Chinese socialism

Chinese socialism

Chinese socialism is the unique form of socialism and socialist thought developed in China in the modern era. The Tongmenghui revolutionary organization led by Dr. Sun Yatsen was the first to promote socialist ideology in China.



The Tongmenghui and its successor, the Kuomintang party were the first to develop socialist ideology in China.


One of the Three Principles of the People of the Kuomintang, Mínshēng, was defined as socialism by Dr. Sun Yatsen. He defined this principle by saying in his last days "it's socialism and it's communism.". The concept may be understood as social welfare as well. Sun understood it as an industrial economy and equality of land holdings for the Chinese peasant farmers. Here he was influenced by the American thinker Henry George (see Georgism) and German thinker Karl Marx; the land value tax in Taiwan is a legacy thereof. He divided livelihood into four areas: food, clothing, housing, and transportation; and planned out how an ideal (Chinese) government can take care of these for its people.

The Kuomintang was referred to having a socialist ideology. "Equalization of land rights" was a clause included by Dr. Sun in the original Tongmenhui. The Kuomintang's revolutionary ideology in the 1920's incorporated unique Chinese Socialism as part of its ideology.[1][2]

The Soviet Union trained Kuomintang revolutionaries in the Moscow Sun Yat-sen University. In the West and in the Soviet Union, Chiang was known as the "Red General".[3] Movie theaters in the Soviet Union showed newsreels and clips of Chiang, at Moscow Sun Yat-sen University Portraits of Chiang were hung on the walls, and in the Soviet May Day Parades that year, Chiang's portrait was to be carried along with the portraits of Karl Marx, Lenin, Stalin, and other socialist leaders.[4]

The Kuomintang attempted to levy taxes upon merchants in Canton, and the merchants resisted by raising an army, the Merchant's volunteer corps. Dr. Sun initiated this anti merchant policy, and Chiang Kai-shek enforced it, Chiang led his army of Whampoa Military Academy graduates to defeat the merchant's army. Chiang was assisted by Soviet advisors, who supplied him with weapons, while the merchants were supplied with weapons from the Western countries.[5][6]

The Kuomintang were accused of leading a "Red Revolution"in Canton. The merchants were conservative and reactionary, and their Volunteer Corp leader Chen Lianbao was a prominent comprador trader.[7]

The merchants were supported by the foreign, western Imperialists such as the British, who led an international flotilla to support them against Dr. Sun.[8] Chiang seized the western supplied weapons from the merchants, and battled against them. A Kuomintang General executed several merchants, and the Kuomintang formed a Soviet inspired Revolutionary Committee.[9] The British Communist party congratulated Dr. Sun for his war against foreign imperialists and capitalists.[10]

Even after Chiang turned on the Soviet Union and massacred the Communists, he still continued anti merchant activities, and promoting revolutionary thought, accusing the merchants of being reactionaries and counterrevolutionaries.

The United States consulate and other westerners in Shanghai was concerned about the approach of "Red General" Chiang, as his army was seizing control in the Northern Expedition.[11][12]

Chiang also crushed and dominated the merchants of Shanghai in 1927, seizing loans from them, with the threats of death or exile. Rich merchants, industrialists, and entrepreneurs were arrested by Chiang, who accused them of being "counterrevolutionary", and Chiang held them until they gave money to the Kuomintang. Chiang arrests targeted rich millionaiares, accusing them of Communism and Counterrevolutionary activities. Chiang also enforced an anti Japanese boycott, sending his agents to sack the shops of those who sold Japanese made items, fining them. Chiang also disregarded the Internationally protected International Settlement, putting cages on its borders, threatening to have the merchants placed in there. He terrorized the merchant community. The Kuomintang's alliance with the Green Gang allowed it to ignore the borders of the foreign concessions.[13]

In 1948, the Kuomintang again attacked the merchants of Shanghai, Chiang Kaishek sent his son Chiang Ching-kuo to restore economic order. Ching-kuo copied Soviet methods, which he learned during his stay there, to start a social revolution by attacking middle class merchants. He also enforced low prices on all goods to raise support from the Proletariat.[14]

As riots broke out and savings were ruined, bankrupting shopowners, Ching-kuo began to attack the wealthy, seizing assets and placing them under arrest. The son of the gangster Du Yuesheng was arrested by him. Ching-kuo ordered Kuomintang agents ro raid the Yangtze Development Corporation's warehouses, which was privately owned by H.H. Kung and his family. H.H. Kung's wife was Soong Ai-ling, the sister of Soong May-ling who was Ching-kuo's stepmother. H.H. Kung's son David was arrested, the Kung's responded by blackmailing the Chiang's, threatening to release information about them, eventually he was freed after negotiations, and Ching-kuo resigned, ending the terror on the Shanghainese merchants.[15]

