Meat


Meat
Varieties of meat

Meat is animal flesh that is used as food.[1] Most often, this means the skeletal muscle and associated fat and other tissues, but it may also describe other edible tissues such as organs and offal.[1] In commerce, meat is generally used by the meat packing industry in a more restrictive sense—the flesh of mammalian species (pigs, cattle, lambs, etc.) raised and prepared for human consumption, to the exclusion of fish, poultry, and other animals. Usage varies worldwide by culture, and some countries such as India have large populations that avoid the consumption of all or most kinds of meat. Game or bush meat is also generally distinguished from that produced by agriculture.

The consumption of meat has various traditions and rituals associated with it in different cultures such as kosher and halal and its production is generally regulated by state authorities as well. This article is mainly focused on that process from primary production to consumption.

Contents

Etymology

The word meat comes from the Old English word mete, which referred to food in general. The term is related to mad in Danish, mat in Swedish and Norwegian, and matur in Icelandic, which also mean 'food'. The word "mete" also exists in Old Frisian (and to a lesser extent, modern West Frisian) to denote important food, differentiating it from "swiets" (sweets) and "dierfied" (animal feed).

One definition that refers to meat as not including fish developed over the past few hundred years and has religious influences. The distinction between fish and "meat" is codified by the Jewish dietary law of kashrut, regarding the mixing of milk and meat, which does not forbid the mixing of milk and fish. Modern Jewish legal practice (halakha) on kashrut classifies the flesh of both mammals and birds as "meat"; fish are considered to be parve, neither meat nor a dairy food. The Catholic dietary restriction on "meat" on Fridays also does not apply to the cooking and eating of fish.

The Latin word carō "meat" (also the root of 'carnal', referring to the 'pleasures of the flesh') is often a euphemism for sexual pleasure, effected from the function performed by fleshy organs. Thus 'meat' may refer to the human body in a sensual, or sexual, connotation. A meat market, in addition to simply denoting a market where meat is sold, also refers to a place or situation where humans are treated or viewed as commodities, especially a place known as one where a sexual partner may be found.

"Meat" may also be used to refer to humans humorously or indifferently . In military slang, "meat shield" refers to soldiers sent towards an enemy to draw fire away from another unit.

History

Paleontological evidence suggests that meat constituted a substantial proportion of the diet of even the earliest humans.[2] Early hunter-gatherers depended on the organized hunting of large animals such as bison and deer.[2]

The domestication of animals, of which we have evidence dating back to the end of the last glacial period (c. 10,000 years BP),[2] allowed the systematic production of meat and the breeding of animals with a view to improving meat production.[2] The animals which are now the principal sources of meat were domesticated in conjunction with the development of early civilizations:

  • Sheep, originating from western Asia, were domesticated with the help of dogs prior to the establishment of settled agriculture, likely as early as the eighth millennium BC.[3] Several breeds of sheep were established in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt by 3500–3000 BC.[3] Presently, more than 200 sheep breeds exist.
  • Cattle were domesticated in Mesopotamia after settled agriculture was established about 5000 BC,[4] and several breeds were established by 2500 BC.[5] Modern domesticated cattle fall into the groups Bos taurus (European cattle) and Bos indicus (zebu), both descended from the now-extinct aurochs.[4] The breeding of beef cattle, cattle optimized for meat production as opposed to animals best suited for draught or dairy purposes, began in the middle of the 18th century.[6]
  • Domestic pigs, which are descended from wild boars, are known to have existed about 2500 BC in modern-day Hungary and in Troy; earlier pottery from Jericho and Egypt depicts wild pigs.[7] Pork sausages and hams were of great commercial importance in Greco-Roman times.[7] Pigs continue to be bred intensively as they are being optimized to produce meat best suited for specific meat products.[8]

Other animals are, or have been raised or hunted for their flesh. The type of meat consumed varies much in different cultures, changes over time, and depends on different factors such as the availability of the animals and traditions.

