Read my lips: no new taxes


Read my lips: no new taxes
Bush delivering the famous line at the 1988 convention

"Read my lips: no new taxes" is a now-famous phrase spoken by then presidential candidate George H. W. Bush at the 1988 Republican National Convention as he accepted the nomination on August 18. Written by speechwriter Peggy Noonan, the line was the most prominent sound bite from the speech. The pledge not to tax the American people further had been a consistent part of Bush's 1988 election platform, but its prominent inclusion in his speech cemented it in the public consciousness. The impact of the election promise was considerable, and many supporters of Bush believe it helped Bush win the 1988 presidential election.

Once he became president, however, Bush raised taxes as a way to reduce the national budget deficit. Bush refused many times but was making no progress with a Senate and House that was controlled by Democrats. Bush eventually agreed to a compromise with Congressional Democrats to raise several taxes as part of a 1990 budget agreement. Although technically there were no new taxes in this agreement, Bush in the same speech also ruled out raising existing taxes. In the 1992 presidential election campaign, Pat Buchanan made extensive use of the phrase in his strong challenge to Bush in the Republican primaries. In the election itself, Democratic nominee Bill Clinton, running as a moderate, also pointed to the quotation as evidence of Bush's untrustworthiness, which contributed to Bush's losing his bid for re-election.

Contents

Vice President Bush and taxes

As Ronald Reagan's vice president in the 1980s, Bush endorsed Reagan's policy that tax increases were undesirable but sometimes necessary. Over the course of his time in office, Reagan approved a total of thirteen tax increases, including one of the largest in history in 1982, while also cutting taxes on a number of occasions. In 1984, however, there was some controversy when Bush seemed to diverge somewhat from Reagan's view. Responding to Walter Mondale's admission that if he were elected taxes would likely be raised, Bush also implied that tax increases might be necessary in the next four years. Reagan asserted that he had no plans to raise taxes in his second term, and Bush quickly argued that he had been misunderstood. Bush's statements led some conservatives to begin doubting Bush's dedication to tax cuts.[1]

As the competition to succeed Reagan began in 1986, it was clear that taxes would be a central issue. Grover Norquist, head of Americans for Tax Reform, had created a no-new-taxes pledge and was encouraging Republican candidates to sign it. A large number of congressional candidates signed, as did Bush's primary rivals Jack Kemp and Pete du Pont. Bush at first refused to sign the pledge, but in 1987 eventually acquiesced. (Norquist still urges politicians to sign his tax pledge and claims that almost 50% of congressmen have taken the pledge.) The Bush campaign would later join other candidates in using the tax issue to attack Bob Dole, who had not been clear on the subject.[2] The exact phrase "Read my lips: no new taxes" was used first in the New Hampshire primary, and throughout the primary Bush's pledge not to raise taxes was a consistent, if not central issue.[citation needed]

Pledge

Bush had firmly secured the nomination by the time of the convention, but his advisers still worried about the lack of enthusiasm for Bush in the conservative wing of the Republican Party. Taxes were one issue that, in the words of Bush adviser James Pinkerton, "unified the right and didn't antagonize anybody else."[3] Thus a firm no-new-tax pledge was included in Bush's acceptance speech at the New Orleans convention. The full section of the speech on tax policy was:

And I'm the one who will not raise taxes. My opponent now says he'll raise them as a last resort, or a third resort. But when a politician talks like that, you know that's one resort he'll be checking into. My opponent, my opponent won't rule out raising taxes. But I will. And the Congress will push me to raise taxes and I'll say no. And they'll push, and I'll say no, and they'll push again, and I'll say, to them, ‘Read my lips: no new taxes.’ [citation needed]

The passage was written by leading speechwriter Peggy Noonan, with Jack Kemp having suggested the basic idea.[4] Including the line caused some controversy, as some Bush advisers felt the language was too strong. The most prominent critic was economic adviser Richard Darman, who crossed the phrase out on an initial draft calling it "stupid and dangerous."[5] Darman was one of the architects of Reagan's 1982 tax increase, and expected to have a major policy role in the Bush White House. He felt that such an absolute pledge would handcuff the administration.[6]