The Kuomintang muslim Governor of Qinghai, General Ma Bufang was described as a socialist by American journalist John Roderick.[16]

An American scholar and government advisor, Doak Barnett, praised Ma Bufang's government as "one of the most efficient in China, and one of the most energetic. While most of China is bogged down, almost inevitably, by Civil War, Chinghai is attempting to carry our small-scale, but nevertheless ambitious, development and reconstruction schemes on its own initiative"

General Ma started a state run and controlled industralization project, directly creating educational, medical, agricultural, and sanitation projects, run or assisted by the state. The state provided money for food and uniforms in all schools, state run or private. Roads and a theater were constructed. The state controlled all the press, no freedom was allowed for independent journalists. His regime was dictatoral in its political system. Barnett admitted that the regime had "sterm authoritarianism" and "little room for personal freedom".[17]


The Kuomintang also promotes Government-owned corporations. The Kuomintang founder Sun Yat-sen, was heavily influenced by the economic ideas of Henry George, who believed that the rents extracted from natural monopolies or the usage of land belonged to the public. Dr. Sun argued for Georgism and emphasized the importance of a mixed economy, which he termed "The Principle of Minsheng" in his Three Principles of the People.

"The railroads, public utilities, canals, and forests should be nationalized, and all income from the land and mines should be in the hands of the State. With this money in hand, the State can therefore finance the social welfare programs."[18]

The Kuomintang Muslim Governor of Ningxia, Ma Hongkui promoted state owned monopoly companies. His government had a company, Fu Ning Company, which had a monopoly over commercial and industry in Ningxia.[19]

The Chinese muslim 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army) governed southern Xinjiang from 1934-1937. The General Ma Hushan was chief of the 36th Division. The Chinese muslims operated state owned carpet factories.[20]

Corporations such as CSBC Corporation, Taiwan, CPC Corporation, Taiwan and Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation are owned by the state in the Republic of China.

The Kuomintang government under Dr. Sun and Chiang denounced feudalism as counterrevolutionary. They proudly proclaimed themselves to be revolutionary.[21] Chiang called the warlords feudalists, and called for feudalism and counterrevolutionaries to be stamped out by the Kuomintang.[22][23][24][25] Chiang showed extreme rage when he was called a warlord, because of its negative, feudal connotations.[26]

A fascist paramilitary organization within the Kuomintang modeled after Mussolini's blackshirts, was anti foreign and anti communist, and stated that its agenda was to expel foreign (Japanese and Western) Imperialists from China, crush communism, and eliminate feudalism.[27] In addition to being anti Communist, some Kuomintang members, like Chiang Kaishek's right hand man Dai Li were anti American, and they wanted to expel American influence.[28]

Marxists also existed in the Kuomintang party. They viewed the Chinese revolution in different terms than the Communists, claiming that China already went past its feudal stage and in a stagnation period rather than in another mode of production. These marxists in the Kuomintang did not always agree the Chinese communist party ideology.[29]


Chiang Kai-shek

Contrary to false Communist propaganda that Chiang was pro capitalist, Chiang Kai-shek was the enemy and behaved in an antagonist manner to the capitalists of Shanghai, often attacking them and confisticating their capital and assets for the use of the government, even while he was fighting the communists.[30]

Chiang crushed pro communist worker and peasant organizations, and the rich Shanghai capitalists at the same time. Chiang continued Dr. Sun Yixian's anti capitalist ideology, Kuomintang media openly attacked the capitalists and capitalism, demanding government controlled industry instead.[31]

Chiang blocked the capitalists from gaining any political power or voice in his regime. Once Chiang Kai-shek was done with his original rampage and "reign of terror", on pro communist laborers, he proceeded to turn on the capitalists. Gangster connections allowed Chiang to attack them in the International Settlement, to force capitalists to back him up with their assets for his military expenditures.[32]


Revolutionary and socialist leader Vladimir Lenin praised Dr. Sun Yatsen and the Kuomintang for their ideology and principles. Lenin praised Dr. Sun, his attempts on social reformation and congragulated him for fighting foreign Imperialism.[33][34][35] Dr. Sun also returned the praise, calling him a "great man", and sent his congragulations on the revolution in Russia.[36]


The Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang, the Vietnamese Kuomintang, was based on the Chinese Kuomintang party and one part of its ideology was socialism.

