 Centrifugal force

Not to be confused with Centripetal force.
Centrifugal force (from Latin centrum, meaning "center", and fugere, meaning "to flee") represents the effects of inertia that arise in connection with rotation and which are experienced as an outward force away from the center of rotation. In Newtonian mechanics, the term centrifugal force is used to refer to one of two distinct concepts: an inertial force (also called a "fictitious" force) observed in a noninertial reference frame, and a reaction force corresponding to a centripetal force.
The term is also sometimes used in Lagrangian mechanics to describe certain terms in the generalized force that depend on the choice of generalized coordinates.
The concept of centrifugal force is applied in rotating devices such as centrifuges, centrifugal pumps, centrifugal governors, centrifugal clutches, etc., as well as in centrifugal railways, planetary orbits, banked curves, etc. These devices and situations can be analyzed either in terms of the fictitious force in the rotating coordinate system of the motion relative to a center, or in terms of the centripetal and reactive centrifugal forces seen from a nonrotating frame of reference; these different centrifugal forces are not equal in general.
Contents
History of conceptions of centrifugal and centripetal forces
Main article: History of centrifugal and centripetal forcesThe conception of centrifugal force has evolved since the time of Huygens, Newton, Leibniz, and Hooke who expressed early conceptions of it. The modern conception as a fictitious force or pseudo force due to a rotating reference frame as described above evolved in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Fictitious centrifugal force
Main article: Centrifugal force (rotating reference frame)Centrifugal force is often confused with centripetal force. Centrifugal force is most commonly introduced as a force associated with describing motion in a noninertial reference frame, and referred to as a fictitious or inertial force (a description that must be understood as a technical usage of these words that means only that the force is not present in a stationary or inertial frame).^{[1]}^{[2]}
There are three contexts in which the concept of the fictitious force arises when describing motion using classical mechanics:^{[3]}
In the first context, the motion is described relative to a rotating reference frame about a fixed axis at the origin of the coordinate system. For observations made in the rotating frame, all objects appear to be under the influence of a radially outward force that is proportional to the distance from the axis of rotation and to the square of the rate of rotation (angular velocity) of the frame.
The second context is similar, and describes the motion using an accelerated local reference frame attached to a moving body, for example, the frame of passengers in a car as it rounds a corner.^{[3]} In this case, rotation is again involved, this time about the center of curvature of the path of the moving body. In both these contexts, the centrifugal force is zero when the rate of rotation of the reference frame is zero, independent of the motions of objects in the frame.^{[4]}
The third context is the most general, and subsumes the first two, as well as stationary curved coordinates (e.g., polar coordinates),^{[5]}^{[6]}^{[7]}^{[8]} and more generally any system of abstract coordinates as in the Lagrangian formulation of mechanics.
If objects are seen as moving from a rotating frame, this movement results in another fictitious force, the Coriolis force; and if the rate of rotation of the frame is changing, a third fictitious force, the Euler force is experienced. Together, these three fictitious forces allow for the creation of correct equations of motion in a rotating reference frame.^{[4]}
Reactive centrifugal force
Main article: Reactive centrifugal forceA reactive centrifugal force is the reaction force to a centripetal force. A mass undergoing curved motion, such as circular motion, constantly accelerates toward the axis of rotation. This centripetal acceleration is provided by a centripetal force, which is exerted on the mass by some other object. In accordance with Newton's Third Law of Motion, the mass exerts an equal and opposite force on the object. This is the reactive centrifugal force. It is directed away from the center of rotation, and is exerted by the rotating mass on the object that originates the centripetal acceleration.^{[9]}^{[10]}^{[11]}
This conception of centrifugal force is very different from the fictitious force. As they both are given the same name, they may be easily conflated. Whereas the 'fictitious force' acts on the body moving in a circular path, the 'reactive force' is exerted by the body moving in a circular path onto some other object. The former is useful in analyzing the motion of the body in a rotating reference frame; the latter is useful for finding forces on other objects, in an inertial frame.
This reaction force is sometimes described as a centrifugal inertial reaction,^{[12]}^{[13]} that is, a force that is centrifugally directed, which is a reactive force equal and opposite to the centripetal force that is curving the path of the mass.
