Echinochloa colona


Echinochloa colona

Taxobox
name = "Echinochloa colona"



image_width = 240px
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
ordo = Liliopsida
classis = Poales
familia = Poaceae
subfamilia = Panicoideae
genus = "Echinochloa"
species = "E. colona"
binomial = "Echinochloa colona"
binomial_authority = (L.) Link

" Echinochloa colona (L.) Link 1833" is a type of wild grass originating from tropical Asia that was formerly classified as a type of panicum grass.

Habitat

Throughout tropical Asia and Africa in fields and along roadsides.

Usage

Often used in times of food shortage as a famine food. Apparently in Chad (central)and Sudan (Kordofan, Darfur) the seeds of this plant are ground into flour from which porridge or bread can be prepared. Whilst in Rajasthan in India the seeds are used as rice - hence its common name in English jungle rice from Anglo-Indian English jungle, "Wild" < Hindustani jangal, m. sg., "id"., and not the later development in Anglo-Indian English rainforest.

ynonyms

*Panicum colonum L.
*Milium colonum (L.) Moench
*Panicum equitans Hochst. ex A. Rich.
*Echinochloa equitans (Hochst ex A. Rich.) Hubb. ex Troup.
*Oplismenus repens J. Presl
*Echinochloa zonalis (Guss.) Parl.
*Panicum musei Steud.
*Oplismenus clonus (L.) Kunth
*Oplismenus muticus Philippi
*Panicum colonum L.
*Panicum incertum Bosc ex Steud.
*Panicum prorepens Steud.
*Panicum zonale Guss.

Punjabi dialect forms

The following Punjabi dialect forms are recorded in Punjab for this grass:
* Lahinda ਸਮਾਕ savāk, ਸਵਾਂਕ savã̄k, s.m. The grass "Echinochloa colona".
** Multani ਸਮਾਕ samāk, ਸਾਮਕ sāmak, ਸਮਾਕੀ samāki, s.m. Wild rice; ਸਾਉਂਕ sāunk ਸਵਾਂਕ, sawānk, savānk s.m. The grain "Ophismenus frumentaceus", and a wild rice variety "Echinochloa colona". With the wild rice being used generally by Hindus on fast days especially on the Ekādāsī the 11th day of the bright half of the lunar month.
* Eastern Standard Panjabi ਸਾਂਵਕ sã̄vak , ਸੁਆਂਕ suã̄k, ਸਾਉਂਕ sāũk, ਸਉਂਕ saũk s.m. Wild rice, "Echinochloa colona".
** Kangra ਸੋਅਕ soak s. m. A kind of millet .

Indian languages

* Sanskrit:
** 1. śyāmā s.f. A kind of plant used for curing leprosy. Compare a later form śāmā- s.m. with the same meaning.
** 2. श्रामाक śyāmāka m. The millet "Panicum frumentaceum".

* Prakrit:
** 1. sāmā- s.f. 1. A medicinal plant; 2. Black, dark (something like deep brown); 3. Yellow, of a golden colour, beautiful.(Compare Vedic śyāma black & śyāva brown; Avestan syāva; and the more further of Anglo-Saxon hāēven blue (= E. heaven); Greek skoio/s, skia/m, s.m shadow).
** 2. *śyāmākka- [cp. Vedic śyāmāka] (Possibly giving rise to a Pashto s̱ẖamūḵẖach, s̱ẖamāḵẖach) See śyāmā-] ; sāmā̆ga-, °mā̆ya- m.; Śaunaka in the Athura Veda.

* Pali:
** 1. Sāma, s.m.
** 2. sāmāka s.m. A kind of millet "Panicum frumentaceum".

* Pashto:
** s̱ẖamūḵẖach, شماخه s̱ẖamāḵẖach, s.f. (3rd) Pl. يْ ey. The name of a small grain bitter to the taste Panicum frumentaceum, Rox. Perhaps from a Middle Indo-Aryan śyāmāka, i.e., from that language that was spoken in the Kabul region of Afghanistan before the advent of Islam in the 11th century. Though, however, compare the Persian shāmāḵẖ , s.m. The grain Panicum frumentaceum, Echinochloa colona.

* Kashmiri:
** hāma हाम s.f. A kind of grass growing self-sown in rice-fields, the stalks of which resemble paddy stalks, "Echinochloa colona". It is a used as fodder for horses; cf. dŏda-hāma, hāma-dāñĕ -दाञ् s.m. The grain of "Echinochloa colona" which is eaten by Hindūs, and is presented as an offering in Hindū ceremonies. Cf Kashmiri hām हाम f. Darkened, dirtied, of some white or coloured article spoiled and darkened by dirt. f.inf. To ripen, become dark and mature (of small-pox pustules, or the like).