Constitution of the Republic of China

The Three Principles of the People are officially the ideology of the Republic of China, as stated in the Constitution of the Republic of China. Mínshēng, defined as socialism, is one of these principles.

List of Chinese socialists

This list is of people who had contributed to the development of socialism in China, although some have not identified as socialist.

See also


  1. ^ Arif Dirlik (2005). The Marxism in the Chinese revolution. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 20. ISBN 0742530698. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  2. ^ Von KleinSmid Institute of International Affairs, University of Southern California. School of Politics and International Relations (1988). Studies in comparative communism, Volume 21. Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 134. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  3. ^ Hannah Pakula (2009). The last empress: Madame Chiang Kai-Shek and the birth of modern China. Simon and Schuster. p. 346. ISBN 1439148937. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  4. ^ Jay Taylor (2000). The Generalissimo's son: Chiang Ching-kuo and the revolutions in China and Taiwan. Harvard University Press. p. 42. ISBN 0674002873. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  5. ^ Jonathan Fenby (2005). Chiang Kai Shek: China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost. Carroll & Graf Publishers. p. 71. ISBN 0786714840. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  6. ^ Hannah Pakula (2009). The last empress: Madame Chiang Kai-Shek and the birth of modern China. Simon and Schuster. p. 128. ISBN 1439148937.,+and+others+cannot+compare+with+me&cd=1#v=snippet&q=merchants%20levy%20taxes&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  7. ^ Jonathan Fenby (2005). Chiang Kai Shek: China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost. Carroll & Graf Publishers. p. 71. ISBN 0786714840. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  8. ^ Hannah Pakula (2009). The last empress: Madame Chiang Kai-Shek and the birth of modern China. Simon and Schuster. p. 128. ISBN 1439148937.,+and+others+cannot+compare+with+me&cd=1#v=onepage&q=customs%20surplus%20merchants%20levy%20taxes&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  9. ^ Jonathan Fenby (2005). Chiang Kai Shek: China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost. Carroll & Graf Publishers. p. 72. ISBN 0786714840. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  10. ^ Jonathan Fenby (2005). Chiang Kai Shek: China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost. Carroll & Graf Publishers. p. 73. ISBN 0786714840. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  11. ^ Jay Taylor (2009). The generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the struggle for modern China, Volume 39. Harvard University Press. p. 602. ISBN 0674033388. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  12. ^ Robert Carver North (1963). Moscow and Chinese Communists. Stanford University Press. p. 94. ISBN 0804704538. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  13. ^ Hannah Pakula (2009). The last empress: Madame Chiang Kai-Shek and the birth of modern China. Simon and Schuster. p. 160. ISBN 1439148937. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  14. ^ Jonathan Fenby (2005). Chiang Kai Shek: China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost. Carroll & Graf Publishers. p. 485. ISBN 0786714840. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  15. ^ Jonathan Fenby (2005). Chiang Kai Shek: China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost. Carroll & Graf Publishers. p. 486. ISBN 0786714840. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  16. ^ John Roderick (1993). Covering China: the story of an American reporter from revolutionary days to the Deng era. Imprint Publications. p. 104. ISBN 1879176173. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  17. ^ Werner Draguhn, David S. G. Goodman (2002). China's communist revolutions: fifty years of the People's Republic of China. Psychology Press. p. 38. ISBN 0700716300. Retrieved 2011-04-09. 
  18. ^ Simei Qing "From Allies to Enemies", 19
