ ”

28“You have answered correctly,” Jesus replied. “Do that, and you will live.”.

The passage in the book of Luke then continues with Jesus answering the question, "Who is my neighbor?", by telling the parable of the Good Samaritan, indicating that "your neighbour" is anyone in need.[42] Jesus' teaching, however, goes beyond the negative formulation of not doing what one would not like done to themselves, to the positive formulation of actively doing good to another that, if the situations were reversed, one would desire that the other would do for them. This formulation, as indicated in the parable of the Good Samaritan, emphasises the needs for positive action that brings benefit to another, not simply restraining oneself from negative activities that hurt another. Taken as a rule of judgement, both formulations of the golden rule, the negative and positive, are equally applicable.[43]


One passage in the Doctrine and Covenants quote Jesus a Revelation given through Joseph Smith. They are to love and serve the Lord and keep his commandments:

Doctrine and Covenants

5&65 Wherefore, I give unto them a commandment, saying thus: Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, with all thy might, mind, and strength; and in the name of Jesus Christ thou shalt serve him. 6 Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. Thou shalt not steal; neither commit adultery, nor kill, nor do anything like unto it.

Confucianism

Rushworth Kidder attributes the "golden" appellation to Confucius: "Here certainly is the golden maxim: Do not do to others that which we do not want them to do to us."[8]

Zi Gong asked, saying, "Is there one word which may serve as a rule of practice for all one's life?" The Master said, "Is not RECIPROCITY such a word?[22][23]
Never impose on others what you would not choose for yourself (己所不欲,勿施于人)
Confucius, Analects XV.24 (tr. David Hinton)

The same idea is also presented in V.12 and VI.30 of the Analects.

Hinduism

One should never do that to another which one regards as injurious to one’s own self. This, in brief, is the rule of dharma. Other behavior is due to selfish desires.
—Brihaspati, Mahabharata (Anusasana Parva, Section CXIII, Verse 8)[44]
For those who set their hearts on me

And worship me with unfailing devotion and faith,
The way of love leads sure and swift to me.

Those who seek the transcendental Reality,
Unmanifested, without name or form,
Beyond the reach of feeling and of thought,
With their senses subdued and mind serene
And striving for the good of all beings,

They too will verily come unto me.
—[Bhagavad-Gita, Chapter XII.][45]

Humanism

Many different sources claim the Golden Rule as a humanist principle:[46][47]

Trying to live according to the Golden Rule means trying to empathise with other people, including those who may be very different from us. Empathy is at the root of kindness, compassion, understanding and respect – qualities that we all appreciate being shown, whoever we are, whatever we think and wherever we come from. And although it isn’t possible to know what it really feels like to be a different person or live in different circumstances and have different life experiences, it isn’t difficult for most of us to imagine what would cause us suffering and to try to avoid causing suffering to others. For this reason many people find the Golden Rule’s corollary – “do not treat people in a way you would not wish to be treated yourself” – more pragmatic.[46]

Islam

The Golden Rule is implicitly expressed in some verses of Qur'an, but is explicitly declared in the sayings of Muhammad.

Quran

The first verse recommends the positive form of the rule, and the subsequent verses condemn not abiding the negative form of the Golden Rule:

“...and you should forgive And overlook: Do you not like God to forgive you? And Allah is The Merciful Forgiving.”
— Qur’an (Surah 24, "The Light," v. 22)
“Woe to those... who, when they have to receive by measure from men, they demand exact full measure, but when they have to give by measure or weight to men, give less than due”
— Qur’an (Surah 83, "The Dealers in Fraud," vv. 1–4)
“...orphans and the needy, give them something and speak kindly to them. And those who are concerned about the welfare of their own children after their death, should have fear of God [Treat other people's Orphans justly] and guide them properly.”
— Qur’an (Surah 4, "The Women," vv. 8-9)
“O you who believe! Spend [benevolently] of the good things that you have earned... and do not even think of spending [in alms] worthless things that you yourselves would be reluctant to accept.”
— Qur’an (Surah 2, "The Calf," v. 267)
“They assign daughters to Allah, Who is above having a child [whether male or female] and to themselves they assign what they desire [which is a male child]; And when the news of the birth of a female child is brought to one of them His face darkens and he hides his inward Grief and anger... They attribute to Allah what they dislike [For themselves] and their tongues assert the lie that the best reward will be theirs! Undoubtedly, the Hell fire shall be their lot and they will be foremost [in entering it].”
— Qur’an (Surah 16, "The Honey Bees," vv. 57-62)