Modern agriculture employs a number of techniques, such as progeny testing, to make animals evolve rapidly towards having the qualities desired by meat producers.[21] For instance, in the wake of well-publicised health concerns associated with saturated fats in the 1980s, the fat content of UK beef, pork and lamb fell from 20–26 percent to 4–8 percent within a few decades, both due to selective breeding for leanness and changed methods of butchery.[21] Methods of genetic engineering aimed at improving the meat production qualities of animals are now also becoming available.[22]

Even though it is a very old industry, meat production continues to be shaped strongly by the rapidly evolving demands of customers. The trend towards selling meat in pre-packaged cuts has increased the demand for larger breeds of cattle, which are better suited to producing such cuts.[23] Even more animals not previously exploited for their meat are now being farmed, especially the more agile and mobile species, whose muscles tend to be developed better than those of cattle, sheep or pigs.[23] Examples include the various antelope species, the zebra, water buffalo and camel,[24] as well as nonmammals, such as the crocodile, emu and ostrich.[25] Another important trend in contemporary meat production is organic farming which, while providing no organoleptic benefit to meat so produced,[26] meets an increasing demand for numerous reasons.

Growth and development of meat animals

Agricultural science has identified several factors bearing on the growth and development of meat in animals.

Genetics

Trait Heritability[27]
Reproductive efficiency 2–10%
Meat quality 15–30%
Growth 20–40%
Muscle/fat ratio 40–60%

Several economically important traits in meat animals are heritable to some degree (see the table to the right) and can thus be selected for by breeding. In cattle, certain growth features are controlled by recessive genes which have not so far been controlled, complicating breeding.[28] One such trait is dwarfism; another is the doppelender or "double muscling" condition, which causes muscle hypertrophy and thereby increases the animal's commercial value.[28] Genetic analysis continues to reveal the genetic mechanisms that control numerous aspects of the endocrine system and, through it, meat growth and quality.[29]

Genetic engineering techniques can shorten breeding programmes significantly because they allow for the identification and isolation of genes coding for desired traits, and for the reincorporation of these genes into the animal genome.[30] To enable such manipulation, research is ongoing (as of 2006) to map the entire genome of sheep, cattle and pigs.[30] Some research has already seen commercial application. For instance, a recombinant bacterium has been developed which improves the digestion of grass in the rumen of cattle, and some specific features of muscle fibres have been genetically altered.[31]

Experimental reproductive cloning of commercially important meat animals such as sheep, pig or cattle has been successful. The multiple asexual reproduction of animals bearing desirable traits can thus be anticipated,[31] although this is not yet practical on a commercial scale.

Environment

Heat regulation in livestock is of great economic significance, because mammals attempt to maintain a constant optimal body temperature. Low temperatures tend to prolong animal development and high temperatures tend to retard it.[31] Depending on their size, body shape and insulation through tissue and fur, some animals have a relatively narrow zone of temperature tolerance and others (e.g. cattle) a broad one.[32] Static magnetic fields, for reasons still unknown, also retard animal development.[32]

Nutrition

The quality and quantity of usable meat depends on the animal's plane of nutrition, i.e., whether it is over- or underfed. Scientists disagree, however, about how exactly the plane of nutrition influences carcase composition.[33]

The composition of the diet, especially the amount of protein provided, is also an important factor regulating animal growth.[34] Ruminants, which may digest cellulose, are better adapted to poor-quality diets, but their ruminal microorganisms degrade high-quality protein if supplied in excess.[35] Because producing high-quality protein animal feed is expensive (see also Environmental impact below), several techniques are employed or experimented with to ensure maximum utilization of protein. These include the treatment of feed with formalin to protect amino acids during their passage through the rumen, the recycling of manure by feeding it back to cattle mixed with feed concentrates, or the partial conversion of petroleum hydrocarbons to protein through microbial action.[36]

In plant feed, environmental factors influence the availability of crucial nutrients or micronutrients, a lack or excess of which can cause a great many ailments.[37] In Australia, for instance, where the soil contains limited phosphate, cattle are being fed additional phosphate to increase the efficiency of beef production.[38] Also in Australia, cattle and sheep in certain areas were often found losing their appetite and dying in the midst of rich pasture; this was at length found to be a result of cobalt deficiency in the soil.[37] Plant toxins are also a risk to grazing animals; for instance, fluoracetate, found in some African and Australian plants, kills by disrupting the cellular metabolism.[37] Certain man-made pollutants such as methylmercury and some pesticide residues present a particular hazard due to their tendency to bioaccumulate in meat, potentially poisoning consumers.[36]