  19. ^ A. Doak Barnett (1968). China on the eve of Communist takeover. Praeger. p. 190. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  20. ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 131. ISBN 0521255147. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  21. ^ Jieru Chen, Lloyd E. Eastman (1993). Chiang Kai-shek's secret past: the memoir of his second wife, Chʻen Chieh-ju. Westview Press. p. 19. ISBN 0813318254.,+the+Chinese+Revolution+is+yet+to+be+completed.+But+I,+a+revolutionary,+feel+down-hearted+and+am+unable+to+devote+my+full+energy+to+our+country.+I+only+want+you+to+promise+me+one+thing+and+then+I+shall+find+strength+again+to+work+hard+for+the+revolution.&hl=en&ei=fTqmTPHmH8L7lwe7lp0Z&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Dear%20Ah%20Feng%2C%20the%20Chinese%20Revolution%20is%20yet%20to%20be%20completed.%20But%20I%2C%20a%20revolutionary%2C%20feel%20down-hearted%20and%20am%20unable%20to%20devote%20my%20full%20energy%20to%20our%20country.%20I%20only%20want%20you%20to%20promise%20me%20one%20thing%20and%20then%20I%20shall%20find%20strength%20again%20to%20work%20hard%20for%20the%20revolution.&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  22. ^ Kai-shek Chiang (1947). Philip Jacob Jaffe. ed. China's destiny & Chinese economic theory. Roy Publishers. p. 225. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  23. ^ Simei Qing (2007). From allies to enemies: visions of modernity, identity, and U.S.-China diplomacy, 1945-1960. Harvard University Press. p. 65. ISBN 0674023447. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  24. ^ Kai Shew Chiang Kai Shew (2007). China's destiny & Chinese economic theory. READ BOOKS. p. 225. ISBN 1406758388. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  25. ^ Hongshan Li, Zhaohui Hong (1998). Image, perception, and the making of U.S.-China relations. University Press of America. p. 268. ISBN 0761811583. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  26. ^ Jieru Chen, Lloyd E. Eastman (1993). Chiang Kai-shek's secret past: the memoir of his second wife, Chʻen Chieh-ju. Westview Press. p. 226. ISBN 0813318254.,+like+a+baby,+he+broke+down+and+wept+bitterly.+All+that+afternoon+and+evening,+he+refused+to&hl=en&ei=lDqmTLbMNYa0lQfd0pUY&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=see%20his%20face%20was%20livid%20and%20his%20hands%20were%20shaking%20%E2%80%93%20he%20ran%20amok.%20He%20swept%20things%20off%20the%20table%20and%20broke%20the%20furniture%20by%20smashing%20chairs%20and%20overturning%20tables.%20Then%2C%20like%20a%20baby%2C%20he%20broke%20down%20and%20wept%20bitterly.%20All%20that%20afternoon%20and%20evening%2C%20he%20refused%20to&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  27. ^ Frederic E. Wakeman (2003). Spymaster: Dai Li and the Chinese secret service. University of California Press. p. 75. ISBN 0520234073. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  28. ^ Jonathan Fenby (2005). Chiang Kai Shek: China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost. Carroll & Graf Publishers. p. 414. ISBN 0786714840. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  29. ^ T. J. Byres, Harbans Mukhia (1985). Feudalism and non-European societies. Psychology Press. p. 207. ISBN 0714632457. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  30. ^ Frank J. Coppa (2006). Encyclopedia of modern dictators: from Napoleon to the present. Peter Lang. p. 58. ISBN 0820450103. Retrieved 2011-5-15. 
  31. ^ Parks M. Coble (1986). The Shanghai capitalists and the Nationalist government, 1927-1937. Volume 94 of Harvard East Asian monographs (2, reprint, illustrated ed.). Harvard Univ Asia Center. p. 263. ISBN 0674805364. Retrieved 2011-5-15. 
  32. ^ Parks M. Coble (1986). The Shanghai capitalists and the Nationalist government, 1927-1937. Volume 94 of Harvard East Asian monographs (2, reprint, illustrated ed.). Harvard Univ Asia Center. p. 264. ISBN 0674805364. Retrieved 2011-5-15. 
  33. ^ Robert Payne (2008). Mao Tse-Tung Ruler of Red China. READ BOOKS. p. 22. ISBN 1443725218. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  34. ^ Great Soviet Encyclopedia. p. 237.,+who+viewed+the+revolutionary+struggle+of+the+Chinese+people+with+great+sympathy,+had+a+high+regard+for+Sun+Yat-sen's+work+and+referred+to+him+as+%22a+revolutionary+democrat,+endowed+with+nobility+and+heroism%22&dq=Lenin,+who+viewed+the+revolutionary+struggle+of+the+Chinese+people+with+great+sympathy,+had+a+high+regard+for+Sun+Yat-sen's+work+and+referred+to+him+as+%22a+revolutionary+democrat,+endowed+with+nobility+and+heroism%22&hl=en&ei=rHmrTPGmNcP48Abx6rykCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAA. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  35. ^ Aleksandr Mikhaĭlovich Prokhorov (1982). Great Soviet encyclopedia, Volume 25. Macmillan.,+who+viewed+the+revolutionary+struggle+of+the+Chinese+people+with+great+sympathy,+had+a+high+regard+for+Sun+Yat-sen's+work+and+referred+to+him+as+%22a+revolutionary+democrat,+endowed+with+nobility+and+heroism%22&hl=en&ei=aH-rTLOrOcKC8gaFsZCvCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAQ. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
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