Hadith

A Bedouin came to the prophet, grabbed the stirrup of his camel and said: O the messenger of God! Teach me something to go to heaven with it. Prophet said: “As you would have people do to you, do to them; and what you dislike to be done to you, don't do to them. Now let the stirrup go! [This maxim is enough for you; go and act in accordance with it!]”
Kitab al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 146
“None of you [truly] believes until he wishes for his brother what he wishes for himself.”
—An-Nawawi's Forty Hadith 13 (p. 56)[48]
“Seek for mankind that of which you are desirous for yourself, that you may be a believer.”
—Sukhanan-i-Muhammad (Teheran, 1938)[49]
“That which you want for yourself, seek for mankind.”[49]
“The most righteous person is the one who consents for other people what he consents for himself, and who dislikes for them what he dislikes for himself.”[49]

Ali ibn Abi Talib (4th Caliph in Sunni Islam, and first Imam in Shia Islam) says:

“O' my child, make yourself the measure (for dealings) between you and others. Thus, you should desire for others what you desire for yourself and hate for others what you hate for yourself. Do not oppress as you do not like to be oppressed. Do good to others as you would like good to be done to you. Regard bad for yourself whatever you regard bad for others. Accept that (treatment) from others which you would like others to accept from you... Do not say to others what you do not like to be said to you.”
—Nahjul Balaghah, Letter 31 [50]

Jainism

In Jainism, the golden rule is firmly embedded in its entire philosophy and can be seen in its clearest form in the doctrines of Ahimsa and Karma

The following quotation from the Acaranga Sutra sums up the philosophy of Jainism:

Nothing which breathes, which exists, which lives, or which has essence or potential of life, should be destroyed or ruled over, or subjugated, or harmed, or denied of its essence or potential. In support of this Truth, I ask you a question – "Is sorrow or pain desirable to you ?" If you say "yes it is", it would be a lie. If you say, "No, It is not" you will be expressing the truth. Just as sorrow or pain is not desirable to you, so it is to all which breathe, exist, live or have any essence of life. To you and all, it is undesirable, and painful, and repugnant.[51]

Saman Suttam of Jinendra Varni[52] gives further insight into this percepts:-

All the living beings wish to live and not to die; that is why unattached saints prohibit the killing of living beings.
—Suman Suttam , verse 148
Just as pain is not agreeable to you, it is so with others. Knowing this principle of equality treat other with respect and compassion.
—Suman Suttam , verse 150
Killing a living being is killing one's own self; showing compassion to a living being is showing compassion to oneself. He who desires his own good, should avoid causing any harm to a living being.
—Suman Suttam , verse 151

Judaism

One concept of the Golden Rule originates in a well-known Torah verse (Hebrew: "ואהבת לרעך כמוך"):

You shall not take vengeance or bear a grudge against your kinsfolk. Love your neighbor as yourself: I am the LORD.

This Torah verse represents one of several versions of the Golden Rule, which itself appears in various forms, positive and negative. It is one of the earliest written versions of that concept in a positive form.[53] All versions and forms of the proverbial Golden Rule have one aspect in common, they all call for others the equal manner and respect we want for ourselves.

At the turn of the eras, the Jewish rabbis were discussing the scope of the meaning of Leviticus 19:18 and 19:34 extensively:

The stranger who resides with you shall be to you as one of your citizens; you shall love him as yourself, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt: I the LORD am your God.

Some deputized the excluding opinion: "neighbor" only refers to Jews and proselytes. Others summed up Samaritans as the proselytes (= 'strangers who resides with you') (Rabbi Akiba, bQuid 75b) or Jews (Rabbi Gamaliel, yKet 3,1; 27a).