Human intervention

Meat producers may seek to improve the fertility of female animals through the administration of gonadotrophic or ovulation-inducing hormones.[39] In pig production, sow infertility is a common problem, possibly due to excessive fatness.[40] No methods currently exist to augment the fertility of male animals.[40] Artificial insemination is now routinely used to produce animals of the best possible genetic quality, and the efficiency of this method is improved through the administration of hormones that synchronize the ovulation cycles within groups of females.[41]

Growth hormones, particularly anabolic agents such as steroids, are used in some countries to accelerate muscle growth in animals.[41] This practice has given rise to the beef hormone controversy, an international trade dispute. It may also decrease the tenderness of meat, although research on this is inconclusive,[42] and have other effects on the composition of the muscle flesh.[43] Where castration is used to improve control over male animals, its side effects are also counteracted by the administration of hormones.[41]

Sedatives may be administered to animals to counteract stress factors and increase weight gain.[44] The feeding of antibiotics to certain animals has been shown to improve growth rates also.[44] This practice is particularly prevalent in the USA, but has been banned in the EU, partly because it causes antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microorganisms.[44]

Biochemical composition

Numerous aspects of the biochemical composition of meat vary in complex ways depending on the species, breed, sex, age, plane of nutrition, training and exercise of the animal, as well as on the anatomical location of the musculature involved.[45] Even between animals of the same litter and sex there are considerable differences in such parameters as the percentage of intramuscular fat.[46]

Main constituents

Adult mammalian muscle flesh consists of roughly 75 percent water, 19 percent protein, 2.5 percent intramuscular fat, 1.2 percent carbohydrates and 2.3 percent other soluble non-protein substances. These include nitrogenous compounds, such as amino acids, and inorganic substances such as minerals.[47]

Muscle proteins are either soluble in water (sarcoplasmic proteins, about 11.5 percent of total muscle mass) or in concentrated salt solutions (myofibrillar proteins, about 5.5 percent of mass).[48] There are several hundred sarcoplasmic proteins.[49] Most of them – the glycolytic enzymes – are involved in the glycolytic pathway, i.e., the conversion of stored energy into muscle power.[50] The two most abundant myofibrillar proteins, myosin and actin,[51] are responsible for the muscle's overall structure. The remaining protein mass consists of connective tissue (collagen and elastin) as well as organelle tissue.[47]

Fat in meat can be either adipose tissue, used by the animal to store energy and consisting of "true fats" (esters of glycerol with fatty acids),[52] or intramuscular fat, which contains considerable quantities of phospholipids and of unsaponifiable constituents such as cholesterol.[52]

Red and white meat

Meat can be broadly classified as "red" or "white" depending on the concentration of myoglobin in muscle fibre. When myoglobin is exposed to oxygen, reddish oxymyoglobin develops, making myoglobin-rich meat appear red. The redness of meat depends on species, animal age, and fibre type: Red meat contains more narrow muscle fibres that tend to operate over long periods without rest,[53] while white meat contains more broad fibres that tend to work in short fast bursts.[53]

The meat of adult mammals such as cows, sheep, goats, and horses is generally considered red, while domestic chicken and turkey breast meat is generally considered white.

Meat nutritional information

Typical Meat Nutritional Content
from 110 grams (4 oz or .25 lb)
Source calories protein carbs fat
fish 110–140 20–25 g 0 g 1–5 g
chicken breast 160 28 g 0 g 7 g
lamb 250 30 g 0 g 14 g
steak (beef top round) 210 36 g 0 g 7 g
steak (beef T-bone) 450 25 g 0 g 35 g
Further information: Nutrition, Foodborne illness, Health concerns associated with red meat

All muscle tissue is very high in protein, containing all of the essential amino acids, and in most cases is a good source of zinc, vitamin B12, selenium, phosphorus, niacin, vitamin B6, choline, riboflavin and iron.[54] Several forms of meat are high in vitamin K2,[55] which is only otherwise known to be found in fermented foods[citation needed], with natto having the highest concentration.[55] Muscle tissue is very low in carbohydrates and does not contain dietary fiber.[56] The fat content of meat can vary widely depending on the species and breed of animal, the way in which the animal was raised, including what it was fed, the anatomical part of the body, and the methods of butchering and cooking. Wild animals such as deer are typically leaner than farm animals, leading those concerned about fat content to choose game such as venison. Decades of breeding meat animals for fatness is being reversed by consumer demand for meat with less fat.

