- Legion of Honour
National Order of the Legion of Honour
Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur
Officier medal of the French Légion d'honneur
Awarded by France Type Order with five degrees Awarded for Excellent civil or military conduct delivered, upon official investigation Status Open since 1802 Statistics Established 19 May 1802 First awarded 14 July 1804 Distinct
Grand Officer: 314
Grand Cross: 67
Grand Master: 1
Precedence Next (higher) None Next (lower) Ordre de la Libération
Ordre de la Légion d'honneur streamer
The Legion of Honour, or in full the National Order of the Legion of Honour (French: Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur) is a French order established by Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul of the Consulat which succeeded to the First Republic, on 19 May 1802. The Order is the highest decoration in France and is divided into five various degrees: Chevalier (Knight), Officier (Officer), Commandeur (Commander), Grand Officier (Grand Officer) and Grand Croix (Grand Cross).
- 1 History
- 2 Current organisation and officers
- 3 Classes and insignia
- 4 Gallery
- 5 Foreign recipients
- 6 Military Units
- 7 Locations associated with the Order
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
In the French Revolution all French orders of chivalry were abolished. It was the wish of Napoleon Bonaparte, the First Consul and de facto sole ruler, to create a reward to commend civilians and soldiers and from this wish was instituted a Légion d'Honneur, a body of men that was not an order of chivalry, for Napoleon did know that France did not want a new nobility system, but a recognition of merit. The Légion used however the organization of old French Orders of Chivalry, like the Ordre de Saint-Louis. The badges of the legion do bear a resemblance to the Ordre de Saint Louis, which also used a red ribbon.
The Légion was loosely patterned after a Roman Legion, with legionaries, officers, commanders, regional "cohorts" and a grand council; and the Emperor angrily rebuked anyone who called this institution an order. The highest rank was not a grand cross but a grand aigle (great eagle), a rank that wore all the insignia common to grand crosses. The members were paid, the highest of them extremely generously:
- 5,000 francs to a grand officier,
- 2,000 francs to a commandeur,
- 1,000 francs to an officier,
- And 250 francs to a légionnaire.
According to some sources Napoleon declared: On appelle ça des hochets, je sais, on l'a dit déjà. Et bien, j'ai répondu que c'est avec des hochets que l'on mène les hommes.[verification needed] — "We call these children's toys, I know, it's been said already. Well, I replied that it's with such toys that one leads men." (The French word hochet means a child's rattle.) This has been often quoted as "It is with such baubles that men are led."
The order was the first modern order of merit. The orders of the monarchy were often limited to Roman Catholics and all knights had to be noblemen. The military decorations were the perks of the officers. The Légion, however, was open to men of all ranks and professions. Only merit or bravery counted. The new legionnaire had to be sworn in the Légion.
It is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion is a secular institution. The jewel of the Légion has five arms.
In a decree issued on the tenth Pluviose XIII (30 January 1805), a grand decoration was instituted. This decoration, a cross on a large sash and a silver star with an eagle, became known as the Grand Aigle, and later in 1814 as the grand cordon (French for "large sash"). After the reestablishment of the nobility in 1808, award of the Légion gave right to the title of "Knight of the Empire" (chevalier de l'empire). The title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees.
Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the legion among his family and his senior ministers. This collar was abolished in 1815.
Although research is made difficult by the loss of the archives, it is known that three women who fought with the army were decorated with the order: Virginie Ghesquière, Marie-Jeanne Schelling and a nun, Sister Anne Biget.
The Légion d'honneur was prominent and visible in the empire. The Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the time. The king of Sweden therefore refused the order; it was too common in his eyes. Napoleon's own decorations were captured by the Prussians and were displayed in the Zeughaus (armory) in Berlin until 1945. Today, they are in Moscow.
