- József Alvinczi
Freiherr" Joseph Alvinczi von Borberek, or József Alvinczi de Borberek (Alvintzy) ( February 1, 1735— September 25, 1810) was a soldier in the Habsburg Army and a Field Marshalof the Austrian Empire.
An ethnic Magyar, he was born in
Transylvaniain a place now called Vinţu de Jos("Alvinc" or "Alwintz"), and spent his boyhood in the household of " Graf" Franz Gyulaibefore joining his regiment as a " Fähnrich" aged 14. By 1753 he had risen to " Hauptmann".
Seven Years' War, Alvinczy distinguished himself leading a Grenadier company in the battles of Torgau and Teplitz, where his courageous leadership won him a promotion to second Major. At the end of the war he worked extensively on the implementation of Franz Moritz von Lacy's new regulations throughout the army.
War of Succession, Turkish War, and the Netherlands campaign
Promoted to "
Oberst" commanding the 19th Infantry Regiment 19 in 1774, he led his men during the War of the Bavarian Succession, where he took the " Böhmertor" and captured the Prussian Commander Prince Hessen-Philippstal, a feat which won Alvinczy promotion to Major Generaland award of the " Militär-Maria Theresien-Orden" (MTO).
Alvinczy fought under
Ernst Gideon Freiherr von Laudonin the Ottoman War of 1787, but did not accomplish his mission of capturing Belgrade. After a short period instructing the future Emperor, Archduke Francis, he returned to command his regiment. Promoted to " Feldmarschalleutnant", he was transferred to the Austrian Netherlandsin 1790 to suppres the United States of Belgium, until a fall from his horse forced him to retire.
Neerwinden, Fleurus, Charleroi
Upon the outbreak of the
French Revolutionary Warsin 1792, Alvinczy commanded a Division, steading his demoralised men at a key stage of the victorious battle of Neerwinden in 1793, leading his men forward to capture the village; for this expolit he was awarded the Commanders Cross of the MTO. He took command of an Auxiliary army which supported the British under the Duke of York and Albany, fighting at Landrecyand in the Battle of Fleurus, before being wounded at Mariolles.
On his recovery and promotion to "
Feldzeugmeister", Alvinczy advised the William VI of Orange in the successful relief of Charleroiin June 1793, losing two horses under him in the process, and earning the reward of the Grand cross of the MTO. Briefly commander of the Army of the Upper Rhine, he was recalled to Viennato serve on the " Hofkriegsrat" in 1795.
Italian campaign and later assignments
In late 1796 he took over command of the army that was fighting Napoleon Bonaparte in the north of the
Italian Peninsula. After organising the Tyrolean militia to face the threat of the , he was tasked with relieving troops in the siege of Mantua. Alvinczy's army was largely composed of new recruits with few experienced officers, but he won small victories at first Caldiero and then Bassano del Grappabefore defeat at Arcole (November 15-17, 1796).
Despite deteriorating health, he regrouped and tried again, suffering a final defeat in the
battle of Rivoliof January 14 1797. He was then given the position of military governor of Hungary, and promoted Field Marshal in 1808, dying two years later in Buda.
Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser
Constantin von Wurzbach, "Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, 1856-91", vol I, p. 22.
* [http://www.historydata.com/biographies/alvinczy.html Joseph Alvinczy]
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