Red meat, such as beef, pork, and lamb, contains many essential nutrients necessary for healthy growth and development in children. Nutrients in red meat include iron, zinc, vitamin B12, and protein.[54] Most meats contain a full complement of the amino acids required for the human diet. Fruits and vegetables, by contrast, sometimes lack several essential amino acids contained in meat. It is for this reason that people who abstain from eating all meat need to plan their diet more carefully to include vegetarian sources of all the necessary amino acids.[57] (See Section Issues of Meat for more details.)

The table in this section compares the nutritional content of several types of meat. While each kind of meat has about the same content of protein and carbohydrates, there is a very wide range of fat content. It is the additional fat that contributes most to the calorie content of meat, and to concerns about dietary health.[citation needed]

Production

Meat is produced by killing the animal in question and cutting the desired flesh out of it. These procedures are called slaughter and butchery, respectively.

Attesting to the long history of meat consumption in human civilizations, ritual slaughter has become part of the practice of several religions. These rituals, as well as other pre-industrial meat production methods such as these used by indigenous peoples, are not detailed here. This section will instead provide an overview of contemporary industrialized meat production in dedicated slaughterhouses from cattle, sheep and pigs.

Transport

Upon reaching a predetermined age or weight, livestock are usually transported en masse to the slaughterhouse. Depending on its length and circumstances, this may exert stress and injuries on the animals, and some may die en route.[58] Unnecessary stress in transport may adversely affect the quality of the meat.[58] In particular, the muscles of stressed animals are low in water and glycogen, and their pH fails to attain acidic values, all of which results in poor meat quality.[59] Consequently, and also due to campaigning by animal welfare groups, laws and industry practices in several countries tend to become more restrictive with respect to the duration and other circumstances of livestock transports.

Slaughter

Animals are usually slaughtered by being first stunned and then exsanguinated (bled out). Death results from the one or the other procedure, depending on the methods employed. Stunning can be effected through asphyxiating the animals with carbon dioxide, shooting them with a gun or a captive bolt pistol, or shocking them with electric current.[60] In most forms of ritual slaughter, stunning is not allowed.

Draining as much blood as possible from the carcase is necessary because blood causes the meat to have an unappealing appearance and is a very good breeding ground for microorganisms.[61] The exsanguination is accomplished by severing the carotid artery and the jugular vein in cattle and sheep, and the anterior vena cava in pigs.[62]

Dressing and cutting

After exsanguination, the carcase is dressed; that is, the head, feet, hide (except hogs and some veal), excess fat, viscera and offal are removed, leaving only bones and edible muscle.[63] Cattle and pig carcases, but not those of sheep, are then split in half along the mid ventral axis, and the carcase is cut into wholesale pieces.[63] The dressing and cutting sequence, long a province of manual labor, is progressively being fully automated.[63]

Conditioning

Under hygienic conditions and without other treatment, meat can be stored at above its freezing point (–1.5 °C) for about six weeks without spoilage, during which time it undergoes an aging process that increases its tenderness and flavor.[64]

During the first day after death, glycolysis continues until the accumulation of lactic acid causes the pH to reach about 5.5. The remaining glycogen, about 18 g per kg, is believed to increase the water-holding capacity and tenderness of the flesh when cooked.[65] Rigor mortis sets in a few hours after death as ATP is used up, causing actin and myosin to combine into rigid actomyosin and lowering the meat's water-holding capacity,[66] causing it to lose water ("weep").[67] In muscles that enter rigor in a contracted position, actin and myosin filaments overlap and cross-bond, resulting in meat that is tough on cooking[68] – hence again the need to prevent pre-slaughter stress in the animal.

Over time, the muscle proteins denature in varying degree, with the exception of the collagen and elastin of connective tissue,[69] and rigor mortis resolves. Because of these changes, the meat is tender and pliable when cooked just after death or after the resolution of rigor, but tough when cooked during rigor.[69] As the muscle pigment myoglobin denatures, its iron oxidates, which may cause a brown discoloration near the surface of the meat.[67] Ongoing proteolysis also contributes to conditioning. Hypoxanthine, a breakdown product of ATP, contributes to the meat's flavor and odor, as do other products of the discomposition of muscle fat and protein.[70]

Spoilage and preservation

The spoilage of meat occurs, if untreated, in a matter of hours or days and results in the meat becoming unappetizing, poisonous or infectious. Spoilage is caused by the practically unavoidable infection and subsequent decomposition of meat by bacteria and fungi, which are borne by the animal itself, by the people handling the meat, and by their implements. Meat can be kept edible for a much longer time – though not indefinitely – if proper hygiene is observed during production and processing, and if appropriate food safety, food preservation and food storage procedures are applied. Without the application of preservatives and stabilizers, the fats in meat may also begin to rapidly decompose after cooking or processing, leading to an objectionable taste known as warmed over flavor.

