CHAdeMO


CHAdeMO
CHAdeMO Association
CHΛdeMO logo
Formation 2010
Purpose/focus CHAdeMO Association aims to increase quick-charger installations worldwide and to standardize how to charge the vehicles.
Website http://chademo.com

CHAdeMO (sometimes spelled CHΛdeMO) is the trade name of a quick charging method for battery electric vehicles delivering up to 62.5 kW of high-voltage direct current via a special electrical connector. It is proposed as a global industry standard by an association of the same name.[1]

CHAdeMO is an abbreviation of “CHArge de MOve", equivalent to “charge for moving”, and is a pun for O cha demo ikaga desuka in Japanese,[1] meaning “How about some tea” (while charging) in English.[2]

Contents

CHAdeMO Association

CHAdeMO was formed by The Tokyo Electric Power Company, Nissan, Mitsubishi and Fuji Heavy Industries (the manufacturer of Subaru vehicles). Toyota later joined as its fifth executive member.[3][4]

Three of these companies have developed electric vehicles that use TEPCO's DC connector for quick charging.

DC fast charging

Most electric vehicles (EVs) have an on-board charger that uses a rectifier to transform alternating current from the electrical grid (mains VAC) to direct current (VDC) suitable for recharging the EV's battery pack. Cost and thermal issues limit how much power the rectifier can handle, so beyond around 240 VAC and 75 A it is better for an external charging station to deliver direct current (DC) directly to the vehicle's battery pack. Such high voltage and high-current charging is called a DC Fast Charge and has also incorrectly been referred to as level-3 charging (in contrast with less powerful AC charging levels 1 & 2).[5]

Tokyo Electric Power Company has developed patented technology and a specification for high-voltage (up to 500 V DC) high-current (125 A) automotive fast charging via a JARI DC fast charge connector.[6] It appears this is the basis for the CHAdeMO protocol.[7] The connector is specified by the JEVS (Japan Electric Vehicle Standard) G105-1993 from the Japan Automobile Research Institute.[8]

In addition carrying power the connector also makes a data connection using a protocol called Can-bus[9] this performs functions such as a safety interlock to avoid energizing the connector before it's safe (similar to SAE J1772), transmiting battery parameters to the charging station including when to stop charging, target voltage, and total battery capacity, and while charging how the station should vary its output current.[10]

Compatible vehicle models

Compatible charging stations

In the USA, Aker Wade Power Technologies has entered into a licensing agreement with TEPCO to manufacture and market Level 3 DC fast chargers for electric vehicles.[6] Eaton Corporation has demonstrated a CHAdeMO-compatible DC Quick Charger[12] recharging Mitsubishi iMiEV cars.[13]

In Europe, Evtronic[14], Schneider-Electric, SGTE Power[15], CIRCONTROL (spanish manufacturer) and Epyon[16] makes fast chargers equipped with the latest CHAdeMO communication protocol.

ECOtality has unveiled the Blink DC Fast Charger which is outfitted with two CHAdeMO compliant electric vehicle charging connectors.[17] AeroVironment offers a broad line of DC fast chargers including two CHAdeMO certified Quick Charger models.

Nissan has developed a Quick EV Charger that follows the CHAdeMO protocol for 1,470,000–1,732,500 Yen (approx. US$16,000–19,000 as of May 2010) and intends to install them at 200 dealers in Japan.[8]

The CHAdeMO Association's web site claims that as of 2011-01-19 the number of CHAdeMO DC quick chargers installed is 539; 532 in Japan and 7 elsewhere.[18]

Other standards

SAE J1772 is a standard for EV charging. The 2009 version defined a connector for 120 V/240 V AC charging up to 19.2 kW.[19] SAE is revising the specification to add a "combo-coupler" variant of the J1772 connector with additional pins to accommodate fast DC charging at 200–450 V DC up to 90 kW.[20] The Nissan Leaf has receptacles for both the TEPCO and SAE J1772-2009 connectors, though in the United States the TEPCO plug is only available as a factory option on the higher-end SL model.[21]

German companies have proposed the VDE-AR-E 2623-2-2 standard as an implementation of IEC 62196[22] in IEC proposal 62196-2-X.[23] It uses the round seven-pin Mennekes connector to deliver up to 63 A three-phase (at 400 V in Central Europe). This connector has been chosen by several European automakers for prototype electric vehicles.[24]

Both these national standards have been added to the international IEC 62196-2 standard as "Type 1" and "Type 2" respectively. IEC 62196-2 also documents the connector type proposed by the EV Plug Alliance as "Type 3". Following up to Part 2 of IEC 62196 there has been approved new work on a Part 3[25] of the standard covering d.c. charging with the specification expected to be final by December 2013.[26] This international IEC connector for d.c. charging will either extend or replace the national CHAdeMO standard.