Restoration of the Bourbon Kings in 1814
Louis XVIII changed the appearance of the order, but it was not abolished. To have done so would have angered the 35,000 to 38,000 members. The images of Napoleon and his eagle were removed and replaced by the image of King Henry IV, the popular first king of the Bourbon line. Three Bourbon Lilies (fleur-de-lys) replaced the eagle on the reverse of the order. A king's crown replaced the imperial crown. In 1816 the grand cordons were renamed grand crosses and the legionnaires became knights. The king decreed that the commandants were now commanders. The Légion became the second order of knighthood of the French monarchy, after the Order of the Holy Spirit.
France's first constitutional monarch, King Louis-Philippe of the House of Orleans, restored the order of the Légion d'honneur in 1830 as the paramount decoration of the French nation. The insignia were drastically altered. The cross now displayed tricolour flags. Louis-Philippe abolished the other orders of the monarchy. In 1847, there were 47,000 members.
Yet another revolt in Paris (1848) brought a new republic and a new design to the Légion d'honneur. A nephew of the founder, Prince Napoleon was elected president and he restored the image of his uncle on the crosses of the order. In 1852 the first recorded woman, Angélique Duchemin, an old revolutionary of the 1789 uprising against the absolute monarchy, was admitted into the order. President Napoleon staged a coup d'état and made himself emperor of the French in 1852.
An Imperial crown was added. During Napoleon III's reign the first American was admitted: Dr. Thomas Wiltberger Evans, dentist of Napoleon III.
In 1870 the defeat of the army in the Franco-Prussian war brought another Republic. As France changed, the Légion d'honneur changed as well. The crown was replaced by a laurel and oak wreath. In 1871, during the Paris Commune, the Hôtel de Salm, headquarters of the Légion, was burned to the ground in street fighting; the archives of the order were lost.
In the second term of Jules Grévy, newspaper journalists brought to light the trafficking of Grévy's son-in-law, Daniel Wilson, in the awarding of decorations of the Légion d'Honneur. Grévy was not accused of personal participation in these scandals, but he was slow to accept his indirect responsibility, which caused his eventual resignation on 2 December 1887.
During the First World War, some 55,000 decorations were conferred, 20,000 of which to foreigners. The large number of decorations results from the new posthumous awards authorised in 1918. Traditionally membership in the Légion could not be awarded posthumously.
Current organisation and officers
The President of the French Republic is the Grand Master of the Order and appoints all other members of the Order—by convention, on the advice of the Government. Its principal officers are the Chancellor and Secretary-General.
Current officers of the Order include:
- Grand Master: Nicolas Sarkozy
- Grand Chancellor: General Jean-Louis Georgelin since the 9th of June 2010
- Secretary-General: Luc Fons since 2007
The Grand Master's insignia is the Grand Collar of the Legion. Only the President of the Republic, as Grand Master of the Order, wears a Grand Collar.
French nationals, men and women, can be received into the légion, for "eminent merit" (mérites éminents) in military or civil life. In practice, in current usage, the order is conferred, in addition to military recipients, to many entrepreneurs, high-level civil servants, sport champions in as well as other people with high connections in the executive. The members of the French Parliament cannot receive the order, except for valour in war, and ministers are not allowed to nominate their accountants.
French nationals initially always enter the légion at the class of chevalier (knight). To be promoted to a higher class, one must prove new services to France and a set number of years must pass between appointment and promotion. The only exception is the President of the Republic, who is made a grand cross ipso facto upon his accession to the presidency. Foreigners are not admitted in the légion as such, but may be decorated with the insignia of the légion. A foreigner can be decorated directly with the insignia of a higher class. Foreign heads of state and the wives or consorts of monarchs are made Grand Cross as a courtesy.
Another man awarded with the Légion d'honneur was Gustave Camoin - a reporter for Agence France Presse. His award was for reporting the scuttling of the French Fleet off Toulon against the wishes of the Gestapo and Germans. For this, he suffered an all night interrogation by the Gestapo, but they could not harm him as he was a public figure.
The Order has a maximum quota of 75 Grand Cross, 250 Grand Officers, 1,250 Commanders, 10,000 Officers and 113,425 (ordinary) Knights. As of 2010 the actual membership was 67 Grand Cross, 314 Grand Officers, 3,009 Commanders, 17,032 Officers and 74,384 Knights.