The Sage Hillel formulated a negative form of the golden rule. When asked to sum up the entire Torah concisely, he answered:[54]

That which is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow. That is the whole Torah; the rest is the explanation; go and learn.
Talmud, Shabbat 31a, the "Great Principle"

On the verse, "Love your fellow as yourself," the classic commentator Rashi quotes from Torat Kohanim, an early Midrashic text regarding the famous dictum of Rabbi Akiva: "Love your fellow as yourself — Rabbi Akiva says this is a great principle of the Torah."[55]

The Hassidic perspective of Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi based on the teachings of the Zohar implores one to "repay the offenders with favors":

"So, too, in matters affecting a person's relations with his fellow, as soon as there rises from his heart to his mind any animosity or hatred, G-d forbid, or jealousy, anger, or a grudge and the like, he allows them no entrance into his mind and will. On the contrary, his mind exercises its authority and power over the feelings in his heart to do the very opposite, namely, to conduct himself towards his fellow with the quality of kindness and a display of abundant love to the extreme limits, without becoming provoked into anger, G-d forbid, or to revenge in kind, G-d forbid, but rather to repay the offenders with favors, as taught in the Zohar, that one should learn from the example of Yosef [Joseph] towards his brothers."
—Tanya, ch. 12

Israel's postal service quoted from the previous Leviticus verse when it commemorated the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on a 1958 postage stamp.[56]

Mohism

If people regarded other people's families in the same way that they regard their own, who then would incite their own family to attack that of another? For one would do for others as one would do for oneself.
Mozi

Mozi regarded the golden rule as a corollary to the cardinal virtue of impartiality, and encouraged egalitarianism and selflessness in relationships.

Platonism

The Golden Rule is a central concept in Plato's philosophy.

One should never do wrong in return, nor mistreat any man, no matter how one has been mistreated by him."
Plato's Socrates (Crito, 49c) (c. 469 BC–399 BCE)

Quakerism

"Oh, do as you would be done by. And do unto all men as you would have them do unto you, for this is but the law and the prophet." Postscript to the Quaker peace testimony, signed by George Fox.

Sikhism

Whom should I despise, since the one Lord made us all.
—p.1237, Var Sarang, Guru Granth Sahibtr. Patwant Singh
The truly enlightened ones are those who neither incite fear in others nor fear anyone themselves.
—p.1427, Slok, Guru Granth Sahibtr. Patwant Singh
I am a stranger to no one, and no one is a stranger to me. Indeed, I am a friend to all.
—p.1299, Guru Granth Sahib

Taoism

The sage has no interest of his own, but takes the interests of the people as his own. He is kind to the kind; he is also kind to the unkind: for Virtue is kind. He is faithful to the faithful; he is also faithful to the unfaithful: for Virtue is faithful.
—Tao Teh Ching, Chapter 49
Regard your neighbor's gain as your own gain, and your neighbor's loss as your own loss.
—T'ai Shang Kan Ying P'ien

Wicca

Eight words the Wiccan Rede fulfill, An it harm none, do what ye will.

Criticisms and responses to criticisms

Many people have criticized the golden rule; George Bernard Shaw once said that "the golden rule is that there are no golden rules". Shaw suggested an alternative rule: "Do not do unto others as you would that they should do unto you. Their tastes may not be the same" (Maxims for Revolutionists; 1903). Karl Popper wrote: "The golden rule is a good standard which is further improved by doing unto others, wherever reasonable, as they want to be done by" (The Open Society and Its Enemies, Vol. 2). This concept has recently been called "The Platinum Rule"[57] Philosophers, such as Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Bertrand Russell[citation needed], have objected to the rule on a variety of grounds.[58] The most serious among these is its application. How does one know how others want to be treated? The obvious way is to ask them, but this cannot be done if one assumes they have not reached a particular and relevant understanding.

Differences in values or interests

Shaw's comment about differing tastes suggests that if your values are not shared with others, the way you want to be treated will not be the way they want to be treated. For example, it has been said that a sadist is just a masochist who follows the golden rule. Another often used example of this inconsistency is that of the man walking into a bar looking for a fight.[59]

Differences in situations

Immanuel Kant famously criticized the golden rule[citation needed] for not being sensitive to differences of situation, noting that a prisoner duly convicted of a crime could appeal to the golden rule while asking the judge to release him, pointing out that the judge would not want anyone else to send him to prison, so he should not do so to others.

Kant's Categorical Imperative, introduced in Kant's Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, is often confused with the Golden Rule.

