Provinces of the People's Republic of China


Provinces of the People's Republic of China
formally
Provincial level divisions
Simplified Chinese 省级行政区
Traditional Chinese 省級行政區
Alternative Chinese name
Chinese

This article is part of the series:
Administrative divisions of the
People's Republic of China


History of the political divisions of China
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A province, in the context of Chinese government, is a translation of sheng formally provincial level divisions, which is an administrative division. Provinces, municipalities, autonomous regions, and the special administrative regions, make up the four types of province of administrative division of People's Republic of China (PRC or commonly "China" for short).[1] The PRC claims Taiwan (Republic of China) as a first-level province, though Taiwan is actually a self-governing democracy that has never recognised the claim. A "first-level province" is considered to be a province that was administered by the Republic of China between 1912 and 1949 that is not today administered by the PRC.

The People's Republic of China (PRC) currently administers total of 33 province divisions (22 provinces, 4 municipalities, 5 autonomous regions and 2 special administrative regions). The PRC also asserts herself as the sole legitimate representative of all of China, but does not administer, Taiwan as a 23rd province. The Republic of China (ROC) administers Taiwan, as well as some offshore islands including Kinmen and Matsu, which form Fujian Province, Republic of China and was part of an originally unified Fujian province, but since 1949 divided between PRC and ROC after the Chinese Civil War.

In the People's Republic of China, every province has a Communist Party of China provincial committee, headed by a secretary beside the two special administrative regions. The committee secretary is in charge of the province, rather than the governor of the provincial government.

Contents

Types of provinces

Province

Province (; shěng)— A standard provincial government is nominally led by a provincial committee, headed by a secretary. The committee secretary is first-in-charge of the province, come in second is the governor of the provincial government.

The People's Republic of China claims the island of Taiwan and its surrounding islets, including Penghu, as "Taiwan Province". (Kinmen and the Matsu Islands are claimed by the PRC as part of its Fujian Province. Pratas and Itu Aba are claimed by the PRC as part of Guangdong and Hainan provinces respectively.) The territory is controlled by the Republic of China (ROC, commonly called "Taiwan").

Special administrative region (SAR)

Special administrative region (SAR) (特别行政区; tèbiéxíngzhèngqū)— A highly autonomous and self-governing subnational subject of the People's Republic of China that is directly under the Central People's Government. Each SAR has a provincial level[2][3][4] chief executive as head of the region and head of government. The region's government is not fully independent, as foreign policy and military defence are the responsibility of the central government, according to the basic laws.

Municipality

Municipality (直辖市; zhíxiáshì)— A higher level of city which is directly under the Chinese government, with status equal to that of the provinces. In practise, their political status are higher than common provinces.

Autonomous region

Autonomous region (自治区; zìzhìqū)— A minority subject which has a higher population of a particular minority ethnic group along with its own local government, but an autonomous region theoretically has more legislative rights than in actual practice. The governor of the Autonomous Regions is usually appointed from the respective minority ethnic group.

List of Provinces

GB Code[5] ISO №[6] Province Chinese Name Capital Population¹ Density² Area³ Abbreviation
BJ 11 Beijing Municipality 北京市
Běijīng Shì
Beijing 19,612,368 1,167.40 16,800
Jīng
TJ 12 Tianjin Municipality 天津市
Tiānjīn Shì
Tianjin 12,938,224 1,144.46 11,305
Jīn
HE 13 Hebei Province 河北省
Héběi Shěng
Shijiazhuang 71,854,202 382.81 187,700
SX 14 Shanxi Province 山西省
Shānxī Shěng
Taiyuan 35,712,111 228.48 156,300
Jìn
NM 15 Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region 內蒙古自治区
Nèiměnggǔ Zìzhìqū
Hohhot 24,706,321 20.88 1,183,000
Měng
LN 21 Liaoning Province 辽宁省
Liáoníng Shěng
Shenyang 43,746,323 299.83 145,900
Liáo
JL 22 Jilin Province 吉林省
Jílín Shěng
Changchun 27,462,297 146.54 187,400
HL 23 Heilongjiang Province 黑龙江省
Hēilóngjiāng
Harbin 38,312,224 84.38 454,000
Hēi
SH 31 Shanghai Municipality 上海市
Shànghǎi Shì
Shanghai 23,019,148 3,630.20 6,341
JS 32 Jiangsu Province 江苏省
Jiāngsū Shěng
Nanjing 78,659,903 766.66 102,600
ZJ 33 Zhejiang Province 浙江省
Zhèjiāng Shěng
Hangzhou 54,426,891 533.59 102,000
Zhè
AH 34 Anhui Province 安徽省
Ānhuī Shěng
Hefei 59,500,510 425.91 139,700
Wǎn
FJ 35 Fujian Province 福建省
Fújiàn Shěng
Fuzhou 36,894,216 304.15 121,300
Mǐn
JX 36 Jiangxi Province 江西省
Jiāngxī Shěng
Nanchang 44,567,475 266.87 167,000
Gàn
SD 37 Shandong Province 山东省
Shāndōng Shěng
Jinan 95,793,065 622.84 153,800
HA 41 Henan Province 河南省
Hénán Shěng
Zhengzhou 94,023,567 563.01 167,000
HB 42 Hubei Province 湖北省
Húběi Shěng
Wuhan 57,237,740 307.89 185,900
È
HN 43 Hunan Province 湖南省
Húnán Shěng
Changsha 65,683,722 312.77 210,000
Xiāng
GD 44 Guangdong Province 广东省
Guǎngdōng Shěng
Guangzhou 104,303,132 579.46 180,000
Yuè
GX 45 Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 广西壮族自治区
Guǎngxī Zhuàngzú Zìzhìqū
Nanning 46,026,629 195.02 236,000
Guì
HI 46 Hainan Province 海南省
Hǎinán Shěng
Haikou 8,671,518 255.04 34,000
Qióng
CQ 50 Chongqing Municipality 重庆市
Chóngqìng Shì
Chongqing 28,846,170 350.50 82,300
SC 51 Sichuan Province 四川省
Sìchuān Shěng
Chengdu 80,418,200 165.81 485,000
Chuān
GZ 52 Guizhou Province 贵州省
Gùizhōu Shěng
Guiyang 34,746,468 197.42 176,000
Qián
YN 53 Yunnan Province 云南省
Yúnnán Shěng
Kunming 45,966,239 116.66 394,000
Diān
XZ 54 Tibet Autonomous Region 西藏自治区
Xīzàng Zìzhìqū
Lhasa 3,002,166 2.44 1,228,400
Zàng
SN 61 Shaanxi Province 陕西省
Shǎnxī Shěng
Xi'an 37,327,378 181.55 205,600
Shǎn
GS 62 Gansu Province 甘肃省
Gānsù Shěng
Lanzhou 25,575,254 56.29 454,300
Gān
QH 63 Qinghai Province 青海省
Qīnghǎi Shěng
Xining 5,626,722 7.80 721,200
Qīng
NX 64 Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region 宁夏回族自治区
Níngxià Huízú Zìzhìqū
Yinchuan 6,301,350 94.89 66,400
Níng
XJ 65 Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region 新疆维吾尔自治区
Xīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr Zìzhìqū
Ürümqi 21,813,334 13.13 1,660,400
Xīn
HK 91 Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 香港特别行政区
Xiānggǎng Tèbié Xíngzhèngqū
Hong Kong 7,061,200 6,396.01 1,104
Gǎng
MC 92 Macau Special Administrative Region 澳门特别行政区
Àomén Tèbié Xíngzhèngqū
Macau 552,300 19,044.82 29
Ào
TW 71 Taiwan Province 台湾省
Táiwān Shěng
Taibei 23,140,000 650.34 35,581
Tái

