- Chinese Indonesian surname
A large number of ethnic Chinese people have lived in Indonesia for many centuries. Over time, especially under social and political pressure during the New Order era, most Chinese Indonesians have adopted names that better match the local language.
Colonial era to 1965
During the Dutch colonial era until the Japanese invasion in 1942, the Dutch administration recorded Chinese names in birth certificates and other legal documents using an adopted spelling convention that was based primarily on Hokkien (Min), the language of the majority of Chinese immigrants in the Dutch East Indies. The administrators used the closest Dutch pronunciation and spelling of Hokkien words to record the names. A similar thing happens in Malaya, where the British administrators record the names using English spelling. Compare Lim (English) vs. Liem (Dutch), Wee or Ooi (English) vs. Oei or Oey (Dutch), Goh (English) vs. Go (Dutch), Chan (English) vs. Tjan (Dutch), Lee (English) vs. Lie (Dutch), Leung or Leong (English) vs Liong (Dutch).
Hence, Lin (林, Mandarin) is spelled Liem in Indonesia. Chen (陳) is Tan, Huang (黃) is Oei or Oey, Wu (吳) is Go, Guo (郭) is Kwee , Yang (楊) is Njoo. And so on. Further, as Hokkien romanization standard did not exist then, some romanized names varied slightly. For example, 郭 (Guo) could sometimes be Kwik, Que, Kwek instead of Kwee, and Huang is often Oei instead of Oey.
The spelling convention survived well into Indonesian independence (1945) and sovereignty acknowledgment by the Dutch government (1949). It is even still used today by the Chinese-Indonesian diaspora in Europe and America, by those Chinese-Indonesians courageous or famous enough during Suharto's regime to keep their Chinese names (e.g., Kwik Kian Gie, Liem Swie King), or by those too poor to bribe Indonesia's civil court bureaucracy.
The Indonesian government changed the Latin spelling twice, first in 1947 (Ejaan Suwandi), and again in 1972 (Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan, literally "Perfected Spelling"). According to the Suwandi system of spelling, "oe" became "u", so Loe is often spelt Lu. Since 1972, Dutch-style "j" became "y", meaning Njoo is now spelt Nyoo.
1965 to 2000
After Suharto came to power, his regime created many anti-Chinese legislations in Indonesia. One of them was 127/U/Kep/12/1966 which mandated that ethnic Chinese living in Indonesia adopt Indonesian-sounding names instead of the standard three-word or two-word Chinese names. The Chinese Indonesian community was politically powerless to oppose this law. The Suharto regime wrongly but intentionally cast the ethnic Chinese as supporters of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI), which he brutally defeated in a power struggle to succeed Sukarno's government in 1965-1970. By doing so, the Suharto regime - a coalition of the Golkar bureaucrats and the armed forces - extracted unofficial taxes from wealthy Chinese businesspeople in exchange for protection from occasional but deadly pogroms, such as the Jakarta Riots of May 1998.
Some Chinese Indonesians adopt western names as first names, such as Jonny or Albert, and Javanese or Sundanese names for the family names. The adopted Javanese names were often based on their phonetics, but it was not always the case. Although two Chinese individuals shared the same Chinese surname, they may adopt different Indonesian-sounding names. For example, one with the surname 林 (Lin) may adopt "Limanto", and the other may adopt "Halim" as Indonesian-sounding names. "Limanto" and "Halim" both contain "lim" that corresponds to the 林 surname (Mandarin: Lin, Hokkien: Liem or Lim = forest). Some translated their names. For example, the famous 1966 political activist and businessman Liem Bian Koen translated Lin to old Javanese "wana", meaning forest, and added the male-suffix "ndi", resulting in the new clan name Wanandi.
The Indonesianized names - basically Hokkien syllables with western or Indonesian prefix or suffix - resulted in so many exotic sounding names, that people can tell accurately whether a person is an Indonesian Chinese based only on his/her name.
2000 to today
After Soeharto resigned as president, the ethnic Chinese in Indonesia are again allowed to use their original names. Most no longer cared and kept their Indonesian names. Some reverted to Chinese names. Some decide to re-adopt the original Hokkien names of their grandparents or to use the more standard pinyin romanization, pronunciation and spelling.