The concept of the reactive centrifugal force is sometimes used in mechanics and engineering. It is sometimes referred to as just centrifugal force rather than as reactive centrifugal force.^{[14]}^{[15]}
Fictitious vs. reactive force
The table below compares various facets of the "fictitious force" and "reactive force" concepts of centrifugal force
Fictitious centrifugal force Reactive centrifugal force Reference
frameNoninertial frames Any Exerted
byActs as if emanating
from the rotation axis,
but no real sourceBodies moving in
curved pathsExerted
uponAll bodies, moving or not;
if moving, Coriolis force
also is presentThe object(s) causing
the curved motion, not upon
the body in curved motionDirection Away from rotation axis,
regardless of path of bodyOpposite to the
centripetal force
causing curved pathAnalysis Kinetic:
included as force in
Newton's laws of motionKinematic:
related to
centripetal forceUse of the term in Lagrangian mechanics
See also: Lagrangian and Mechanics of planar particle motionLagrangian mechanics formulates mechanics in terms of generalized coordinates {q_{k}}, which can be as simple as the usual polar coordinates or a much more extensive list of variables.^{[16]}^{[17]} Within this formulation the motion is described in terms of generalized forces, using in place of Newton's laws the Euler–Lagrange equations. Among the generalized forces, those involving the square of the time derivatives {(dq_{k} / dt)^{2}} are sometimes called centrifugal forces.^{[18]}^{[19]}^{[20]}^{[21]}
The Lagrangian approach to polar coordinates that treats as generalized coordinates, as generalized velocities and as generalized accelerations, is outlined in another article, and found in many sources.^{[22]}^{[23]}^{[24]} For the particular case of singlebody motion found using the generalized coordinates in a central force, the Euler–Lagrange equations are the same equations found using Newton's second law in a corotating frame. For example, the radial equation is:
where U(r) is the central force potential and μ is the mass of the object. The left side is a "generalized force" and the first term on the right is the "generalized centrifugal force". However, the left side is not comparable to a Newtonian force, as it does not contain the complete acceleration, and likewise, therefore, the terms on the righthand side are "generalized forces" and cannot be interpreted as Newtonian forces.^{[25]}
The Lagrangian centrifugal force is derived without explicit use of a rotating frame of reference,^{[26]} but in the case of motion in a central potential the result is the same as the fictitious centrifugal force derived in a corotating frame.^{[3]} The Lagrangian use of "centrifugal force" in other, more general cases, however, has only a limited connection to the Newtonian definition.
Centrifugal force and absolute rotation
Main article: Absolute rotationThe consideration of the fictitious centrifugal force and absolute rotation is a topic of debate about relativity, cosmology, and the nature of physical laws.
Newton suggested two experiments to answer the question of whether absolute rotation can be detected; that is, if an observer can decide whether an observed object is rotating or if the observer is rotating. One experiment is the effect of centrifugal force upon the shape of the surface of water rotating in a bucket. The second is the effect of centrifugal force upon the tension in a string joining two spheres rotating about their center of mass. A related third suggestion was that rotation of a sphere (such as a planet) could be detected from its shape (or "figure"), which is formed as a balance between containment by gravitational attraction and dispersal by centrifugal force.
Typically, the reference frame of "the fixed stars" is taken to define a state of zero rotation. According to Mach's principle, the stars themselves, or the matter in the universe, exert an infuence that defines inertia and thereby also absolute rotation.
See also
The concept of centrifugal force in its more technical aspects introduces several additional topics:
 Reference frames, which compare observations by observers in different states of motion. Among the many possible reference frames the inertial frame of reference are singled out as the frames where physical laws take their simplest form. In this context, physical forces are divided into two groups: real forces that originate in real sources, like electrical force originates in charges, and
 Fictitious forces that do not so originate, but originate instead in the motion of the observer. Naturally, forces that originate in the motion of the observer vary with the motion of the observer, and in particular vanish for some observers, namely those in inertial frames of reference.
The analogy between centrifugal force (sometimes used to create artificial gravity) and gravitational forces led to the equivalence principle of general relativity.^{[27]}^{[28]}
References
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 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} See p. 5 in Donato Bini, Paolo Carini, Robert T Jantzen (1997). "The intrinsic derivative and centrifugal forces in general relativity: I. Theoretical foundations". International Journal of Modern Physics D 6 (1). http://www34.homepage.villanova.edu/robert.jantzen/research/articles/idcf1.pdf.. The companion paper is Donato Bini, Paolo Carini, Robert T Jantzen (1997). "The intrinsic derivative and centrifugal forces in general relativity: II. Applications to circular orbits in some stationary axisymmetric spacetimes". International Journal of Modern Physics D 6 (1). http://www34.homepage.villanova.edu/robert.jantzen/research/articles/idcf2.pdf.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Fetter, Alexander L. and John Dirk Walecka (2003). Theoretical Mechanics of Particles and Continua (Reprint of McGrawHill 1980 ed.). Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0486432610, pp. 38–39.
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