- Prince Ernest Augustus, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
Ernest Augustus Crown Prince of Hanover
Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale Predecessor George V Successor Titles revoked Head of the House of Hanover Pretence 12 June 1878 – 14 November 1923 Predecessor George V Successor Ernest Augustus III Spouse Princess Thyra of Denmark Issue Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of Baden
Prince George William
Alexandra, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Ernest Augustus III, Duke of Brunswick
Full name Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederick
German: Ernst August Wilhelm Adolphus Georg Friedrich
House House of Hanover Father George V of Hanover Mother Marie of Saxe-Altenburg Born 21 September 1845
Died 14 November 1923(aged 78)
Ernst August, Crown Prince of Hanover, Heir of Brunswick, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, 3rd Earl of Armagh, (Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederick; 21 September 1845 – 14 November 1923), was the eldest child and only son of George V of Hanover and his wife, Marie of Saxe-Altenburg. Ernst August was deprived of the thrones of Hanover upon its annexation by Prussia in 1866 and later the Duchy of Brunswick in 1884. Although he was the senior male-line great-grandson of George III, the Duke of Cumberland was deprived of his British peerages and honours for having sided with Germany in World War I.
Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg, Prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, was born at Hanover during the reign of his paternal grandfather, Ernest Augustus I. He became the Crown Prince of Hanover upon his father's ascension as George V in November 1851. William I of Prussia and his minister-president Otto von Bismarck deposed George V for having sided with the defeated Austria in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War. During that war, the Crown Prince saw action at the Battle of Langensalza.
After the war, the exiled Hanoverian royal family took up residence in Hietzing, near Vienna, but spent a good deal of time in Paris. George V never abandoned his claim to the Hanoverian throne and maintained the Guelphic Legion at his own expense. The former Crown Prince travelled during this early period of exile. While visiting his second cousin Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) at Sandringham in 1875, he met Princess Thyra of Denmark (29 September 1853 – 26 February 1933), the youngest daughter of King Christian IX and a sister of the Princess of Wales (later Queen Alexandra).
When King George V died in Paris on 12 June 1878, Prince Ernst August succeeded him as Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale in the Peerage of Great Britain and Earl of Armagh in the Peerage of Ireland. Queen Victoria created him a Knight of the Garter on 1 August 1878.
Duchy of Brunswick
Queen Victoria appointed the Duke of Cumberland a major general in the British Army in 1886 and promoted him to lieutenant general in 1892 and general in 1898. Although he was a British peer and a prince of Great Britain and Ireland, he continued to consider himself an exiled monarch of a German realm, making his home in Gmunden, Upper Austria. He refused to disclaim his succession rights to Hanover. In 1884, the reigning Duke William of Brunswick, a distant cousin, died and the Duke of Cumberland was hereditary heir and first in line of succession to the Duchy. Bismarck, however, managed to exclude him from this inheritance, as he had also from his father's throne, declaring the throne vacant and putting the Duchy under Prussian administration.
The Duke of Cumberland was partially reconciled with the Hohenzollern dynasty in 1913, when his surviving son, Prince Ernst August, married the only daughter of German Emperor Wilhelm II, the grandson of the Prussian king who had deposed his father. He renounced his succession rights to the Brunswick duchy (which had belonged to the Guelph dynasty since 1235) on 24 October 1913. In exchange, the younger Ernst August became the reigning Duke of Brunswick on 1 November. William II created the elder Ernst August a Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle. In 1918 the younger Duke Ernst August abdicated his throne along with the other German princes when all the German dynasties were disestablished by the successor German provisional Government which was established when the Emperor himself abdicated and fled Germany in exile to the Netherlands.
The outbreak of World War I created a breach between the British Royal Family and its Hanoverian cousins. On 13 May 1915, King George V of Great Britain ordered the removal of the Duke of Cumberland from the Roll of the Order of the Garter. Under the terms of the Titles Deprivation Act 1917, on 28 March 1919 his name was removed from the roll of Peers of Great Britain and of Ireland by Order of the King in Council for "bearing arms against Great Britain."
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 21 September 1845–18 November 1851: His Royal Highness Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover and Cumberland
- 18 November 1851–12 June 1878: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Hanover
- 12 June 1878–28 March 1919: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
Until his father's death in 1878, Ernest Augustus' arms in right of the United Kingdom were those of his father (being the arms of the United Kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points, the centre point charged with a fleur-de-lys azure, and each of the other points charged with a cross gules; the whole further differenced by a label gules bearing a horse courant argent), the whole a third time differenced by a label gules bearing a horse courant argent. Upon his father's death, he inherited his arms.