Appointments of veterans of the Second World War, French military personnel involved in the North African Campaign and other foreign French military operations, as well as wounded soldiers, are made independently of the quota.
In 1998, all surviving veterans of the First World War from any allied country who had fought on French soil were made Knights of the Légion if they were not so already, as part of the commemoration of the 80th anniversary of the war's end. In December 2004, on the occasion of his 110th birthday, France's oldest surviving veteran of the war, Maurice Floquet, was promoted to Officer. On 9 and 16 March 2009, Harry Patch and Henry Allingham were also promoted to Officer.
Members convicted of a felony (crime in French) are dismissed de jure from the order. Members convicted of a misdemeanour (délit in French) can be dismissed too.
Wearing the decoration of the Légion d'honneur without having the right to do so is an offence. Wearing the ribbon or rosette of a foreign order of knighthood is prohibited if that ribbon is mainly red, like the ribbon of the Légion.
French military members in uniform must salute other military members in uniform wearing the medal, whatever the Légion d'honneur rank and the military rank of the bearer. This is not mandatory with the ribbon. However, in practice, this is rarely done.
Collective appointments can also be made to cities, institutions, companies, or military units. In the case of a military unit, its flag is decorated with the insignia of a knight, which is a different award than the fourragère. Cities proudly display the decoration in their coat of arms.
Twenty-one schools, mainly higher educations schools providing the bulk of reserve officers during World Wars, were awarded the Légion d'honneur. They share this distinction with the Red Cross, the abbey of Our Lady of Dombes and the state-railway company SNCF.
Classes and insignia
The order has had five levels since the reign of the king Louis XVIII, who restored the order in 1815. Since the reform, the following distinctions have existed :
- Three ranks :
- Chevalier (knight): badge worn on left breast suspended from ribbon.
- Officier (Officer): badge worn on left breast suspended from a ribbon with a rosette.
- Commandeur (Commander): badge around neck suspended from ribbon necklet.
- Two dignities :
- Grand Officier (Grand Officer): badge worn on left breast suspended from a ribbon, with star displayed on right breast.
- Grand Croix (Grand Cross) formerly grande décoration, grand aigle or grand cordon: the highest level; badge affixed to sash worn over the right shoulder, with star displayed on left breast.
The sitting President of the Republic, as grand master of the order, wears the Grand Collar of the Légion, which is presented to him upon his investiture.
The badge of the Légion is a five-armed "Maltese Asterisk" (for want of a better description — see Maltese Cross) in gilt (in silver for chevalier) enamelled white, with an enamelled laurel and oak wreath between the arms. The obverse central disc is in gilt, featuring the head of Marianne, surrounded by the legend République Française on a blue enamel ring. The reverse central disc is also in gilt, with a set of crossed tricolores, surrounded by the Légion's motto Honneur et Patrie (Honour and Fatherland) and its foundation date on a blue enamel ring. The badge is suspended by an enamelled laurel and oak wreath.
The star (or "plaque") is worn by the Grand Cross (in gilt on the left chest) and the Grand Officer (in silver on the right chest) respectively; it is similar to the badge, but without enamel, and with the wreath replaced by a cluster of rays in between each arm. The central disc features the head of Marianne, surrounded by the legend République Française (French Republic) and the motto Honneur et Patrie.
The ribbon for the medal is plain red.
Chiang Kai-shek's Légion d'honneur plaque. In his days the plaque was made of silver.
Charles Lindbergh's Legion of Honour
Technically, membership in the Légion is restricted to French nationals. Foreign nationals who have served France or the ideals it upholds may, however, receive a distinction of the Légion, which is nearly the same thing as membership in the Légion. Foreign nationals who live in France are submitted to the same requirements as Frenchmen. Foreign nationals who live abroad may be awarded a distinction of any rank or dignity in the Légion.
The Flag or Standard of the following units was decorated with the Cross of Knight the Legion:
- 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment
- 3nd Foreign Regiment (Regiment walk from the Foreign Legion).
