- Jin (Korean state)
Jin (Korean state) Hangul 진국 Hanja 辰國 Revised Romanization Jin-guk McCune–Reischauer Chin'guk History of Korea
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Prehistory Jeulmun period Mumun period Gojoseon ?–108 BCE Wiman Joseon 194 BCE–108 BCE Proto–Three Kingdoms 300–57 BCE Buyeo, Goguryeo, Okjeo, Dongye Jin state, Samhan (Ma, Byeon, Jin) Four Commanderies of Han Three Kingdoms 57 BCE–668 Goguryeo 37 BCE–668 Baekje 18 BCE–660 Silla 57 BCE–935 Gaya 42–562 North and South States 698–926 Unified Silla 668–935 Balhae 698–926 Later Three Kingdoms 892–936 Taebong, Hubaekje, Silla Goryeo Dynasty 918–1392 Joseon Dynasty 1392–1897 Korean Empire 1897–1910 Colonial Korea 1910–1945 Provisional Gov't 1919–1948 Division of Korea 1945–present North, South Korea 1948–present By topic Timeline List of monarchs Linguistic history Science and technology history Art history Military history Naval history
Jin state was an early Korean, Iron Age state which occupied some portion of the southern Korean peninsula during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC, bordering the Korean kingdom Gojoseon to the north. Its capital was somewhere south of the Han River. It preceded the Samhan confederacies, each of which claimed to be successors of the Jin state.
It is not completely clear as to how well defined of an organized state Jin was. It seems likely that it was a federation of small states much like the subsequent Samhan. For the state to be able to contend with Wiman Joseon and send embassies to the court of Han Dynasty China, there was probably some level of stable central authority. Korean historian Ki-baek Lee (1984, p. 24) also suggests that the kingdom's attempt to open direct contacts "suggests a strong desire on the part of Chin [Jin] to enjoy the benefits of Chinese metal culture." However, for the most part Wiman Joseon prevented direct contact between Jin and China.
King Jun of Gojoseon is reported to have fled to Jin after Wiman seized his throne and established Wiman Joseon. Some believe that Chinese mentions of Gaeguk or Gaemaguk (蓋馬國, Kingdom of armored horses) refers to Jin. Goguryeo is said to have conquered "Gaemaguk" in 26 AD, but this may refer to a different tribe in northern Korea.
Records are somewhat contradictory on Jin's demise: it either became the later Jinhan, or diverged into the Samhan as a whole. Archeological records of Jin have been found centered in territory that later became Mahan.
Archaeologically, Jin is commonly identified with the Korean bronze dagger culture, which succeeded the Liaoning bronze dagger culture in the late first millennium BCE. The most abundant finds from this culture have been in southwestern Korea's Chungcheong and Jeolla regions. This suggests that Jin was based in the same area, which roughly coincides with the fragmentary historical evidence. Artifacts of the culture are found throughout southern Korea and were also exported to the Yayoi people of Kyūshū, Japan.
Jin was succeeded by the Samhan. The name of Jin continued to be used in the name of the Jinhan confederacy and in the name "Byeonjin," an alternate term for Byeonhan. In addition, for some time the leader of Mahan continued to call himself the "Jin king," asserting nominal overlordship over all of the Samhan tribes.
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