Upon the advice of others[who?] however, especially Roger Ailes, the line remained in the speech. It was felt the pledge was needed to keep conservative support in a campaign that was trying to be very centrist. It was also hoped it would add an element of toughness to a candidate who was suffering from a perception of being weak and vacillating. At the time Bush was significantly behind Michael Dukakis in the polls, and Darman has argued that the campaign was far more concerned with winning than governing.[7] The phrase, delivered with seemingly great conviction and passion by Bush, became one of the most prominent soundbites played in the media after the speech, as was intended by the campaign team.[citation needed]

Taxes raised

When in office, Bush found it challenging to keep his promise. The Bush campaign's figures had been based on the assumption that the high growth of the late 1980s would continue throughout his time in office.[8] Instead, a recession began. By 1990, rising budget deficits, fueled by a growth in mandatory spending and a declining economy, began to greatly increase the federal deficit. The Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Balanced Budget Act mandated that the deficit be reduced, or else mandatory cuts unpalatable to both Republicans and Democrats would be made. Reducing this deficit was a difficult task. The obvious government waste and easy spending cuts had already been made during the eight years of the Reagan administration. New cuts of any substance would have to come either from entitlement programs, such as Medicare or Social Security, or from defense.[9] The Democrats, who controlled Congress, refused to agree to any massive spending cuts without at least some tax increases.[citation needed]

Despite these problems the budget for the 1989 fiscal year was passed with relative ease, largely as the White House team and Dan Rostenkowski, chair of the House of Representatives' Ways and Means Committee, agreed to postpone talk of both deep cuts and tax increases until the next year.[citation needed]

The budget for the next fiscal year proved far more difficult. Bush initially presented Congress a proposed budget containing steep spending cuts and no new taxes, but congressional Democrats dismissed this out of hand.[citation needed] Negotiations began, but it was clear little progress could be made without a compromise on taxes. Richard Darman, who had been appointed head of the Office of Management and Budget, and White House Chief of Staff John H. Sununu both felt such a compromise was necessary. Other prominent Republicans had also come out in favor of a tax increase, including Gerald Ford, Paul O'Neill, and Lamar Alexander.[10] The alternative would have been to veto any budget bill that came out of Congress, risking a potential government shutdown and possibly triggering the automatic cuts of the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act.[citation needed]

At the end of June, Bush released a statement stating that "it is clear to me that both the size of the deficit problem and the need for a package that can be enacted require all of the following: entitlement and mandatory program reform, tax revenue increases, growth incentives, discretionary spending reductions, orderly reductions in defense expenditures, and budget process reform."[citation needed] The key element was the reference to "tax revenue increases" now being up for negotiation. An immediate furor followed the release. The headline of the New York Post the next day read "Read my Lips: I Lied."[citation needed] Initially some Republicans[who?] argued that "tax revenue increases" did not necessarily mean tax increases. For example, he could mean that the government could work to increase taxable income. However, Bush soon confirmed that tax increases were on the table.[11]

Some of the most enraged over the change in policy were other Republicans, including House Whip Newt Gingrich, the Senate leadership, and Vice President Dan Quayle. They felt Bush had destroyed the Republicans' most potent election plank for years to come. That the Republican leadership was not consulted before Bush made the deal also angered them. This perceived betrayal quickly led to a bitter feud within the Republican Party. When Sununu called Gingrich with the news, Gingrich hung up on him in anger. When Senator Trent Lott questioned the reversal, Sununu told the press that "Trent Lott has become an insignificant figure in this process."[citation needed] Republican National Committee co-chair Ed Rollins, who issued a memo instructing Republican congress members to distance themselves from the president if they wished to be re-elected, was fired from his position.[12] Many also felt that, while perhaps necessary, the reneging was badly handled. Bush's statement on the issue was simply posted on the notice board in the press room[where?]. There was no attempt to sell or defend the reversal. It was also very sudden; there was no attempt to slowly convince the American people of the perceived necessity of raising taxes. No figures with influence on the conservative base were recruited to endorse and try and sell the about-face.[citation needed]

Eventually taxes were raised in the new budget. In September, Bush released a new budget proposal, backed by the congressional leadership, which notably included an immediate five-cent per gallon increase on the federal gasoline tax, and a phased increase of even higher fuel taxes in subsequent years. To the surprise of the Bush administration, this plan was rejected in the House of Representatives. Over a hundred conservative Republicans, led by Gingrich, voted against it because of its tax increases, while liberal Democrats opposed it because the focus on excise taxes fell too heavily on the poor. Bush vetoed the continuing resolution, and thus on October 5 the federal government shut down for the Columbus Day long weekend. Three days later, Bush agreed to a new resolution, and soon after the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 was finally passed. This new proposal replaced some of the fuel taxes with a 10% surtax on the top income tax bracket (thus raising the top marginal tax rate to 31%) and also included new excise taxes on alcohol and tobacco products, automobiles and luxury yachts. It also included the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 which established the "pay-as-you-go" or PAYGO process for discretionary spending and taxes.[citation needed]