Responses to criticisms

Walter Terence Stace, in The Concept of Morals (1937), wrote:

Mr. Bernard Shaw's remark "Do not do unto others as you would that they should do unto you. Their tastes may be different" is no doubt a smart saying. But it seems to overlook the fact that "doing as you would be done by" includes taking into account your neighbor's tastes as you would that he should take yours into account. Thus the "golden rule" might still express the essence of a universal morality even if no two men in the world had any needs or tastes in common.[60]

M. G. Singer observed that there are two importantly different ways of looking at the golden rule: as requiring (1) that you perform specific actions that you want others to do to you or (2) that you guide your behavior in the same general ways that you want others to.[61] Counter-examples to the golden rule typically are more forceful against the first than the second.

In his book on the golden rule, Jeffrey Wattles makes the similar observation that such objections typically arise while applying the golden rule in certain general ways (namely, ignoring differences in taste, in situation, and so forth). But if we apply the golden rule to our own method of using it, asking in effect if we would want other people to apply the golden rule in such ways, the answer would typically be no, since it is quite predictable that others' ignoring of such factors will lead to behavior which we object to. It follows that we should not do so ourselves—according to the golden rule. In this way, the golden rule may be self-correcting.[62] An article by Jouni Reinikainen develops this suggestion in greater detail.[63]

It is possible, then, that the golden rule can itself guide us in identifying which differences of situation are morally relevant. We would often want other people to ignore our race or nationality when deciding how to act towards us, but would also want them to not ignore our differing preferences in food, desire for aggressiveness, and so on. The platinum rule, and perhaps other variants, might also be self-correcting in this same manner.

Alternate "Golden Rule" cited in business and politics

An alternative, more realpolitik definition of the "Golden Rule" cited in business and politics, with a distinct twist on the expected religious/moral definition, is "He who has the gold, makes the rules."[64] Citation of the Rule under this meaning is often meant to make a naive, weaker party aware of the dynamics of an interaction in which one party has greater resources and therefore greater power than another.