- 1st Foreign Regiment.
- Infantry-tank Regiment Marine (Colonial Infantry Regiment of Morocco). Book of the regiment will be fighting its most decorated emblem of the French army.
- 1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment
- 1st Marine Infantry Regiment.
- 2nd Marine Infantry Regiment.
- 23nd Marine Infantry Regiment.
- 24nd Marine Infantry Regiment.
- 43rd Marine Infantry Regiment.
- 1st Marine Artillery Regiment.
- 11th Marine Artillery Regiment.
- 1st Battalion of Chasseurs.
- 30th Battalion of Chasseurs.
- 1st Train Regiment.
- 8th Infantry Regiment.
- 23rd Regiment Infantry.
- 26th Regiment Infantry.
- 51st Infantry Regiment.
- 57th Regiment Infantry.
- 137th Infantry Regiment.
- 152nd Infantry Regiment.
- 153rd Infantry Regiment.
- 298th Infantry Regiment.
- 1st Regiment of Riflemen.
- 1st Regiment of Algerian Riflemen.
- 2nd Regiment of Algerian Infantry.
- 3rd Algerian Infantry Regiment.
- 7th Algerian Infantry Regiment.
- Moroccan Goumier.
- 4th Regiment of Tunisian Riflemen.
- 1st Regiment of Senegalese Riflemen.
- 1st Regiment of African Hunters.
- 2nd Regiment of Zouaves.
- 3rd Regiment of Zouaves.
- 4th Regiment of Zouaves.
- 8th regiment of Zouaves.
- 9th Regiment of Zouaves.
- Joint 4th Regiment of Zouaves and Sharpshooters.
- Paris Fire Brigade.
- Fusiliers Marins(Naval Infantry).
- Fighter Squadron 1 / 30 Normandie-Niemen.
Locations associated with the Order
A grand total of 68 cities and villages, amongst them Liège in 1914, Belgrade in 1920, Luxembourg in 1957 and Stalingrad (today's Volgograd) in 1984 were decorated, as were 51 regiments and the Military School of Autun.
The Order has its own élite boarding schools in Saint-Denis and Les Loges in the forest of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. A thousand children and grandchildren of the members of the order are educated there. Study there is restricted to daughters, grand-daughters, and great-grand-daughters of members of the order, the Médaille militaire or the Ordre national du Mérite.
- List of Légion d'honneur recipients by name
- List of prizes, medals, and awards
- Musée national de la Légion d'Honneur et des Ordres de Chevalerie
- Order (decoration)
- Order of the Garter
- Order of the Golden Fleece
- Ordre de la Libération
- Ordre National du Mérite
- Ribbons of the French military and civil awards
- State decoration
- ^ Formerly the Royal Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre royale de la Légion d'honneur)
- ^ The award for the French Legion of Hono(u)r is known by many titles, also depending on the five levels of degree: Knight of the Legion of Honour; Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur; Officer of the Legion of Honour; Officier de la Légion d'honneur; Commander of the Legion of Honour; Commandeur de la Légion d'honneur; Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour; Grand Officier de la Légion d'honneur; Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour; Grand'Croix de la Légion d'honneur. The word "honneur" is often capitalised, as in the name of the palace Palais de la Légion d'Honneur.
- ^ Pierre-Louis Roederer, "Speech Proposing the Creation of a Legion of Honour", Napoleon: Symbol for an Age, A Brief History with Documents, ed. Rafe Blaufarb (New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2008), 101-102.
- ^ The first recorded women's award is 1851, under Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte.
- ^ All Olympic Gold Medal winners are awarded the Légion.