* Washgali:
** šamāk, šamäk s.m. Oats

* Western Pahari:
** śāmāu s.m. A kind of darkish grass

* Hindi, Hindustani, Urdu:
** 1. sã̄wā, sã̄wã̄, sāmā, sāṅwā, sāṅwāṅ, s.m. Compare the Hindi शामा śāmā, s. m. 1. Blackness, impurity, mouldiness, &c.; 2. A kind of edible grain, "Panicum frumentaceum" or "Echinochloa colona". Also the more Sanskritised श्याम śyām, adj. (f. -ā), 1. Black, dark-coloured; 2. Dark-blue, dark-brown, brown; 3. Dark-green, green; 4. Dark, shady, dusky; --s.m. 1. Black, brown, &c. (the colours); 2. A cloud. Hindustani sāṅwā, sāṅwāṅ, s. m. The name of a very small grain "Panicum frumentaceum:" Roxb.. Also Hindustani shām, n. prop. A name of Krishna; and shāmā, s. m. 1. A type of small bird; 2. A grain, "Echinochloa colona".
** 2.सामक sāmak, s. m. 1. A kind of edible grain, "Panicum frumentaceum"; 2. A kind of grain-bearing grass found in khādar lands; 3. The Indian cuckoo; 5. An epithet of the sacred fig-tree at Allahabad (also called akshayvr̤iksh, "the imperishable tree"); 6. A species of grain, "Panicum frumentaceum"; 7. The thorn-apple; 7. Sea-salt.
** 3. श्यामाक śyāmāk, s.m. A kind of edible grain, "Panicum frumentaceum", "Echinochloa colona".

*** Dialects of Hindi:
**** Awadhi(dialect of Ayodhya) sāmā, s.m. A type of millet.
**** Lakhnavi (dialect of Lucknow) sã̄wā, s.m. A type of wild rice.
**** Bihari (dialect of Bihar)sã̄wã̄, sāmā, sāī˜, s.m. "Panicum mileaceum"; and sāmā, s.m. "Panicum mileaceum" in South Bhagalpur) region of the Indian state of Bihar.
**** Maithaili sām, s.m., A kind of autumn millet.

* Bengali:
** sāmā, s.m., Millet.
* Gujarati:
** sāmɔ s.m. An inferior kind of self-sown grain.

* Marathi:
** 1. sã̄vā, sāvā s.m. Compare the Sanskritised श्याम śyāma adj. As dark blue, black as a full and bursting cloud.
** 2. श्यामाक śyāmāka s.m., A grain, "Panicum frumentaceum", "Echinochloa colona".

* Nepali:
** sāmā, s.m., A weed among rice.

* Oriya:
** suã̄ cāuḷā, s.m., "Panicum frumentaceum". Compare suã̄ bhāt, A dish prepared from "Panicum frumentaceum".

* Sindhi:
** sã̄õ s.m. "Panicum frumentaceum" and its grass.

* Sinhala:
** hämi, amu, s.m., The grain "Paspalum scrobiculatum".

* Tamil:
** சாமை cāmai (சாமி), s.m., A kind of grain, millet. < From Old Indo-Aryan šyāmā s.m., 1. Poor-man's millet, sown in Āvaṇi and maturing in six weeks to four months, "Panicum crusgalli". Compare: சிறுசாமை ciṟu-cāmai , n. < id. + சாமை, a kind of little millet, Panicum; சாமைவகை. (சங். அக.); புற்சாமை puṟ-cāmai, , n. < id. + a species of little millet, Panicum; சாமைவகை.; பனிச்சாமை paṉi-c-cāmai , n. < பனி + a kind of little millet, Panicum; சாமைவகை. (யாழ். அக.)

* Telegu:
** చామ cāma, ṭsāma. pl.m., The millet "Panicum miliaceum" Also compare బొంతచామలు "Panicum frumentaceum"< From Old Indo-Aryan šyāmā s.m., 1. Poor-man's millet, sown in Āvaṇi and maturing in six weeks to four months, "Panicum crusgalli"'.

Non-Indian languages

* Arabic: abû rukbah, bashaft, diffré;
** "Egypt": abu rokba
* Chinese: can cao, guang tou bai, wang bai, wáng-ji
* English: jungle rice < From Hindustani; Shama grass < Anglo-Indian shama < Hindustani; barnyardgrass, southern cockspur, corn panic grass, Deccan grass, jungle ricegrass, little barnyardgrass, millet rice, swamp grass, junglerice;
** "Australia": awnless barnyard grass;
** "Barbados": junglerice;
** "Fiji": junglerice
* Spanish: arrocillo, cerreig, pasto del arroz, pata de gallina, pierna de gallo meridonal;
** "Argentina": capím, arroz silvestre, grama pintado,pasto colorado;
** "Chile": hualcacho;
** "Colombia": liendre de puerco, paja de apto
* French: blé du Dekkan, pied de coq méridional
* Portuguese:
** "Brazil": capim-arroz, capituva, capim da colonia, capim-arroz (jaú), capim-colônia, capim-coloninho, capim-jaú, jervâo
* German: Dekkangras < English; Schamahirse < English translation of "shama" grass; Südliche Hühnerhirse.
* Danish: spinkel hanespore
* Finnish: kukonhirssi
* Indonesian: jajagoan leutik, padi burung, rumput bebek, rumput jajagoan kecil, rumput kusa-kusa, tuton, watoeton
* Hebrew: dochaneet hashaleen

External links

* [http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/WEEDS/junglerice.html "E. colona" as a weed]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.