- Christian Democratic Party (Panama)
The Christian Democratic Party (in Spanish: Partido Demócrata Cristiano, PDC), now People's Party (Partido Popular, PP) is a Panamanian Christian democratic centre-right political party, one of Latin America's most conservative and anti-communist Christian Democratic parties. The ideological foundation of the party is based on the social doctrine of the Catholic Church.
The Christian Democratic Party was created in 1960. The PDC emerged out of a movement at the National University of Panama inspired by European Christian Democracy and known from 1957 to 1960 as the National Civic Union (UCN). The PDC's leading figures were middle-class professionals, intellectuals and students, but support also came from the trade union.
The PDC traces its origins to the “First Week of Christian Studies”, which met at Cumbres in March 1957. Those participating in this session and the “Second Week of Christian Studies” in July 1959 included intellectuals, who in one field or another expressed their desire for Social Christian action. The group that organized these meetings was organized on 12 April 1956, and first called itself Social Democratic Action (Accion Social Democrata, ASD) and its leaders met in 1957 under the name Christian Democratic Movement (Movimiento Democrata Cristiano, MDC). The Partido Democrata Cristiano was finally launched at a congress early in 1964.
The trade union group known as the Federation of Christian Workers (Federation de Trabajadores Cristianos), established in 1961, was closely aligned with the PDC.
For the 1964 elections, the PDC presented its first presidential candidate, José Antonio Molino, who was supported by Panama's Teachers Union, he received 9,681 votes (02.98%), coming in fourth among seven nominees. This showing was considered a success for the new party and was enough to assure its registration as a legal party. In the succeeding years the Christian Democrats continued to be a small but well-organized element in Panamanian politics.
In 1968 general election the PDC candidate, Antonio González Revilla, received 11,371 votes (03.55%). In 1964 and 1968 the PDC won one parliamentary seat.
In 1968 the radical wing of the leadership was expelled en masse, as the increasingly right-wing party opted to support the government of Arnulfo Arias. It was backed by a tiny electorate consisting of urban professionals and a business group led by the Romero family. Arnulfo Arias chose a PDC as minister of education, but his government lasted only 11 days.
All political parties including the PDC were banned by Omar Torrijos after the military coup of 1968. During the period when party politics were effectively banned by the Omar Torrijos government (1968–1978), the Christian Democrats opposed the military regime and calls for a civilian-ruled democracy. In 1970s – 1980s, the majority of political observers noted that the PDC was the most organized and cementing force of the opposition. The PDC was one of the few parties within National Opposition Front (FRENO) (a coalition of eight opposition parties formed in March 1979) that offered a programmatic alternative to military government policy by calling for substantial social reforms and expanded participation in democratic processes. The PDC was advocate introducing nationalist social reforms to preclude revolutionary action. Its leader Ricardo Arias Calderón, was the main promoter of the formation of a united opposition against the Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD). The leaders of the Party are constantly coming out with accusations against the government, seeing in its actions "a furthering of communist penetration into Central America." The PDC re-registered on 28 August 1980.
The PDC won 20.6% of the vote and two seats in the 1980 legislative elections (to 19 of the 56 seats in the newly-formed National Legislative Council, the other 37 being filled by nominees of a non-party National Assembly of Community Representatives established in 1972).
In December 1981, Ricardo Arias Calderón was elected president of the Organization of Christian-Democratic Parties of America.
In 1984 the PDC was part of the Democratic Opposition Alliance (ADO) which supported the presidential candidacy of Arnulfo Arias of Authentic Panameñista Party (PPA). Ricardo Arias Calderón was a Second Vice-Presidential candidate. ADO lost the presidential and legislative elections following suspected widespread fraud by the military.
During 1987 the PDC became increasingly involved in confrontations with the government, openly campaigning through strikes (supported mainly by businesses rather than labor unions) and street demonstrations (which were often violently repressed) for the resignation or removal of General Manuel Noriega. Ricardo Arias Calderón referring to charges against Manuel Noriega of murder, drug trafficking, corruption and electoral fraud, described him as "virtually a dictator and gangster".