Methods of preparation

A spit barbecue at a street fair in New York City's East Village.

Fresh meat can be cooked for immediate consumption, or be processed, that is, treated for longer-term preservation and later consumption, possibly after further preparation. A common additive to processed meats, both for preservation and because it prevents discoloring, is sodium nitrite, which, however, is also a source of health concerns, because it may form carcinogenic nitrosamines when heated.[71]

Meat is prepared in many ways, as steaks, in stews, fondue, or as dried meat like beef jerky. It may be ground then formed into patties (as hamburgers or croquettes), loaves, or sausages, or used in loose form (as in "sloppy joe" or Bolognese sauce). Some meat is cured, by smoking, pickling, preserving in salt or brine (see salted meat and curing). Other kinds of meat are marinated and barbecued, or simply boiled, roasted, or fried. Meat is generally eaten cooked, but there are many traditional recipes that call for raw beef, veal or fish (tartare). Meat is often spiced or seasoned, as in most sausages. Meat dishes are usually described by their source (animal and part of body) and method of preparation.

Meat is a typical base for making sandwiches. Popular varieties of sandwich meat include ham, pork, salami and other sausages, and beef, such as steak, roast beef, corned beef, pepperoni, and pastrami. Meat can also be molded or pressed (common for products that include offal, such as haggis and scrapple) and canned.

Issues with meat consumption

File:Processedmeat.jpg
Processed meat in an American supermarket
Fresh meat in a Mexican supermarket
Kangaroo meat at an Australian supermarket

Ethics

Ethical issues regarding the consumption of meat can include objections to the act of killing animals or the agricultural practices surrounding the production of meat. Reasons for objecting to the practice of killing animals for consumption may include animal rights, environmental ethics, religious doctrine, or an aversion to inflicting pain or harm on other sentient creatures. The religion of Jainism has always opposed eating meat, and there are also many schools of Buddhism, Hinduism and Sikhism that condemn the eating of meat. Some people, while not vegetarians, refuse to eat the flesh of certain animals, such as cats, dogs, horses, or rabbits, due to cultural or religious taboo. In some cases, specific meats (especially from pigs and cows) are forbidden within religious traditions. Some people eat only the flesh of animals which they believe have not been mistreated, and abstain from the meat of animals reared in factory farms or from particular products such as foie gras and veal.

Health

See Articles: Vegetarianism and Vegan

Consumption of large quantities of meat has certain adverse effects[72] which can include: obesity, heart disease, and constipation.[73] In recent years, health concerns have been raised about the consumption of meat increasing the risk of cancer.[74] In particular, red meat and processed meat were found to be associated with higher risk of cancers of the lung, esophagus, liver, and colon, among others, although also a reduced risk for some minor type of cancers.[74] Another study found an increase risk of pancreatic cancer for red meat and pork.[75] That study also suggests that fat and saturated fat are not likely contributors to pancreatic cancer. Animal fat, particularly from ruminants, tends to have a higher percentage of saturated fat vs. monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat when compared to vegetable fats, with the exception of some tropical plant fats;[76] consumption of which has been correlated with various health problems. The saturated fat found in meat has been associated with significantly raised risks of colon cancer,[77][78] although evidence suggests that risks of prostate cancer are unrelated to animal fat consumption.[79] USDA claims (see Dietary Guidelines for Americans) that consumption of meat as a source of protein in the human diet is crucial,[34] have been resoundingly contradicted by recent studies.[80][81][82]

The correlation of meat consumption to increased risk of heart disease is controversial. Some studies fail to find a link between red meat consumption and heart disease[83] (although the same study found statistically significant correlation between the consumption of processed meat and cancer), while another study, a survey, conducted in 1960, of 25,153 California Seventh-Day Adventists, found that the risk of heart disease is three times greater for 45-64 year old men who eat meat daily, versus those who did not eat meat.[84][85] in 2010 involving over one million people who ate meat found that only processed meat had an adverse risk in relation to coronary heart disease. The study suggests that eating 50g (less than 2oz) of processed meat per day increases risk of coronary heart disease by 42%, and diabetes by 19%. Equivalent levels of fat, including saturated fats, in unprocessed meat (even when eating twice as much per day) did not show any deleterious effects, leading the researchers to suggest that "differences in salt and preservatives, rather than fats, might explain the higher risk of heart disease and diabetes seen with processed meats, but not with unprocessed red meats."