Scientific research

There has been research published arguing that some 'sense' of fair play and the Golden Rule may be stated and rooted in terms of neuroscientific and neuroethical principles.[65]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Leviticus 19:18
  2. ^ a b c d e Antony Flew, ed (1979). "golden rule". A Dictionary of Philosophy. London: Pan Books in association with The MacMillan Press. p. 134. ISBN 0 330 28359 X. "The maxim 'Treat others how you wish to be treated'. Various expressions of this fundamental moral rule are to be found in tenets of most religions and creeds through the ages, testifying to its universal applicability[verification needed]" 
  3. ^ Walter Terence Stace argued that the Golden Rule is much more than simply an ethical code. Instead, he posits, it "express[es] the essence of a universal morality." The rationale for this crucial distinction occupies much of his book The Concept of Morals (1937): – Stace, Walter T. (1937, Reprinted 1975 by permission of MacMillan Publishing Co. Inc., Also reprinted January 1990 by Peter Smith Publisher Inc). The Concept of Morals. New York: The MacMillan Company; and also reprinted by Peter Smith Publisher Inc, January 1990. p. 136. ISBN 0-8446-2990-1. 
  4. ^ Defined another way, it "refers to the balance in an interactive system such that each party has both rights and duties, and the subordinate norm of complementarity states that one's rights are the other's obligation."Bornstein, Marc H. (2002). Handbook of Parenting. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-8058-3782-7.  See also: Paden, William E. (2003). Interpreting the Sacred: Ways of Viewing Religion. Beacon Press. pp. 131–132. ISBN 978-0-8070-7705-4. 
  5. ^ Stace, Walter T. (1937, Reprinted 1975 by permission of MacMillan Publishing Co. Inc.). The Concept of Morals. New York: The MacMillan Company. pp. chapters on Ethical Relativity (pp 1–68), and Unity of Morals (pp 92–107, specifically p 93, 98, 102). ISBN 0-8446-2990-1. 
  6. ^ Douglas Harper. "Entry for "golden"". Online Etymology Dictionary. Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=golden+rule&searchmode=none. Retrieved 10 July 2010. 
  7. ^ a b "The Culture of Ancient Egypt", John Albert Wilson, p. 121, University of Chicago Press, 1956, ISBN 0-226-90152-1
  8. ^ a b W.A. Spooner, "The Golden Rule," in James Hastings, ed. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. 6 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1914) pp. 310–12, quoted in Rushworth M. Kidder, How Good People Make Tough Choices: Resolving the Dilemmas of Ethical Living, Harper, New York, 2003. ISBN 0688175902. p. 159. Simon Blackburn also notes the connection between Confucious and the Golden Rule. Simon, Blackburn (2001). Ethics: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-19-280442-6. 
  9. ^ Simon, Blackburn (2001). Ethics: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-19-280442-6. 
  10. ^ http://www.quakeranne.com/peace.html, and Robert D. Ramsey, School Leadership From A to Z: Practical Lessons from Successful Schools and Businesses, Corwin Press, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, 2003. (ISBN 978-0761938330) p. 45.
  11. ^ Quote from Kenneth Bond: "...Code of Hammurabi (1780 BC). I used a translation by L.W. King with Commentary by Charles F. Horne (1915). My version was a 1996 electronically enhanced version of the 1910 Encyclopedia Britannica." (end quote).Kenneth Bond (1998). "Religious Beliefs as a Basis for Ethical Decision Making in the Workplace". Humboldt State University. http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20070703102021/http://www.humboldt.edu/~kmb2/paper.html. Retrieved 10 July 2010. 
  12. ^ "A Late Period Hieratic Wisdom Text: P. Brooklyn 47.218.135", Richard Jasnow, p. 95, University of Chicago Press, 1992, ISBN 978-0-918986-85-6
  13. ^ Pittacus, Fragm. 10.3
  14. ^ Diogenes Laërtius, "The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers", I,36
  15. ^ "The Sentences of Sextus". http://www.gnosis.org/naghamm/sent.html. 
  16. ^ The Sentences of Sextus Article
  17. ^ Isocrates, "Nicocles",6
  18. ^ Epictetus, "Encheiridion"
  19. ^ Tim O'Keefe, Epicurus on Freedom, Cambridge University Press, 2005, p.134
  20. ^ Epicurus Principal Doctrines tranls. by Robert Drew Hicks (1925)
  21. ^ W.H.D. Rouse, translator, "Great Dialogues of Plato", Signet Classics, 2008, p.150
  22. ^ a b Chinese Text Project. "[Pre-Qin and Han, Confucianism, The Analects, Wei Ling Gong, XV.24]". Chinese Text Project. Chinese Text Project. http://ctext.org/analects/wei-ling-gong#n1504. Retrieved 3 September 2010. 
  23. ^ a b The entry for "golden rule" in A Dictionary of Philosophy, in giving examples, states: "... Confucius, for instance, was asked whether the true way could be summed up in a single word...."Editorial consultant (for seventeen contributors): Antony Flew, ed (1979). A Dictionary of Philosophy. London: Pan Books in association with The MacMillan Press. p. 134 (entry for "golden rule"). ISBN 0 330 28359 X. 
  24. ^ Analects XV.24 (tr. David Hinton)
  25. ^ Tao Teh Ching, Chapter 49
  26. ^ T'ai Shang Kan Ying P'ien (Sacred Books of the East)
  27. ^ Towards a Global Ethic Urban Dharma - Buddhism in America (This link includes a list of 143 signatories and their respective religions.)
  28. ^ Parliament of the World's Religions