The Duke and Duchess of Cumberland had six children.
Name Birth Death Notes Princess Marie Louise of Hanover and Cumberland 11 October 1879 31 January 1948 married Prince Maximilian of Baden (10 July 1867 – 6 November 1929); had issue Prince George William of Hanover and Cumberland 28 October 1880 20 May 1912 Princess Alexandra of Hanover and Cumberland 29 September 1882 30 August 1963 married Friedrich Franz IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (9 April 1882 – 17 November 1945) Princess Olga of Hanover and Cumberland 11 July 1884 21 September 1958 Prince Christian of Hanover and Cumberland 4 July 1885 3 September 1901 Prince Ernst August (III) of Hanover and Cumberland 17 November 1887 30 January 1953 married Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia (13 September 1892 – 11 December 1980)
Patrilineal descent, descent from father to son, is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations - which means that the historically accurate royal house of monarchs of the House of Hanover was the House of Lucca (or Este, or Welf).
Descent before Oberto I is from  and may be inaccurate.
This is the descent of the primary male heir. For the complete expanded family tree, see List of members of the House of Hanover.
- Richbald of Lucca, 700 - 761
- Boniface I, Count of Lucca, 725 - 785
- Boniface II, Count of Lucca, d. 823
- Boniface III, Count of Lucca, d. 842
- Adalbert I, Margrave of Tuscany, d. 891
- Adalbert II, Margrave of Tuscany, d. 915
- Gui de Lucca, d, 929
- Adalbert III, Margrave of Tuscany, d. 955
- Oberto I, 912 - 975
- Oberto Obizzo, 940 - 1017
- Albert Azzo I, Margrave of Milan, 970 - 1029
- Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan, d. 1097
- Welf I, Duke of Bavaria, 1037–1101
- Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, 1074–1126
- Henry X, Duke of Bavaria, 1108–1139
- Henry the Lion, 1129–1195
- William of Winchester, Lord of Lunenburg, 1184–1213
- Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1204–1252
- Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1236–1279
- Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1268–1318
- Magnus the Pious, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1304–1369
- Magnus II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1328–1373
- Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1362–1434
- Frederick II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1408–1478
- Otto IV, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1439–1471
- Heinrich, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1468–1532
- Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1497–1546
- William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1535–1592
- George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1582–1641
- Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover, 1629–1698
- George I of Great Britain, 1660–1727
- George II of Great Britain, 1683–1760
- Frederick, Prince of Wales, 1707–1751
- George III of the United Kingdom, 1738–1820
- Ernest Augustus I of Hanover, 1771–1851
- George V of Hanover, 1819–1878
- Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, 1845–1923
Prince Ernest Augustus, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and TeviotdaleCadet branch of the House of WelfBorn: 21 September 1845 Died: 14 November 1923
- Royal House of Hannover and Ducal House of Braunschweig-Lüneburg
- Royal House of Denmark and Royal House of Iceland
Peerage of Great Britain Preceded by
Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
12 June 1878 – 28 March 1919
Peerage of Ireland Preceded by
Earl of Armagh
12 June 1878 – 28 March 1919
Titles in pretence Loss of title
— TITULAR —
Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
28 March 1919 – 14 November 1923
Ernest Augustus III
— TITULAR —
King of Hanover
12 June 1878 – 14 November 1923
Reason for succession failure:
Hanover annexed by Prussia in 1866
British princesThe generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British Royal Family. 1st generation 2nd generation 3rd generation 4th generation
George IV · Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany · William IV · Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn · Ernest Augustus I of Hanover · Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex · Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge · Prince Octavius · Prince Alfred · Prince William, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
5th generation 6th generation
Edward VII · Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha · Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn · Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany · Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover
Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale · George V · Prince John of Wales · Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha · Prince Arthur of Connaught · Charles Edward, Duke of Albany and of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha · Prince George William of Hanover · Prince Christian of Hanover · Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick
Edward VIII · George VI · Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester · Prince George, Duke of Kent · Prince John · Alastair Windsor, 2nd Duke of Connaught and Strathearn · John Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha · Prince Hubertus of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha · Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover · Prince George William of Hanover
9th generation 10th generation 11th generation1 Not a British prince by birth, but created Prince Consort. 2 Not a British prince by birth, but created a Prince of the United Kingdom. Hanoverian princes 1st generation 2nd generation 3rd generation 4th generation
Prince George William* · Prince Christian* · Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick*
5th generation 6th generation 7th generation
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