Images

TEPCO Quick Charging Pedestal CHAdeMO Quick Charging Plug TEPCO Quick Charging Screen

References

  1. ^ a b "General Outline of “CHAdeMO Association”" (Press release). TEPCO. 2010-03-15. http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/press/corp-com/release/betu10_e/images/100315e1.pdf. Retrieved 2010-05-13. 
  2. ^ Sebastian Blanco (2009-03-15). "CHAdeMO suggests drinking green tea while recharging your electric car". Autoblog Green. http://green.autoblog.com/2010/03/15/chademo-suggests-drinking-green-tea-while-recharging-your-electr/. Retrieved 2010-05-13. 
  3. ^ "Establishment of CHAdeMO Association" (Press release). TEPCO. 2010-03-15. http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/press/corp-com/release/10031501-e.html. Retrieved 2010-05-13. 
  4. ^ Chuck Squatriglia (2010-03-16). "Let’s Have Tea While Charging Our EV". Autopia. Wired.com. http://www.wired.com/autopia/2010/03/chademo-quick-charge-standards/. Retrieved 2010-05-13. 
  5. ^ "FAQ: Standards - ChargePoint Network". ChargePoint Network. Coulomb Technologies. http://www.mychargepoint.net/faq-standards.php. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  6. ^ a b "Tokyo Electric Power Licenses Aker Wade to Build Level III DC Fast Chargers". Green Car Congress. 2010-01-15. http://www.greencarcongress.com/2010/01/akerwade-20100115.html. Retrieved 2010-04-13. 
  7. ^ a b "Exclusive interview with the CEO of Aker Wade: “Standardisation is the key”". cars21.com. 2010-04-29. http://www.cars21.com/content/articles/2010-04-29-exclusive-interview-with-bret-aker--standardisation-is-the-key.php. Retrieved 2010-05-13. 
  8. ^ a b "Nissan Introduces Quick EV Charger" (Press release). Nissan. 2010-05-21. http://www.nissan-global.com/EN/NEWS/2010/_STORY/100521-01-e.html. Retrieved 2010-05-21. 
  9. ^ http://chademo.com/05_protocol.html
  10. ^ Takafumi Anegawa (2010-12-01). "Safety Design of CHAdeMO Quick Charger and its impact on Power Grid". TEPCO. http://www.ev-charging-infrastructure.com/media/downloads/inline/takafumi-anegawa-tepco-11-20.1290790915.pdf. Retrieved 2011-01-25. 
  11. ^ Travis Hudson (2008-03-20). "Subaru R1e Re-Unveiled Live". Jalopnik. http://jalopnik.com/370317/subaru-r1e-re+unveiled-live. Retrieved 2010-05-13. 
  12. ^ Erin Milnes (2010-09-10). "With Electric Cars Soon to Arrive, Where Is Charging Headed?". The Solar Home & Business Journal. http://sunpluggers.com/news/with-electric-cars-soon-to-arrive-where-is-charging-headed-0908. Retrieved 2010-09-29. 
  13. ^ "Eaton Charging Stations Showcase Electric Vehicle Infrastructure at Plug-In 2010" (Press release). Eaton Corporation. 2010-07-20. http://www.eaton.com/EatonCom/OurCompany/NewsandEvents/NewsList/NewsArticle/CT_289404. Retrieved 2010-09-29. 
  14. ^ "Evtronic make fast chargers compliant with Chademo communication protocol" (Press release). Evtronic. 2010-07-02. http://www.evtronic.com/index-3.html. Retrieved 2010-07-02. 
  15. ^ "SGTE Power makes CHAdeMO EV Quick Chargers" (Press release). SGTE Power. 2010-07-13. http://www.sgte-power.com. Retrieved 2010-07-13. 
  16. ^ "Epyon Joins International Group for Fast Charging Standard" (Press release). Epyon. 2010-04-15. http://www.epyon.nl/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Epyon-CHAdeMO-press-release-April-15-2010.pdf. Retrieved 2010-05-13. 
  17. ^ "ECOtality Introduces Blink DC Fast Charger, The Fastest, Intuitive EV Charging Station Available" (Press release). ECOtality. 2010-10-13. http://www.ecotality.com/newsletter/10132010_Blink_DC_Fast_Charger.html. Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  18. ^ "CHAdeMO Association (home page)". CHAdeMO Association. 2011-01-19. http://chademo.com/indexe.html. Retrieved 2011-01-31. 
  19. ^ "SAE standard on EV charging connector approved". SAE International. 2010-01-15. http://www.sae.org/mags/AEI/7479. Retrieved 2010-03-14. 
  20. ^ "New SAE International Quick-Charge EV Connector Standard Gaining Momentum" (Press release). SAE International. 2011-08-04. http://www.sae.org/servlets/pressRoom?OBJECT_TYPE=PressReleases&PAGE=showRelease&RELEASE_ID=1587. Retrieved 2011-08-11. 
  21. ^ Omar Rana (2010-09-16). "$700 quick charge option on Nissan LEAF allows 80% charge in 30 mins". egmCarTech. http://www.egmcartech.com/2010/09/16/700-quick-charge-option-on-nissan-leaf-allows-80-charge-in-30-mins/. Retrieved 2011-05-20. 
  22. ^ "EV Charging connectors". 2009-04-30. http://www.tuer.co.uk/charge-connectors.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-07. 
  23. ^ Winfried Tröster (2009-01-29). "62196 Part 2-X: Dimensional interchangeability requirements for pin and contact-tube vehicle couplers". International Electrotechnical Commission. http://theeestory.com/files/IEC_62196-2-X_Proposal_2009-01-29.pdf. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 
  24. ^ Xavier Navarro (2009-05-20). "The European standard charging plug for cars is selected after Mennekes design". Autoblog Green. http://green.autoblog.com/2009/05/20/the-european-standard-charging-plug-for-cars-is-selected-after-m/. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 
  25. ^ "Dimensional interchangeability requirements for pin and contact-tube coupler with rated operating voltage up to 1 000 V d.c. and rated current up to 400 A for dedicated d.c. charging"
  26. ^ IEC Dashboard - Project: IEC 62196-3 Ed. 1.0, accessed 27. February 2011

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