- Provinces of the People's Republic of China
Provincial level divisions
Simplified Chinese 省级行政区 Traditional Chinese 省級行政區 Transcriptions Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin Shěng Jí Xíngzhèngqū Alternative Chinese name Chinese 省 Transcriptions Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin Shěng
This article is part of the series:
Administrative divisions of the
People's Republic of China
A province, in the context of Chinese government, is a translation of sheng formally provincial level divisions, which is an administrative division. Provinces, municipalities, autonomous regions, and the special administrative regions, make up the four types of province of administrative division of People's Republic of China (PRC or commonly "China" for short). The PRC claims Taiwan (Republic of China) as a first-level province, though Taiwan is actually a self-governing democracy that has never recognised the claim. A "first-level province" is considered to be a province that was administered by the Republic of China between 1912 and 1949 that is not today administered by the PRC.
The People's Republic of China (PRC) currently administers total of 33 province divisions (22 provinces, 4 municipalities, 5 autonomous regions and 2 special administrative regions). The PRC also asserts herself as the sole legitimate representative of all of China, but does not administer, Taiwan as a 23rd province. The Republic of China (ROC) administers Taiwan, as well as some offshore islands including Kinmen and Matsu, which form Fujian Province, Republic of China and was part of an originally unified Fujian province, but since 1949 divided between PRC and ROC after the Chinese Civil War.
In the People's Republic of China, every province has a Communist Party of China provincial committee, headed by a secretary beside the two special administrative regions. The committee secretary is in charge of the province, rather than the governor of the provincial government.
Types of provinces
Province (省; shěng)— A standard provincial government is nominally led by a provincial committee, headed by a secretary. The committee secretary is first-in-charge of the province, come in second is the governor of the provincial government.
The People's Republic of China claims the island of Taiwan and its surrounding islets, including Penghu, as "Taiwan Province". (Kinmen and the Matsu Islands are claimed by the PRC as part of its Fujian Province. Pratas and Itu Aba are claimed by the PRC as part of Guangdong and Hainan provinces respectively.) The territory is controlled by the Republic of China (ROC, commonly called "Taiwan").
Special administrative region (SAR)
Special administrative region (SAR) (特别行政区; tèbiéxíngzhèngqū)— A highly autonomous and self-governing subnational subject of the People's Republic of China that is directly under the Central People's Government. Each SAR has a provincial level chief executive as head of the region and head of government. The region's government is not fully independent, as foreign policy and military defence are the responsibility of the central government, according to the basic laws.
Municipality (直辖市; zhíxiáshì)— A higher level of city which is directly under the Chinese government, with status equal to that of the provinces. In practise, their political status are higher than common provinces.
Autonomous region (自治区; zìzhìqū)— A minority subject which has a higher population of a particular minority ethnic group along with its own local government, but an autonomous region theoretically has more legislative rights than in actual practice. The governor of the Autonomous Regions is usually appointed from the respective minority ethnic group.
List of Provinces
GB Code ISO № Province Chinese Name Capital Population¹ Density² Area³ Abbreviation BJ 11 Beijing Municipality 北京市
Beijing 19,612,368 1,167.40 16,800 京
TJ 12 Tianjin Municipality 天津市
Tianjin 12,938,224 1,144.46 11,305 津
HE 13 Hebei Province 河北省
Shijiazhuang 71,854,202 382.81 187,700 冀
SX 14 Shanxi Province 山西省
Taiyuan 35,712,111 228.48 156,300 晋
NM 15 Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region 內蒙古自治区
Hohhot 24,706,321 20.88 1,183,000 蒙
LN 21 Liaoning Province 辽宁省
Shenyang 43,746,323 299.83 145,900 辽
JL 22 Jilin Province 吉林省
Changchun 27,462,297 146.54 187,400 吉
HL 23 Heilongjiang Province 黑龙江省
Harbin 38,312,224 84.38 454,000 黑
SH 31 Shanghai Municipality 上海市
Shanghai 23,019,148 3,630.20 6,341 沪
JS 32 Jiangsu Province 江苏省
Nanjing 78,659,903 766.66 102,600 苏
ZJ 33 Zhejiang Province 浙江省
Hangzhou 54,426,891 533.59 102,000 浙
AH 34 Anhui Province 安徽省
Hefei 59,500,510 425.91 139,700 皖
FJ 35 Fujian Province 福建省
Fuzhou 36,894,216 304.15 121,300 闽
JX 36 Jiangxi Province 江西省
Nanchang 44,567,475 266.87 167,000 赣
SD 37 Shandong Province 山东省
Jinan 95,793,065 622.84 153,800 鲁
HA 41 Henan Province 河南省
Zhengzhou 94,023,567 563.01 167,000 豫
HB 42 Hubei Province 湖北省
Wuhan 57,237,740 307.89 185,900 鄂
HN 43 Hunan Province 湖南省
Changsha 65,683,722 312.77 210,000 湘
GD 44 Guangdong Province 广东省
