- Republic of Ireland Act 1948
The Republic of Ireland Act 1948 is an Act of the
Oireachtaswhose primary provisions were to declare that the state, Ireland, is a Republic and that the President of Irelandhas executive authority of any executive function of the state or in the external relations of the state. It repealed the External Relations Act, 1936 which had declared that the the Head of State of the United Kingdom(in his role as King of Ireland) should exercise that authority. As a consequence, the State ceased to be a Dominionof the Crown.
It makes clear that the term "The Republic of Ireland" (or "Poblacht na hÉireann" in Irish) is the official "description" (and not "name") of the State. The Act was enacted in both the Irish and English languages. It was signed by the
President of Irelandon 21 December 1948and came into force on 18 April 1949. [ [http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/1949/en/si/0027.html The Republic of Ireland Act, 1948 (Commencement) Order, 1949] ]
Text of Act
The Republic of Ireland Act is itself quite short, running to just 5 brief sections, and is therefore set out in full as follows: [* [http://www.irishstatutebook.ie:80/plweb-cgi/fastweb?state_id=1204576433&view=ag-view&numhitsfound=2&query_rule=%28%28$query3%29%29%3Alegtitle&query3=republic%20of%20Ireland%20act%201948&docid=19310&docdb=Acts&dbname=Acts&dbname=SIs&sorting=none&operator=and&TemplateName=predoc.tmpl&setCookie=1 Republic of Ireland Act, 1948] ]
Number 22 of 1948
The Republic of Ireland Act, 1948
"An act to repeal the Executive Authority (external relations) Act 1936, to declare that the description of the state shall be the Republic of Ireland, and to enable the President to exercise the executive power of any executive function of the state in or in connection with its external relations. (21 December, 1948)
Be it enacted by the Oireachtas as follows:-
1 The Executive Authority (External Relations) Act 1936 (No.58 of 1936) is hereby repealed.
2 It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland.
3 The President, on the authority and on the advice of the Government, may exercise the executive power or any executive function of the State in or in connection with its external relations.
4 This Act shall come into operation on such day as the Government may by order appoint.
5 This Act may be cited as The Republic of Ireland Act, 1948.
Section 1 of the Act repealed the
Executive Authority (External Relations) Act 1936. By doing so the Act abolished the last remaining functions of the King of Ireland, then George VI, in relation to Ireland. These functions had related to the issuance and acceptance of letters of credenceof diplomatic and consular representatives and the conclusion of international agreements. Section 3 provides that the President of Ireland may instead exercise these functions and any other functions in relation to Ireland's external (or foreign) relations. This effectively "upgraded" the President to a full head of state.
At the time the Act came into force, a requirement for a country's membership of the
British Commonwealthwas that the state be a Dominion, where the same monarch was shared as head of state in each country. Thus, after the Act, Ireland had definitively left the Commonwealth. Ireland had not participated actively in the Commonwealth for some years prior to the Act, but was regarded, at least by the other Commonwealth governments, as not having "left" the Commonwealth.
London Declaration, which permitted republics to remain within the Commonwealth, was promulgated shortly afterwards. The Irish government opted not to reapply for membership of the Commonwealth, unlike India, which became a republic within the Commonwealth in 1950. The Irish government's decision was criticised by then Leader of the Opposition Éamon de Valera, who considered applying for membership in the 1950s.
Republic of Ireland Description
Section 2 of the Act quite simply provides:
"It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland."
Notably, the Act did not change the official "name" of the state. It merely provided the "description" for the State. The
Constitution of Irelandprovides that "Ireland" (or " Éire" in Irish) is the official name of the State and if the Act had purported to change the "name", it would have been unconstitutional as it was not a constitutional amendment. The distinction between a "description" and a "name" has sometimes caused confusion. The Taoiseach, John A. Costellowho introduced the Republic of Ireland Bill in the Oireachtasexplained the difference in the following way: [ cite book |url=http://historical-debates.oireachtas.ie/S/0036/S.0036.194812150003.html |title=The Republic of Ireland Bill, 1948—Committee and Final Stages |series=Seanad Éireann debates |date= 15 December1948 |accessdate=2008-01-16 |page=Vol. 36, p.323 ]
United Kingdom response
The British government responded to the Republic of Ireland Act by enacting the Ireland Act 1949, which provided that Irish citizens in the UK would not be treated as foreigners.