- ^ Légion Code, article 16
- ^ Les étrangers qui se seront signalés par les services qu’ils ont rendus à la France ou aux causes qu’elle soutient, Légion Code, art. 128
- ^ Officially military units are not members of the Legion, which include only individuals. As for foreign Legionnaires, they are "decorated with the Legion insignia", not "member of the Legion". Do not confuse military units that received the fodder to the color of the ribbon of the Legion of Honour (units quoted at six, seven or eight times in the order of the army] with military units whose flag is decorated with the Cross of the Legion of Honour
- ^ Melh.info
- French Embassy in Canada article, ambafrance-ca.org
- Base Léonore, recensement des récipiendaires de la Légion d’honneur (décédés avant 1977), on the web site of the French Ministry of Culture (French)
_ Military_awards_and_decorations_of_France_ Military awards and decorations of France National Orders Ministry Orders Other civilian distinctionsMédaille d'honneur de l'Aéronautique
Médaille d'honneur agricole
Médaille d'honneur des Chemins de Fer
Médaille d'honneur départementale et communale
Médaille d'honneur des Douanes
Médaille d'honneur des Eaux et Forêts
Médaille d'honneur de l'Enseignement du 1er degré
Médaille d'honneur Pénitentiaire
Médaille d'honneur des personnels civils relevant du ministère de la défense
Médaille d'honneur de la Police nationale
Médaille d'honneur des Sapeurs Pompiers
Médaille d'honneur de Sociétés musicales et Chorales
Médaille d'honneur de la protection judiciaire de la jeunesse
Médaille d'honneur du travail
Médaille d'honneur des Travaux publics
Insigne des blessés civils
Médaille de la Famille française
Médaille de la Jeunesse et des Sports
Médaille des Mines
Médaille du Tourisme
Ordre de Tahiti Nui
Military medalsMédaille militaire
Croix de guerre 1914–1918 (no living recipient)
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Croix de guerre des TOE
Croix de la Valeur militaire
Médaille de la Gendarmerie nationale
Médaille de la Résistance
Médaille des Évadés
Croix du combattant volontaire 1914–1918 (no living recipient)
Croix du combattant volontaire 1939–1945
Croix du combattant volontaire de la Résistance
Croix du combattant
Médaille de l'Aéronautique
Médaille de la Défense nationale
Médaille des services militaires volontaires
Médaille de reconnaissance de la Nation
Other military distinctions Commemorative medals 19th centuryMédaille de Sainte-Hélène
Médaille commémorative de la campagne d'Italie 1859
Médaille commémorative de l'expédition de Chine (1860)
Médaille commémorative de l'expédition du Mexique
Médaille commémorative de la guerre 1870–1871
Médaille commémorative de l'expédition du Tonkin 1885
Médaille commémorative de l'expédition du Dahomey (1892)
Médaille commémorative de Madagascar (1883–1896)
1900–1914 First World War
1918–1939Médaille commémorative de Syrie-Cilicie
Médaille commémorative des Dardanelles
Médaille de la Fidélité Française
Médaille des victimes de l'invasion
Médaille des prisonniers civils, déportés et otages de la Grande Guerre 1914–1918
Second World War
1939–1945Médaille commémorative de la bataille de la Somme
Médaille commémorative des services volontaires dans la France Libre
Médaille commémorative de la campagne d'Italie 1943–1944
Médaille de la déportation et de l'internement pour faits de résistance
Médaille de la déportation et de l'internement politique
Médaille commémorative de la guerre 1939–1945
Médaille de la France libérée
Insigne du réfractaire au STO
Since 1945Médaille commémorative des opérations de l'ONU en Corée 1952
Médaille commémorative de la campagne d'Indochine
Médaille commémorative des opérations du Moyen-Orient (1956)
Médaille commémorative des opérations de sécurité et de maintien de l'ordre en Afrique du Nord
Médaille commémorative de la FINUL
Médaille commémorative française
Extinguished Orders Ministry OrdersOrdre du Mérite combattant
Ordre du Mérite militaire
Ordre du Mérite civil
Ordre du Mérite social
Ordre du Mérite du Travail
Ordre du Mérite touristique
Ordre de l'Économie nationale
Ordre du Mérite commercial et industriel
Ordre du Mérite artisanal
Ordre de la Santé publique
Ordre du Mérite postal
Ordre du Mérite sportif
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