Examples of Chinese names and their Indonesian versions
Chinese surname Hokkien, Teochew Other South Chinese dialects (e.g. Hakka, Cantonese) Example of Adopted Indonesian-sounding Names 陳 (Chen) Tan Tjhin Tandubuana, Tanardo, Tanto, Hertanto, Hartanto, Tanoto, Tanu, Tanutama, Soetanto, Cendana, Tanudisastro, Tandiono, Tanujaya, Santoso, Tanzil, Tanasal, Tanadi, Tanusudibyo, Tanamal, Tanamas, Taniwan, Tanuwidjaja, Tanuseputro, Tanumihardja, Tanaya, Tanjaya, Tandika, Tanandar, Hartanoeh, Tanesia, Tjandra, Perwata, Yunatan or other names started with prefix Tanu- 鄧 (Deng) Teng Tenggara, Tengger, Ateng 馮 (Feng) Pang Pangestu; 郭 (Guo) Kwee, Kwik Kusumawijaya; 韓 (Han) Han Handjojo, Handaya, Handoko, Suhandi, Handoyo 洪 (Hong) Ang Anggawarsito, Anggakusuma, Angela, Angkiat, Anggoro, Anggodo, Angkasa, Anggraini, Andyanto, Angryanto 黃 (Huang) Oei, Oey, Ng, Wie Bong, Wong Darwis, Wienathan, Wibowo, Wijaya, Winata, Widodo, Winoto, Willy, Wiryo, Wirya, Wiraatmadja, Winarto, Witoelar, Winardi, Wibisono, Wiryono, Wiranata, Wiyono, Wijono, Ngadiman 江 (Jiang) Kang Kong Kangean 賴/赖 (Lai) Lai, Lay Laya 李 (Li) Li, Lie, Lee Li, Lie, Lee Lijanto, Liman, Leman, Liedarto, Rusli, Lika, Aliwarga, Nauli, Romuli, Ramli 梁 (Liang) Nio Neonardi, Antonio, Leung, Liong 林 (Lin) Liem, Lim Liem, Lim Halim, Halimkusuma, Wono, Limanto, Limantoro, Limijanto, Limarta, Taslim, Wanandi, Liemena, Alim, Limawan, Linus, Ruslim, Mursalim, Linanto, Talim, Talin, Nursalim, Salim 劉 (Liu) Lau, Lauw Liu Mulawarman, Lawang, Lauwita, Leo, Lawardi, Pahlawan, Lawrence 陸 (Lu) Liok, Liuk Loekito, Loekman 呂 (Lü) Loe, Lu Loekito, Luna, Lukas, Lunardy 司徒 (Situ) Sieto Szeto, Seto, Siehu, Suhu Lutansieto, Suhuyanli, Suhuyanly 沈 (Shen) Boedihardjo 蘇 (Su) Souw, So, Soe, Su Suwandi, Soekotjo, Soehadi, Sosro, Solihin, Soeganda, Solikin, Soegihartanto 王 (Wang) Ong Wong Onggo, Ongko, Wangsadinata, Wangsa, Radja, Wongsojoyo, Ongkowijoyo, Onggano 溫 (Wen) Oen Boen, Woen Benyamin, Bunyamin, Budiman, Gunawan, Basirun, Bunda, Wendi, Unang, Buntaran, Budiono 吳, 伍, 仵 (Wu) Go, Gouw, Goh Ng Bagus, Bagoes, Prayogo, Gondo, Sugondo, Gozali, Wurianto, Gunawan, Gotama, Utama, Widargo, Sumargo, Gunardi, Gunadi 武, (Wu) 烏, 鄔 (Wu) 許, 古, 丘, 邱 (Xu, Gu, Qiu) Kho, Khouw, Khoe Komar, Kurnia, Kurniawan, Kusnadi, Kusuma, Kumala, Komarudin, Kosasih, Khoosasi, Kowara 謝 (Xie) Cia/Tjia Ciawi, Syariel, Tjhia, Sieto, Sinar, Sindoro, Tjahjadi 楊 (Yang) Njoo, Nyoo, Jo Yong Muljoto, Inyo, Yongki, Yoso, Yohan, Yorensin, Nyoto, Sutaryo 葉 (Ye) Yap/Jap Yapardi, Yapip 曾 (Zeng) Tjan Tjandra, Chandra, Chandrawinata, Candrakusuma, Tjandrakusuma, Tjandrawinata, Candrasaputra 張 (Zhang) Thio, Tio, Theo, Teo Chang, Tjong Canggih, Chandra, Setyo, Setio, Susetyo, Sulistio, Susantyo, Kartio, Setiadi, Prasetyo/Prasetya, Sutiono, Setiawan 鄭 (Zheng) Te, The Suteja, Teja, Teddy, Tedjokumoro, Tejarukmana, Tedjamulia 周 (Zhou) "Chiau", "Chau", "Chew", "Chow", "Chou", "Chu", "Jhou", "Joe", "Jou", "Jue", or "Jow" Juanda, Juano, Juanita 曹 (Cao) Tjo Cokro, Vonco
Chinese Indonesian family system