Notes:

¹: as of 2010
²: per km²
³: km²
†: Since its founding in 1949, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has considered Taiwan to be its 23rd province. However, the PRC has never controlled Taiwan. The Republic of China (ROC, "Taiwan") currently administers Taiwan which it governs as part of Taiwan Area, consisting of Taiwan island, Penghu, as well as Kinmen and Matsu locate off the coast of mainland Fujian Province, Republic of China.

Map

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Tibet (Xizang) Autonomous Region Qinghai Province Gansu Province Sichuan Province Yunnan Province Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongol) Autonomous Region Shaanxi Province Municipality of Chongqing Guizhou Province Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Shanxi Province Henan Province Hubei Province Hunan Province Guangdong Province Hainan Province Hebei Province Heilongjiang Province Jilin Province Liaoning Province Municipality of Beijing Municipality of Tianjin Shangdong Province Jiangsu Province Anhui Province Municipality of Shanghai Zhejiang Province Jiangxi Province Fujian Province Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Macau Special Administrative Region Taiwan ProvinceChina administrative.svg
About this image


History

Administrative divisions of the Republic of China. Note: this map depicts the theoretical administrative divisions of the Republic of China, which are not synchronized with the actual administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China. The ROC controls Taiwan and nearby islands while the PRC controls Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau.

The rulers of China first set up provinces - initially 10 in number - during the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). By the time of the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644 there were 18 provinces, all of them in China proper. These were:

Each province had a xunfu (巡撫; translated as "governor"), a political overseer on behalf of the emperor, and a tidu (提督; translated as "Captain General"), a military governor. In addition, there was a zongdu (總督), a general military inspector or governor general, for every two to three provinces.

Outer regions of China (those beyond China proper) were not divided into provinces. Military leaders or generals (將軍) oversaw Manchuria (consisting of Fengtian (now Liaoning), Jilin, Heilongjiang), Xinjiang, and Mongolia, while vice-dutong (副都統) and civilian leaders headed the leagues (盟長), a subdivision of Mongolia. The ambans (驻藏大臣) supervised the administration of Tibet.

In 1884 Xinjiang became a province; in 1907 Fengtian, Jilin, and Heilongjiang were made provinces as well. Taiwan became a province in 1885, but China ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895. As a result, there were 22 provinces in China (Outer China and China proper) near the end of the Qing Dynasty.

The Republic of China, established in 1912, set up 4 more provinces in Inner Mongolia and 2 provinces in historic Tibet, bringing the total to 28. But China lost four provinces with the establishment of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo in Manchuria. After the defeat of Japan in World War II in 1945, China re-incorporated Manchuria as 10 provinces, and assumed control of Taiwan as a province. As a result, the Republic of China in 1946 had 35 provinces. Although the Republic of China now only controls one province, (Taiwan), and some islands of a second province (Fujian), it continues to formally claim all 35 provinces.

List of former Provinces


The People's Republic of China abolished many of the provinces in the 1950s and converted a number of them into autonomous regions. Hainan became a separate province in 1988, bringing the total number of provinces under PRC control to 22.

Economy

The provinces in south coastal area of China - such as Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Fujian and, (mainly) Guangdong - tend to be more industrialized, while regions in the hinterland are less developed.

References

See also

External links


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