Guangzhou 104,303,132 579.46 180,000 粤
GX 45 Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 广西壮族自治区
Guǎngxī Zhuàngzú Zìzhìqū
Nanning 46,026,629 195.02 236,000 桂
HI 46 Hainan Province 海南省
Haikou 8,671,518 255.04 34,000 琼
CQ 50 Chongqing Municipality 重庆市
Chongqing 28,846,170 350.50 82,300 渝
SC 51 Sichuan Province 四川省
Chengdu 80,418,200 165.81 485,000 川
GZ 52 Guizhou Province 贵州省
Guiyang 34,746,468 197.42 176,000 黔
YN 53 Yunnan Province 云南省
Kunming 45,966,239 116.66 394,000 滇
XZ 54 Tibet Autonomous Region 西藏自治区
Lhasa 3,002,166 2.44 1,228,400 藏
SN 61 Shaanxi Province 陕西省
Xi'an 37,327,378 181.55 205,600 陕
GS 62 Gansu Province 甘肃省
Lanzhou 25,575,254 56.29 454,300 甘
QH 63 Qinghai Province 青海省
Xining 5,626,722 7.80 721,200 青
NX 64 Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region 宁夏回族自治区
Níngxià Huízú Zìzhìqū
Yinchuan 6,301,350 94.89 66,400 宁
XJ 65 Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region 新疆维吾尔自治区
Xīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr Zìzhìqū
Ürümqi 21,813,334 13.13 1,660,400 新
HK 91 Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 香港特别行政区
Xiānggǎng Tèbié Xíngzhèngqū
Hong Kong 7,061,200 6,396.01 1,104 港
MC 92 Macau Special Administrative Region 澳门特别行政区
Àomén Tèbié Xíngzhèngqū
Macau 552,300 19,044.82 29 澳
TW 71 Taiwan Province † 台湾省
Taibei 23,140,000 650.34 35,581 台
- ¹: as of 2010
- ²: per km²
- ³: km²
- †: Since its founding in 1949, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has considered Taiwan to be its 23rd province. However, the PRC has never controlled Taiwan. The Republic of China (ROC, "Taiwan") currently administers Taiwan which it governs as part of Taiwan Area, consisting of Taiwan island, Penghu, as well as Kinmen and Matsu locate off the coast of mainland Fujian Province, Republic of China.
The rulers of China first set up provinces - initially 10 in number - during the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). By the time of the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644 there were 18 provinces, all of them in China proper. These were:
Each province had a xunfu (巡撫; translated as "governor"), a political overseer on behalf of the emperor, and a tidu (提督; translated as "Captain General"), a military governor. In addition, there was a zongdu (總督), a general military inspector or governor general, for every two to three provinces.
Outer regions of China (those beyond China proper) were not divided into provinces. Military leaders or generals (將軍) oversaw Manchuria (consisting of Fengtian (now Liaoning), Jilin, Heilongjiang), Xinjiang, and Mongolia, while vice-dutong (副都統) and civilian leaders headed the leagues (盟長), a subdivision of Mongolia. The ambans (驻藏大臣) supervised the administration of Tibet.
In 1884 Xinjiang became a province; in 1907 Fengtian, Jilin, and Heilongjiang were made provinces as well. Taiwan became a province in 1885, but China ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895. As a result, there were 22 provinces in China (Outer China and China proper) near the end of the Qing Dynasty.
The Republic of China, established in 1912, set up 4 more provinces in Inner Mongolia and 2 provinces in historic Tibet, bringing the total to 28. But China lost four provinces with the establishment of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo in Manchuria. After the defeat of Japan in World War II in 1945, China re-incorporated Manchuria as 10 provinces, and assumed control of Taiwan as a province. As a result, the Republic of China in 1946 had 35 provinces. Although the Republic of China now only controls one province, (Taiwan), and some islands of a second province (Fujian), it continues to formally claim all 35 provinces.
List of former Provinces
The People's Republic of China abolished many of the provinces in the 1950s and converted a number of them into autonomous regions. Hainan became a separate province in 1988, bringing the total number of provinces under PRC control to 22.
- ^ Administrative divisions of China
- ^ Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China (中华人民共和国行政区划; Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Xíngzhèng Qūhuà), 15 June, http://www.gov.cn/test/2005-06/15/content_18253.htm, retrieved 5 June 2010
- ^ Chapter II : Relationship between the Central Authorities and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Article 12, http://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/en/basiclawtext/chapter_2.html, retrieved 5 June 2010
- ^ Chapter II Relationship between the Central Authorities and the Macao Special Administrative Region, Article 12, http://bo.io.gov.mo/bo/i/1999/leibasica/index_uk.asp#c2, retrieved 5 June 2010
- ^ GB/T 2260 codes for the provinces of China
- ^ ISO 3166-2:CN (ISO 3166-2 codes for the provinces of China)
- Chinese federalism
- List of China administrative divisions by population
- Regional discrimination in China
- Taiwan Province
- Zhou (country subdivision)
- Yangtze River Delta
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