List of participants in the creation–evolution controversy

List of participants in the creation–evolution controversy

This is a list of people and organisations involved in the creation-evolution controversy.


Scientific community

  • The United States National Academy of Sciences has made a number of statements opposing creationism. They state, "Creationism, intelligent design, and other claims of supernatural intervention in the origin of life or of species are not science because they are not testable by the methods of science."[1]
  • The American Association for the Advancement of Science (the world's largest general scientific society) contrasts the "scientific robustness of the contemporary theory of biological evolution"[2] with the proposed teaching of intelligent design that will "confuse students about the nature of science."[3]
  • The Royal Society is opposed to creationism being taught as science. The society is committed to the teaching of evolution as the best explanation for the history of life on earth.[4]
  • The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) supports the teaching of evolutionary biology in schools, and opposes the teaching of creationism. They hold that science classes should teach evolution; that teachers should be "nonjudgmental" of students' religious views; and that "creation science" and "intelligent design" should not be taught.[5]
  • The National Center for Science Education was founded in 1981 to oppose creationism and is led by Eugenie Scott. It has 4,000 members and operates a website. It also runs Project Steve, a list of 772+ certified Doctorate holding pro-evolution signatories named Steve (or Stephen or some variant thereof), as a parody of creationist attempts to collect signature lists of experts who doubt evolution.
  • The American Association of Physics Teachers states that "we do not endorse teaching the 'evidence against evolution,' because currently no such scientific evidence exists. Nor can we condone teaching "scientific creationism," "intelligent design," or other non-scientific viewpoints as valid scientific theories."[6]
  • The American Astronomical Society supports teaching evolution, noting that many astronomical observations show changes in the universe over a long period of time consistent with evolution. They state that "'Intelligent Design' fails to meet the basic definition of a scientific idea" and "does not belong in the science curriculum."[7]
  • The American Geophysical Union states that "Earth History and the Evolution of Life Must Be Taught: Creationism Is Not Science," thus the AGU "opposes all efforts to require or promote teaching creationism or any other religious tenets as science."[8] In addition, the American Geological Institute, the Association for Women Geoscientists, the Geological Society of America, the Paleontological Society, the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology and the Society for Organic Petrology all have position statements supporting the teaching of evolution and opposing the teaching of non-scientific ideas.
  • The Board of Directors of the American Chemical Society supports "evolution as the only scientifically accepted explanation for the origin and diversity of species." [9]
  • The American Physical Society's governing Council has long expressed its opposition to the inclusion of religious concepts such as intelligent design and related forms of creationism in science classes.[10] APS is the world's largest professional body of physicists, representing over 43,000 physicists in academia and industry in the US and internationally.
  • Kansas Citizens for Science is a group that is trying to fight the revision of science standards in Kansas.
  • CSICOP and The Skeptics Society are anti-pseudoscience organizations with creationism among their targets.
  • The Talk.Origins Archive is a large website of articles critiquing creationary ideas, plus a discussion forum; there is an extensive set of links to sites of interest on both sides of the debate - including True. Origins.
  • Talk Reason is a take-off of the archive that deals exclusively with debunking intelligent design.

Creationist community

Intelligent design

  • The Discovery Institute is a Seattle-based think tank which has been the primary driver behind intelligent design. Its members include Phillip E. Johnson - father of the intelligent design movement, Stephen C. Meyer, Michael Behe and William Dembski. Its goal as stated in its Wedge strategy document is to "defeat [scientific] materialism" represented by evolution, "reverse the stifling materialist world view and replace it with a science consonant with Christian and theistic convictions" ... "We are building on this momentum, broadening the wedge with a positive scientific alternative to materialistic scientific theories, which has come to be called the theory of intelligent design (ID). Design theory promises to reverse the stifling dominance of the materialist worldview, and to replace it with a science consonant with Christian and theistic convictions."[11] The institute's ultimate goal is to "renew" American culture by shaping public policy to reflect conservative Christian, namely evangelical Protestant, values.[12]

Old-Earth creationists

  • The American Scientific Affiliation is an organization of professional scientists who also have a commitment to the Christian faith and has been in existence since 1948. There has been long-standing dialog in this organization between members who believe that there is no conflict between evolutionary science and religious ideas and other members who believe that there is a conflict.
  • Reasons to Believe is a progressive creationist organisation founded in 1986 by Hugh Ross. It publishes a number of books and operates a website. Ross opposes biological evolution but accepts mainstream theories of geological and astronomical history.
  • Answers In Creation is an old-earth creationist website that supports both progressive creationists and theistic evolutionists. This is accomplished by examining young-earth creationist arguments and showing the flaws they contain.