  29. ^ The Council for a Parliament of the World's Religions.
  30. ^ a b Towards a Global Ethic (An Initial Declaration) ReligiousTolerance.org. - Under the subtitle, "We Declare," see third paragraph. The first line reads, "We must treat others as we wish others to treat us."
  31. ^ Parliament of the World's Religions - Towards a Global Ethic
  32. ^ The Golden Rule Bahá'í Faith
  33. ^ Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh, p71
  34. ^ The Hidden Words of Bahá'u'lláh – Part II
  35. ^ Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, p30
  36. ^ Words of Wisdom See: The Golden Rule
  37. ^ Bahá'u'lláh, Gleanings, LXVI:8
  38. ^ Hidden Words of Bahá'u'lláh, p10
  39. ^ Selections from the Writings of `Abdu'l-Bahá, p. 73
  40. ^ Detachment and Compassion in Early Buddhism by Elizabeth J. Harris (enabling.org)
  41. ^ Vaux, Laurence (1583, Reprinted by The Chetham Society in 1885). A Catechisme / or / Christian Doctrine. Manchester, England: The Chetham Society. p. 48 (located in the text just before the title, "Of the Five Commandments of the Church." Scroll up slightly to see a section saying: "The sum of the ten Commandments does consist in the love towards god, and our neighbor (Ephe. 4., Matt. 7.). In the first Table be three Commandments: which take away and forbid sin and vice against the worshipping of God. They forbid idolatry, apostasy, heresy, superstition, perjury, blasphemy, and move us to the pure and true worshipping of God in heart, word and deed. In the Second table be seven Commandments, which command us to give reverence and honor to every man in his degree, to profit all, and hurt none: to do unto others, as we would be done to ourselves."). http://www.aloha.net/~mikesch/vaux.htm#48. 
  42. ^ John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on Luke 10
  43. ^ Moore: Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era; Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1927–1930; Vol.2, p.87, Vol.3, p.180.
  44. ^ Mahabharata Book 13
  45. ^ Bhagavad-Gita, Chapter XII.
  46. ^ a b Thinkhumanism.com
  47. ^ UBC.ca
  48. ^ Wattles (191), Rost (100)
  49. ^ a b c [English Title: Conversations of Muhammad]
    Wattles (192)
    Rost (100)
    Donaldson Dwight M. 1963. Studies in Muslim Ethics, p.82. London: S.P.C.K
  50. ^ http://www.hadith.net/english/sources/nahj/letters/31.htm
    another translation: "My dear son, so far as your behavior with other human beings is concerned, let your 'self' act as scales to judge its goodness or wickedness: Do unto others as you wish others to do unto you. Whatever you like for yourself, like for others, and whatever you dislike to happen to you, spare others from such happenings. Do not oppress and tyrannize anybody because you surely do not like to be oppressed and tyrannized. Be kind and sympathetic to others as you certainly desire others to treat you kindly and sympathetically. If you find objectionable and loathsome habits in others, abstain from developing those traits of character in yourself. If you are satisfied or feel happy in receiving a certain kind of behavior from others, you may behave with others in exactly the same way. Do not speak about them in the same way that you do not like others to speak about you... [A]void scandal, libel and aspersion as you do not like yourself to be scandalized and scorned in the same manner." (http://www.al-islam.org/nahjul/letters/letter31.htm)
  51. ^ Jacobi, Hermann (1884). Ācāranga Sūtra, Jain Sutras Part I, Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 22.. http://www.sacred-texts.com/jai/sbe22/index.htm.  Sutra 155-6
  52. ^ *Varni, Jinendra; Ed. Prof. Sagarmal Jain, Translated Justice T.K. Tukol and Dr. K.K. Dixit (1993). Samaṇ Suttaṁ. New Delhi: Bhagwan Mahavir memorial Samiti. 
  53. ^ Plaut: The Torah — A Modern Commentary; Union of American Hebrew Congregations, New York 1981; pp.892.
  54. ^ Gensler, Harry J. (1996). Formal Ethics. Routledge. p. 105. ISBN 0415130662. 
  55. ^ Kedoshim 19:18, Toras Kohanim, ibid. See also Talmud Yerushalmi, Nedarim 9:4; Bereishis Rabbah 24:7.
  56. ^ "Sol Singer Collection of Philatelic Judaica". Emory University. Archived from the original on 2008-04-07. http://web.archive.org/web/20080407164111/http://marbl.library.emory.edu/DigitalExhibits/stamps/015.html. 
  57. ^ The Busybody: The Platinum Rule
  58. ^ Only a Game: The Golden Rule
  59. ^ How would you feel, if a million Soviet troops stormed your Reich Capital?
  60. ^ Stace, Walter T. (1937, Reprinted 1975 by permission of MacMillan Publishing Co. Inc., Also reprinted January 1990 by Peter Smith Publisher Inc). The Concept of Morals. New York: The MacMillan Company; and also reprinted by Peter Smith Publisher Inc, January 1990. p. 136 (ch. 6). ISBN 0-8446-2990-1. 
  61. ^ M. G. Singer, The Ideal of a Rational Morality, p270
  62. ^ Wattles, p6
  63. ^ Jouni Reinikainen, "The Golden Rule and the Requirement of Universalizability." Journal of Value Inquiry. 39(2): 155–168, 2005.
  64. ^ Adrian Ash (March 17, 2010). "He Who Has the Gold Makes the Rules". marketoracle.co.uk. http://www.marketoracle.co.uk/Article17964.html. 
  65. ^ Pfaff, Donald W., "The Neuroscience of Fair Play: Why We (Usually) Follow the Golden Rule", Dana Press, The Dana Foundation, New York, 2007. ISBN 978-1-932594-27-0

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