# Name English equivalent 1 Akong / Akung Grandfather 2 Ama / Popo Grandmother 3 Apek Father's older brother 4 Acek Father's younger brother 5 Ako Father's younger/older sister 6 Aku / Kiu Mother's older/younger brother 7 Ieie Mother's sister 8 Papa Father 9 Mama Mother 10 Koko Older brother 11 Cici Older sister 12 Dede Younger brother or sister
- ^ a b c Budaya, Tradisi & Sejarah Tionghoa, http://www.tionghoa.com
- ^ a b c d Sutanto, Irzanti (2004-08-09 12:01:43), Ganti Nama di Kalangan Keturunan Tionghoa, Peraturan dan Kebebasan, archived from the original on 2008-01-30, http://web.archive.org/web/20080130133021/http://www.fib.ui.ac.id/index1.php?id=view_news&ct_news=75, retrieved 2009-01-29
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Chinese Indonesians — For notable Indonesian people of Chinese descent, see List of Chinese Indonesians. Chinese Indonesians Chinese Indonesians pray at a temple in Glodok, Jakar … Wikipedia
Indonesian names — and naming customs reflect the multicultural and the polyglot nature of a nation which is an archipelago of over 17,000 islands. It is the world s fourth most populous nation comprising about 365 tribal ethnic groups, making it unrivaled in terms … Wikipedia
Indonesian name — Indonesia is an archipelago of over 17,000 islands, only 6,000 of which are inhabited, that extends in an arc along the equator. It is the fourth most populous nation in the world (about 242 million) comprising about 365 tribal ethnic groups,… … Wikipedia
Indonesian-sounding names adopted by Chinese Indonesians — A large number of ethnic Chinese people have lived in Indonesia for many centuries. Over time, many of these have adopted names that better match the local language.Colonial era to 1965During the Dutch colonial era until Japan invasion in 1942,… … Wikipedia
Chinese name — Personal names in Chinese culture follow a number of conventions different from those of personal names in Western cultures. Most noticeably, a Chinese name is written with the family name first and the given name next, therefore John Paul Smith… … Wikipedia
Surname — Not to be confused with Suriname. A surname is a name added to a given name and is part of a personal name. In many cases, a surname is a family name. Many dictionaries define surname as a synonym of family name . In some Western countries, it is … Wikipedia
Indonesian literature — When defining what is understood by Indonesian literature, one has to choose between various possibilities, each of them to a certain degree mutually exclusive. Thus, Indonesian literature may mean: *literature written in the languages of the… … Wikipedia
Cai (surname) — Choy redirects here. For other uses, see Choy (disambiguation). Cai (surname) Chinese name Chinese 蔡 … Wikipedia
List of common Chinese surnames — This is a list of the top 100 most common Chinese surnames according to a study published in 2006. Their ranks in 1990 are shown by the side. Mandarin, Cantonese, Minnan and Gan transliterations are displayed. Other transliterations, used… … Wikipedia
Wang (surname) — Family name name = Wang imagesize= caption= pronunciation = meaning = king region = origin = related names = footnotes = [ [http://www.census.gov/genealogy/names/names files.html 1990 Census Name Files ] ] Wang (; pinyin: Wáng) is one of the most … Wikipedia