Ricardo Arias Calderón was viewed as a likely successor to Arnulfo Arias as principal spokesman for the opposition, eventually accepting nomination as ADOC First Vice-Presidential candidate in 1989. The PDC polled 261,598 votes (40.18%), coming in first among twelve nominees.
After the official ratification of the results following the US military invasion in December 1989, Ricardo Arias Calderón became First Vice-President and Interior and Justice Minister and the PDC the largest party in the Legislative Assembly with 28 of the 67 seats.
Possessing a plurality within the Legislative Assembly, the PDC was estranged from its coalition partners in September 1990, when the latter joined with the opposition Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD) to reject its nominees for chamber officials. Despite the rebuff, the party stayed within the ADOC until April 1991, when its ministerial delegation was ousted by President Guillermo Endara for displaying "disloyalty and arrogance". Its withdrawal from the ADOC coalition government caused a political crisis. This had followed months of in-fighting during which Ricardo Arias Calderón had publicly described Guillermo Endara's economic program, which advocated severe austerity measures and the privatization of state enterprises, as "senseless". In succeeding months, the PDC became the leader of the opposition, to such an extent that it was exerting strong influence within such organizations as the Civic Crusade, an organization from which Guillermo Endara had drawn his strongest support and which called for a plebiscite to decide on the desirability of Guillermo Endara remaining in office.
In September 1991, the PDC was judged firmly to have secured its political influence on parliamentary committees as a direct result of facilitating the victory of a dissident Authentic Liberal Party (PLA) candidate in the election of a new President of the Legislative Assembly.
In the run up to the 1994 election, Ricardo Arias Calderón resigned as First Vice-President of the Republic in December 1992. In a move that was seen as reflecting a desire to distance himself from President Guillermo Endara.
In 1994 Eduardo Vallarino, the candidate of PDC, unsuccessfully ran in the presidential elections, obtaining only 25,476 votes (02.39%) and the party managed to gain only one seat in the legislative elections.
For the 1999 elections, the PDC was the main component of the Opposition Action Alliance (AAO), with the PDC's Alberto Vallarino Clement as the coalition's presidential candidate. He polled 221,459 votes (17.38%) and came fourth (the PDC – 140,824 and 11.05%). The PDC won 5 legislative seats.
On 10 September 2001 the PDC changed its name to People's Party.
The PDC is a full member of the Christian Democrat International and Christian Democratic Organization of America.
- ^ Ameringer, p. 481
- ^ a b c d Political parties of the world. 3rd edn. Edited by Alan J. Day. Harlow: Longman. 1988. Pp 353.
- ^ a b c d The Dictionary of Contemporary Politics of Central America and the Caribbean. Gunson, Phil.New York, NY: Academic Reference Division, Simon & Schuster, 1991. Pp.81.
- ^ a b c Latin American Political Parties. By Robert J. Alexander. (New York: Praeger Publishers,. 1973. Pp. 366.
- ^ a b c Political parties of the Americas: Canada, Latin America, and the West Indies. V. 1. Edited by Robert J. Alexander. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982. Pp. 564.
- ^ a b c Nohlen, p. 532
- ^ a b c JPRS Reports. Foreign Broadcast Information Service. 1988.
- ^ Library of Congress, Federal Research Division. Panama: A Country Study. Ed. Sandra W. Meditz and Dennis M. Hanratty. Washington: GPO, 1989. Pp. 314.
- ^ a b Electoral Tribunal, Reseñas de Juntas Directivas por Partido
- ^ a b c d Banks, p. 637.
- ^ a b Nohlen, p. 533
- ^ a b c Political parties of the world. 6rd edn. Edited by Alan J. Day. Harlow: Longman. 2002. Pp 367.
- ^ Nohlen, p. 534
- ^ Electoral Tribunal
- Ameringer, Charles D. (1992). Political parties of the Americas, 1980s to 1990s: Canada, Latin America, and the West Indies. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0313274183.
- Banks, Arthur S. (1993). Political Handbook of the World 1993. CSA Publications. ISBN 978-0933199095.
- Nohlen, Dieter (2005). Elections in the Americas: a data handbook. North America, Central America and the Caribbean, Volym 1. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199283583.
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