It also provided that "that part of Ireland heretofore known as Eire...may [be referred to] as the Republic of Ireland."” [ [http://www.statutelaw.gov.uk/content.aspx?LegType=All+Legislation&title=ireland+act&Year=1949&searchEnacted=0&extentMatchOnly=0&confersPower=0&blanketAmendment=0&sortAlpha=0&TYPE=QS&PageNumber=1&NavFrom=0&parentActiveTextDocId=1096759&ActiveTextDocId=1096759&filesize=20517 Ireland Act 1949] .] Between the adoption of the Irish Constitution in 1937 and the Ireland Act, UK law had only formally acknowledged "Eire" (and not "Ireland") as the name of the Irish state. Notwithstanding the UK's acceptance of the "Republic of Ireland" description, the question of the correct name for the state remained a source of diplomatic friction for several decades afterwards.
The UK's Ireland Act also gave a legislative guarantee that
Northern Irelandwould continue to remain a part of the United Kingdom unless the parliament of Northern Irelandformally expressed a wish to join a United Ireland. This "unionist veto" became a source of much controversy in Dublin until 1998.
George VI of the United Kingdomsent a message of goodwill to the new Irish head of state, President Seán T. O'Kelly. O'Kelly's new status as head of state was celebrated by the first ever state visit by an Irish president abroad, to the Holy Seein 1950. En route, he planned to "do the decent thing and call upon Your Majesty", but timetabling problems prevented what was intended to be the first ever public meeting between a British king and an Irish president.
The Act repealed the External Relations Act, 1936. Under that Act, King George VI as 'King of Ireland' (a king shared with the
United Kingdomand other Dominions of the Commonwealth) acted as the Irish head of state in international relations. He accredited ambassadors and on the State's behalf accepted credentials appointing foreign ambassadors to the State. The "Republic of Ireland Act" removed this role (the last remaining role) from the King and vested it instead in the President of Ireland, making the then President of Ireland, Seán T. O'Kelly, unambiguously the Irish head of state.
In 1945, when asked if he planned to declare a Republic, the then
Taoiseach Eamon de Valerahad replied, "we are a republic", [" [http://historical-debates.oireachtas.ie/S/0030/S.0030.194507190008.html Seanad Éireann - Volume 30 - 19 July, 1945] " Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved on 14 March, 2007.] having refused to say so before for eight years. He also insisted that Ireland had no king, but simply used an external king as an "organ" in international affairs. However, that was not the view of constitutional lawyers including de Valera's Attorneys-General, whose disagreement with de Valera's interpretation only came to light when the state papers from the 1930s and 1940s were released to historians. Nor was it the view in the international arena, who believed that Ireland "did" have a king, George VI who had been proclaimed " King of Ireland" in December 1936, and to whom they accredited ambassadors to Ireland. King George, in turn, as "King of Ireland" accredited all Irish diplomats. All treaties signed by the Irish Taoiseach or Minister for External Affairs were signed in the name of King George.
De Valera had a history of making statements on constitutional matters that were legally questionable. His belief that the Governor-General's post had been abolished by a constitutional amendment in December 1936 was privately rejected by his own
Attorney-General, James Geoghegan, Secretary to the Executive Council [the state's most senior Law Officer and his own closest advisor] ,Fact|date=August 2008 by the Parliamentary Draftsman's Office (which drafted legislation) and other leading legal figures in the government.Fact|date=August 2008 To sort out what was privately seenWho|date=August 2008 as a legal mess, de Valera had had to introduce a second enactment, the " Executive Powers (Consequential Provisions) Act, 1937", which was backdated as if effective from the original date of the supposed abolition in December 1936. In 1947, de Valera's new Attorney-General, began drafting a bill to grant to the President the powers in international affairs possessed by the King. Part of the debate in government revolved around whether a republic should be declared in the bill. The very existenceFact|date=August 2008 of the debate is evidence that de Valera's latest attorney-general and part of his cabinet, maybe even de Valera himself, did not agree with de Valera's statement in 1945 that the Irish state was "already" a republic. In the end, the draft bill was never submitted to the Oireachtasfor approval. Whether that is because it was simply abandoned or because de Valera planned to introduce it after the 1948 general election (which he unexpectedly lost) is unclear.