These events delivered a severe blow to Bush's popularity. From the historic high of 79% early in his term, Bush's approval rating had fallen to 56% by mid-October 1990.[13] This was a blow to Republicans generally, who lost ground in both the House and Senate in the 1990 midterm elections. Soon after, however, the events of the Gulf War pushed such issues out of the news, and Bush's approval rating rose to even higher levels.[citation needed]

1992 election

The reversal was used by the Democrats seeking their party's nomination, but it was first widely used by Pat Buchanan during his primary election battle against Bush. Buchanan stated that Bush's reversal was one of his main reasons for opposing Bush. On the day he entered the race, he said it was "because we Republicans, can no longer say it is all the liberals' fault. It was not some liberal Democrat who said 'Read my lips: no new taxes,' then broke his word to cut a seedy backroom budget deal with the big spenders on Capitol Hill."[14] Buchanan subsequently made extensive use of the 1988 quotation in his New Hampshire campaign, repeating it constantly in both television and radio commercials. Buchanan won a surprising 40% of the vote in New Hampshire, a major rebuff to the President. Immediately following the primary, the conservative Manchester Union Leader, which had backed Buchanan, ran the front-page headline, "Read Our Lips".[citation needed]

The early response by Bush was that raising taxes had been essential due to the condition of the economy. Polling showed that most Americans agreed some tax increases were necessary, but that the greater obstacle was the loss of trust and respect for Bush. When the primary campaign moved to Georgia, and Buchanan remained a threat, Bush changed strategies and began apologizing for raising taxes. He stated that "I did it, and I regret it and I regret it"[15] and told the American people that if he could go back he would not raise taxes again. His renewed promise was parodied by Dana Carvey on Saturday Night Live as "...never, ever, ever, ever, never, ever... never, ever, ever... ever, ever again!" [16] In the October 19 debate he repeatedly stated that raising taxes was a mistake and he "should have held out for a better deal."[17] These apologies also proved ineffective, and the broken pledge dogged Bush for the entirety of the 1992 campaign.[citation needed]

Bush's eventual opponent Bill Clinton used the broken pledge to great effect late in the campaign. In October 1992 a television commercial, designed by campaign strategist James Carville, had Bush repeating the phrase to illustrate Bush's perfidious nature. It was regarded[by whom?] as one of the most effective of all of Clinton's campaign ads. The tax reversal played a central role in reducing the public's opinion of Bush's character. Despite the variety of scandals that affected Clinton during the election, polls showed the public viewed Clinton and Bush as similar in integrity.[18]

Ross Perot capitalized upon disenchantment with Bush and the status quo entering the 1992 race as an Independent candidate, leaving and subsequently re-entering. While the effects of his candidacy have been speculated, exit polls showed Perot essentially drew votes from Bush and Clinton evenly.[19] Further analysis of Perot's possible effect[20] has determined that Perot's presence on the ballot could possibly, but not certainly have cost Bush numerous electoral votes, but not enough to have changed the outcome in the election in Perot's absence.[citation needed]

Later views

Bush's broken promise was one of several important factors leading to Bush's defeat. In fact, conservative talk show host Rush Limbaugh in his book See I Told You So, believes Bush would've easily won re-election had he not increased taxes.[citation needed] Republican pollster Richard Wirthlin called them "the six most destructive words in the history of presidential politics."[21] Ed Rollins has called it "probably the most serious violation of any political pledge anybody has ever made."[22] White House Press Secretary Marlin Fitzwater called the reversal the "single biggest mistake of the administration."[23] Others[who?] disagree with this view. Richard Darman does not believe that the reversal played a central role in Bush's defeat; rather he argues that it simply became a focal point for discontent with an economic situation that Bush had little control over.[24] Others[who?] feel that the reversal was politically disastrous, but also good for the country. Daniel L. Ostrander has argued that Bush's actions should be seen as a noble sacrifice of his own political future for the good of the nation's well-being.[25] Ostrander and Darman, as well as most Democrats, feel the error was making the pledge in the first place, not breaking it.[citation needed]

