Granule cell


Granule cell
Drawing of Purkinje cells (A) and granule cells (B) from pigeon cerebellum by Santiago Ramón y Cajal, 1899. Instituto Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain.

In neuroscience, granule cells refer to tiny neurons (a type of cell) that are around 10 micrometres in diameter. Granule cells are found within the granular layer of the cerebellum (which is also known as layer 3, the inner most layer of cerebellar cortex with the middle layer being the Purkinje cell layer and the outermost being the Molecular layer), the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the superficial layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, and in the olfactory bulb.

Granule cells in different brain regions are both functionally and anatomically diverse: the main thing they have in common is smallness. For instance, olfactory bulb granule cells are GABAergic and axonless, while granule cells in the dentate gyrus have glutamatergic projection axons. These two populations of granule cells are also the only major neuronal populations that undergo adult neurogenesis, while cerebellar and cortical granule cells do not.

Cerebellar granule cells account for nearly half of the neurons in the central nervous system. Granule cells receive excitatory input from mossy fibers originating from pontine nuclei. Cerebellar granule cells send parallel fibers up through the Purkinje layer into the molecular layer where they branch out and spread through Purkinje cell dendritic arbors. These parallel fibers form thousands of excitatory Granule-cell-Purkinje-cell synapses onto the intermediate and distal dendrites of Purkinje cells using glutamate as a neurotransmitter.

Layer 4 granule cells of the cerebral cortex receive driving inputs from thalamus and convey driving inputs largely to supragranular layers 2-3, but also to infragranular layers of the cerebral cortex.

External links



Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • granule cell — n one of the small neurons of the cortex of the cerebellum and cerebrum …   Medical dictionary

  • granule cell — I. noun : a connective tissue cell containing cytoplasmic granules that stain intensely with aniline dyes II. noun : one of the small neurons of the cortex of the cerebellum and the cerebrum …   Useful english dictionary

  • granule cell — Type of neuron found in the cerebellum …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • Granule (cell biology) — In cell biology, a granule can be any structure barely visible by light microscopy. The term is most often used to describe a secretory vesicle.LeukocytesA group of leukocytes called granulocytes contain granules and play an important role in the …   Wikipedia

  • Cerebellum granule cell — Neuron: Cerebellar granule cell Granule cells, parallel fibers, and flattened dendritic trees of Purkinje cells Location Cer …   Wikipedia

  • compound granule cell — gitter c …   Medical dictionary

  • fatty granule cell — gitter c …   Medical dictionary

  • Granule — is a generic term used for a small particle or grain. The generic term is used in a variety of specific contexts.* Granule (solar physics), visible structures in the photosphere of the Sun arising from activity in the Sun s convective zone *… …   Wikipedia

  • Cell — The basic structural and functional unit in people and all living things. Each cell is a small container of chemicals and water wrapped in a membrane. Each cell in the human body there are 100 trillion cells in each of us contains the entire… …   Medical dictionary

  • Cell (biology) — Allium cells in different phases of the cell cycle …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.