Introduction of the bill
The bill to declare Ireland a republic was introduced in 1948 by the new Taoiseach,
John A. Costelloof the Fine Gaelparty. Costello made the announcement that the bill was to be introduced when he was in Ottawa, during an official visit to Canada. It has been suggestedWho|date=August 2008 that it was a spur of the moment reaction to offence caused by the Governor-General of Canada, Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tuniswho was of Northern Irish descent and who allegedly placed symbols of Northern Ireland, notably a replica of the famous Roaring Meg cannon used in the Siege of Derry, before an affronted Costello at a state dinner. What is certain is that the prior arrangement whereby toasts to the King (symbolising Canada) and the President (representing Ireland) were to be proposed, was broken.Fact|date=August 2008 Only a toast to the King was proposed, to the fury of the Irish delegation.Fact|date=August 2008 Shortly afterwards Costello announced the plan to declare the republic.
However, according to all but one of the ministers in Costello's cabinet, the decision to declare a republic had already been made prior to Costello's Canadian visit.Fact|date=August 2008 Costello's revelation of the decision was because the
Sunday Independent(an Irish newspaper) had discovered the fact and was about to "break" the story as an exclusive. Nevertheless one minister, the controversial Noel Browne, gave a different account in his autobiography, "Against the Tide". He claimed Costello's announcement was done in a fit of anger of his treatment by the Governor-General and that when he returned, Costello, at an assembly of ministers in his home, offered to resign because of his manufacture of a major government policy initiative on the spot in Canada. Yet according to Browne, all the ministers agreed that they would refuse to accept the resignation and also agreed to manufacture the story of a prior cabinet decision. ["Against the Tide" Browne, Noel ISBN 0717114589 London Gill & McMillan]
The evidence of what really happened remains ambiguous. There is "no" record of a prior decision to declare a republic before Costello's Canadian trip, among cabinet papers for 1948, which supports Browne's claim.Fact|date=August 2008 However, in what is generallyWho|date=August 2008 regarded as one of its most ill-judged decisions, the Costello government refused to allow the Secretary to the Government,
Maurice Moynihan, to attend cabinet meetings and take minutes, because they believed he was too close to their enemy, Éamon de Valera.Fact|date=August 2008 Rather than entrust the minute-taking to Moynihan, the cabinet entrusted it to a Parliamentary Secretary (junior minister), Liam Cosgrave. Given that Cosgrave had never kept minutes before, it is understandable that Cosgrave's minutes, at least early on in the government, proved less than a thorough record of government decisions. So whether the issue was never raised, was raised but undecided on, was subjected to a decision taken "informally", or was subjected to a decision taken "formally", remains obscure on the basis of the 1948 cabinet documentation.Fact|date=August 2008
In addition, Browne's own book, published in the 1980s, is littered with major factual inaccuracies and thus is seenWho|date=August 2008 as equally unreliable. The last two surviving ministers of that cabinet in the 1980s, former Minister for External Affairs
Seán MacBrideand Browne, publicly and trenchantly disagreed with one another as to the events that led to the declaration of the republic. What is certain is that one man's account is wrong. But it has proved impossible to determine "which" one is wrong. [By the 1980s, both men's personal relationship had broken down completely. Browne saw MacBride, who had been his party leader at the time, as egotistical and manipulative, holding him personally responsible for his dismissal from cabinet. (It was MacBride who had demanded and got Browne's resignation over the Mother and Child Schemefiasco.) MacBride saw Browne as a deliberately provocative trouble-maker who, in his book "Against the Tide", had told lies including a series of characterisations of his cabinet colleagues that were generally seen as gross and offensive distortions. (One character mocked, Tánaiste William Norton, was attacked for his affinity for sugar and desserts, his eating habits compared to those of a pig. Browne, himself a medical doctor, never mentioned in the book that Norton was subsequently diagnosed as a diabetic, which would have explained his dietary habits.) Thus the MacBride/Browne clash over Browne's book and its claims about the declaration of the republic was seen not as discussion of the topic but of both settling old scores with a long-term bitter enemy.]
At any rate, the Act was enacted with all parties voting for it. De Valera did suggest that it would have been better to reserve the declaration of the republic until Irish unity had been achieved, a comment hard to reconcile with his 1945 claim that the Irish state was "already" a republic. Speaking in
Seanad ÉireannCostello told senators that as a matter of law, the King was indeed "King of Ireland" and Irish head of state and the President of Ireland was in effect no more than first citizenand a local notable, until the new law came into force.
In 1996, the Constitution Review Group considered amending the Constitution to declare that Ireland is a republic. It decided against recommending such an amendment. [
] This was the second time that such an amendment was considered by committee.
Éamon De Valera's grandson,
Éamon Ó Cuív, while a government minister in the 1990s, advocated Irish membership of the Commonwealth.
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