Conservative Republicans[who?] generally feel the opposite, that Bush should have stood by his pledge no matter the pressure exerted by Congress. While the reversal played an important role in Bill Clinton's 1992 victory, it also played a role in the 1994 Republican congressional victory. Newt Gingrich, while a member of the congressional negotiating committee, refused to endorse Bush's compromise on the tax issue. He then led over one hundred Republican House members in voting against the president's first budget proposal. This made Gingrich a hero to conservative Republicans[who?], and propelled him into the leadership role he would play in the "Republican Revolution" of 1994.[26]

The phrase was subsequently used by Brian Lenihan, Jr., Irish Minister for Finance]] on September 17, 2009, promising not to raise taxes in the December 2009 budget.[27]

George W. Bush

At a Republican primary debate in New Hampshire on January 6, 2000, George W. Bush, son of the former President, was answering a question about his economic plans, when he referenced taxes. Manchester Union Leader reporter John Mephisto then asked "Is this 'no new taxes, so help me God?'," to which the candidate replied, "This is not only 'no new taxes,' this is 'a tax cut, so help me God'."[28]

Use in popular culture

In 1992 record producer Don Was released under the name A Thousand Points of Night a club track Read my lips, containing samples of eponymous phrase intermixed with several contradicting statements by George Bush Snr.[citation needed]

The phrase was also used as a sound bite in the song "Foreclosure of a Dream" by Megadeth in their 1992 album Countdown to Extinction. The song deals with bassist David Ellefson's family, who were farmers in Minnesota, being put out of business during the Reagan administration.[29] Another song to use the phrase as a sound bite is "Choices" by Mudvayne in their 2005 album Lost and Found. The song is essentially antipolitical, calling leaders irresponsible. The sound bite is one of several that support the theme of the song. During one flashback sequence in the film Hot Shots!, Topper "Buzz" Harley becomes distracted by several things he remembers that have happened to him in the past, causing him to lose control of the aircraft he is flying. This sequence includes the "Read my lips" speech.[citation needed] Puerto Rican rock band Fiel a la Vega made a reference to the phrase in a song titled "Bla Bla Bla" in their second studio album. The song criticizes politicians' empty speeches and false promises.[citation needed] White Lion rock band includes this phrase as a sound bite in the interlude of the song Lights and Thunder in the album Mane Attraction (1991).[citation needed] Additionally, the metal band Epica used the audio clip in their song "Semblance of Liberty," in the album Design Your Universe (2009).[citation needed]

The phrase was often parodied with other words substituted for lips or taxes. Dana Carvey frequently did versions of the line on Saturday Night Live.[30] An episode of the children's cartoon Rugrats even parodied it, with the character of Lou Pickles saying "Read my clips: no new branches" while trimming the hedge.[citation needed] Similarly, "Washingtoons" (a Tiny Toons episode) had the animated version of George H.W. beginning the phrase "Read my lips..." before Babs Bunny pulls his lips out, which displays the "...no new taxes" part, then responds with, "So, what else is new?"[citation needed] Even the Bush family has done so. George H. W. once told a reporter, who had interrupted him while he was jogging, to "read my hips" as he jogged away.[31] While Governor of Texas, George W. Bush once complained about too much formal wear by stating "read my lips: no new tuxes."[32]

The phrase also became the title of a political party, albeit one that was a sham. In a 2002 U.S. House race in Minnesota's Second District, Sam Garst, a supporter of incumbent Democrat Bill Luther's, ran as a candidate of the No New Taxes Party, ostensibly to siphon votes from the Republican challenger, John Kline, in a closely contested race. The move backfired, as Kline accused Luther of engaging in dirty politics (Luther's campaign manager knew of Garst's candidacy) and demanded that Garst be included in their debates (Garst fled the district during the campaign). Kline ended up defeating both Luther and Garst, though Garst did win over 12,000 votes, or 4% of the total.[33]

On The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, ever spoiled Hilary Banks was overjoyed at getting her first paycheck. To her disappointment the amount she expected to get had been greatly reduced by taxes, to which she replied "Didn't President Bush said 'No new taxes.'" To which Geoffrey says "The Federal taxes aren't new!" She replies, "Well, they're new to me!"[citation needed]