Young-Earth creationists

  • The Creation Research Society, an organization that limits voting members to those with a postgraduate degree, supports the study of origins with regard to creation science.
  • The Institute for Creation Research is based in San Diego and was founded in 1970 by Henry Morris. It is now led by his son, John Morris. ICR publishes a number of books and newsletters, as well as producing radio spots and operating a website and a small museum.
  • Answers in Genesis (AiG) is a Christian apologetics organization devoted to the beliefs of Young Earth creationism, specifically a plain reading of the first chapters of the Book of Genesis. Ken Ham is a notable creationist from AiG.
  • The Center for Scientific Creation, founded by creationist Dr. Walter Brown, is dedicated to studying origins from two different perspectives. It studies the earth as it exists today and formulates theories about what past events could have occurred to generate what we see today. It also looks at the Genesis account of origins and history, and formulates theories and predictions (of which there are 38) that science has not yet discovered, but based on Dr. Brown's theories, will be discovered when technology and research is applied in those areas. Creationists claim that some of his predictions of scientific discovery have already been found to be true, including his prediction about comet composition, discovered by the Deep Impact Mission on 4 July 2005.[14]
  • The True.Origins Archive is a website that responds to claims made on the Talk.Origins Archive.
  • The Center for Origins Research, at Bryan College.
  • Probe Ministries is an evangelical Christian organization founded in 1973 by James F. Williams Jr. and Jon Buell, based in Richardson, Texas. It is a Christian worldview and apologetics ministry headed by Ray Bohlin, a fellow of the Discovery Institute.[15]
  • Christian Answers provides online access to "over 45-thousand files" of Christian apologetics (including creationist) materials in 42 languages. Team members behind Christian Answers include: AIIA Institute; Answers in Genesis; Associates for Biblical Research; Creation Research Society; Eden Communications/Films for Christ; Ray Comfort/Living Waters Summit Ministries. Christian Answers maintains a list of scientists that subscribe to creationism.[16]
  • The Creation Science Association of Mid America (CSAMA) is Young Earth creationist organization[17] based in St Louis, Missouri.[18] In 1999 the Kansas State Board of Education relied heavily on CSAMA material in constructing science standards that minimized the tuition of evolution.[19]
  • Ken Ham is the president of Answers in Genesis USA. A vocal advocate for a literal interpretation of the Book of Genesis, his cross-country speaking tours and many books make him one of the better known young-Earth creationists.
  • Henry Morris and John Whitcomb in the early 1960s co-authored The Genesis Flood, the book credited with reviving interest in creation as an alternative to evolution. Dr. Morris is considered the "father" of modern creationism.
  • Duane Gish is a creationist who has become well-known for debating evolutionists across America and in other countries. He is also Senior Vice President of ICR. His Creation Scientists Answer Their Critics was a creationist response to Strahler's book (see below) and many other anti-creationist books.
  • Robert V. Gentry concluded that a phenomenon,, "polonium haloes", was an indication of a young earth. Additionally, Gentry has devised his own creationist cosmology.

See also


  1. ^ Conclusion, Science and Creationism, National Academy of Sciences
  2. ^ Dialogue on Science, Ethics and Religion at the Wayback Machine (archived February 26, 2006)
  3. ^ AAAS Statement on Changes to Kansas Science Education Standards
  4. ^ Royal Society press release
  5. ^ NSTA Position Statement: The Teaching of Evolution
  6. ^ AAPT Statement on the Teaching of Evolution and Cosmology
  7. ^ AAS press release
  8. ^ Earth History and the Evolution of Life Must Be Taught: Creationism Is Not Science
  9. ^ Evolution Under Fire
  10. ^ APS statement on creationism
  11. ^ Wedge Strategy Discovery Institute, 1999.
  12. ^ "Five Year Objectives. Spiritual & cultural renewal: Mainline renewal movements begin to appropriate insights from design theory, and to repudiate theologies influenced by materialism; Major Christian denomination(s) defend(s) traditional doctrine of creation & repudiate(s); Darwinism Seminaries increasingly recognize & repudiate naturalistic presuppositions; Positive uptake in public opinion polls on issues such as sexuality, abortion and belief in God" Wedge Strategy Discovery Institute, 1999.
  13. ^ Hunter's biography, Discovery Institute
  14. ^ In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood - Comet Composition
  15. ^ "Ray Bohlin". Probe Ministries. 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  16. ^ Creationists holding DOCTORATES IN SCIENCE, Who's who in Creation/Evolution
  17. ^ Creationism's Trojan Horse, p222
  18. ^ Evolution Vs. Creationism, Eugenie Scott, Niles Eldredge, p103
  19. ^ The Christian Right in American Politics, John Clifford Green, Mark J. Rozell, Clyde Wilcox, p 157

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