In the Married...with Children episode "The Chicago Wine Party", originally broadcast two days before the 1992 United States Presidential Election, Al Bundy protests a hike in the local beer tax. After a rousing stump speech about Americans and their love of beer, which leads to a riot (and to the city council to re-examine the tax), the Bundy family celebrates at home -- then Al asks his family, "By the way, who was elected President?" When his wife and their kids says they don't know, Al says, "Who cares, it doesn't matter." The episode then ends with him breaking the "Fourth wall" and saying, "But whoever you are, read my lips: Don't tax beer!"[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ Jack Germond. Mad as Hell. pg. 23
  2. ^ Germond pg. 24
  3. ^ Germond pg. 22
  4. ^ Peggy Noonan. What I Saw at the Revolution. pg. 307
  5. ^ John Robert Greene The Presidency of George Bush. pg. 37
  6. ^ Richard Darman. Who's in Control? pg. 192
  7. ^ Darman pg. 193
  8. ^ Peter B. Levy "No New Taxes." Encyclopedia of the Reagan-Bush Years. pg. 260
  9. ^ Darman pg. 198
  10. ^ Darman pg. 200
  11. ^ Germond pg. 34
  12. ^ Greene pg. 84–88
  13. ^ Germond pg. 45
  14. ^ Quoted in the New York Times December 11, 1991 pg. B12
  15. ^ The apology first ran in the Atlanta-Journal Constitution
  16. ^ "Debate '92". Snltranscripts.jt.org. http://snltranscripts.jt.org/92/92cdebate.phtml. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  17. ^ Presidential Debate in East Lansing, Michigan[dead link]
  18. ^ Honor and Loyalty: Inside the Politics of the George H. W. Bush White House pg. 374
  19. ^ Holmes, Steven A. (1992-11-05). "THE 1992 ELECTIONS: DISAPPOINTMENT - NEWS ANALYSIS An Eccentric but No Joke; Perot's Strong Showing Raises Questions On What Might Have Been, and Might Be". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE0DB1F3FF936A35752C1A964958260. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  20. ^ "1992 Presidential Race". FairVote. http://www.fairvote.org/e_college/?page=1640. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  21. ^ MacKenzie, Colin. "How Bush Blew It." The Globe and Mail November 4, 1992 pg. A1
  22. ^ Germond pg. 35
  23. ^ Ryan J. Barilleaux and & Mark J. Rozell. Power and Prudence. pg. 34
  24. ^ Darman pg. 286
  25. ^ Richard Himelfarb and Rosanna Perotti. Principle over Politics? pg. 56
  26. ^ Himelfarb and Perotti. pg. 53.
  27. ^ Brennan, Joe, Molony, Senan, and Sheahan, Fionnán, "Lenihan: Read my lips, no tax hikes", Irish Independent, 18 September 2009
  28. ^ CNN, "Bush, McCain lock horns in GOP debate"[dead link]. Retrieved November 11, 2007. Archived November 23, 2007 at the Wayback Machine[dead link]
  29. ^ "Lyrics to Megadeth's song "Foreclosure of a Dream"". Megadeth.rockmetal.art.pl. 1991-01-16. http://megadeth.rockmetal.art.pl/lyrics_countdown.html#Foreclosure. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  30. ^ Saturday Night Live show, Top 50 impressions[dead link]
  31. ^ "Time Magazine - Read My Hips". Cnn.com. 1990-10-22. http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1997/10/13/back.time/. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  32. ^ [BBC interview with George W. Bush][Full citation needed]
  33. ^ The Almanac of American Politics 2006, p. 914–915.

Bibliography

  • Barilleaux, Ryan J. and Mark J. Rozell. Power and Prudence: The Presidency of George H.W. Bush. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2004.
  • Darman, Richard. Who's in Control?: Polar Politics and the Sensible Center. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.
  • Germond, Jack. Mad as Hell: Revolt at the Ballot Box, 1992. New York: Warner Books, 1993.
  • Greene, John Robert. The Presidency of George Bush. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2000.
  • Himelfarb, Richard and Rosanna Perotti, eds. Principle over Politics?: The Domestic Policy of the George H. W. Bush Presidency. Westport: Praeger, 2004.
  • Levy, Peter B. "No New Taxes." Encyclopedia of the Reagan-Bush Years. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1996.

External links


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