A 2009 study by the National Cancer Institute revealed a correlation between the consumption of red meat and increased mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases.[86] This study has been criticized for using an improperly validated food frequency questionnaire,[87] which has been shown to have low levels of accuracy.[88][89]

In response to changing prices as well as health concerns about saturated fat and cholesterol, consumers have altered their consumption of various meats. A USDA report points out that consumption of beef in the United States between 1970–1974 and 1990–1994 dropped by 21%, while consumption of chicken increased by 90%. During the same period of time, the price of chicken dropped by 14% relative to the price of beef. In 1995 and 1996, beef consumption increased due to higher supplies and lower prices.

A recent study by the Translational Genomics Research Institute showed that nearly half (47%) percent of the meat and poultry in U.S. grocery stores were contaminated with S. aureus, with more than half (52%) of those bacteria resistant to antibiotics.[90]

Cooking

Meat can transmit certain diseases, but complete cooking and avoiding recontamination reduces this possibility.[91]

Several studies published since 1990 indicate that cooking muscle meat creates heterocyclic amines (HCAs), which are thought to increase cancer risk in humans. Researchers at the National Cancer Institute published results of a study which found that human subjects who ate beef rare or medium-rare had less than one third the risk of stomach cancer than those who ate beef medium-well or well-done.[92] While eating muscle meat raw may be the only way to avoid HCAs fully, the National Cancer Institute states that cooking meat below 212 °F (100 °C) creates "negligible amounts" of HCAs. Also, microwaving meat before cooking may reduce HCAs by 90%.[93]

Nitrosamines, present in processed and cooked foods, have been noted as being carcinogenic, being linked to colon cancer. Also, toxic compounds called PAHs, or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, present in processed, smoked and cooked foods, are known to be carcinogenic.[94]

In vitro and imitation

Main articles: Imitation meat, In vitro meat

Various forms of imitation meat have been created for people wishing to reduce or eliminate meat consumption for health, environmental, or ethical considerations, but who still wish to taste the flavor and texture of meat. They are typically some form of processed soybean, (tofu, tempeh), but they can also be based on wheat gluten or even fungus (quorn).

In vitro meat, also known as cultured meat, is animal flesh that has never been part of a complete, living animal. Several research projects are currently experimentally growing in vitro meat, but no meat has yet been produced for public consumption.[95] The goal is to grow fully developed muscle organs, but the first generation will most likely be minced meat products.

Environmental impact

The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has estimated that direct emissions from meat production account for about 18% of the world's total greenhouse gas emissions. The FAO figure accounts for the entire meat production cycle - clearing forested land, making and transporting fertiliser, burning fossil fuels in agricultural machinery, and the front and rear end emissions of cattle and sheep.[96] In tracking food animal production from the feed through to the dinner table, the inefficiencies of grain fed meat, milk and egg production range from a 4:1 energy input to protein output ratio up to 54:1, in the opinion of Roger Segelken.[97]

The largest meat consumers (2003)[98]
 Rank  Country Consumption per capita (in kg)
1 United States 123
2 Spain 121
3 Australia 118
4 Austria 112
5 Denmark 111
6 New Zealand 109
7 Cyprus 108
8 Ireland 102
9 Canada 98
10 France 98

See also

References

  • Lawrie, R. A.; Ledward, D. A. (2006). Lawrie’s meat science (7th ed.). Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-1-84569-159-2. 

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Lawrie, 1.
  2. ^ a b c d Lawrie, 2.
  3. ^ a b Lawrie, 3.
  4. ^ a b Lawrie, 5.
  5. ^ Lawrie, 6.
  6. ^ Lawrie, 7.
  7. ^ a b Lawrie, 8.
  8. ^ Lawrie, 9.
  9. ^ Chrisafis, Angelique "France's horsemeat lovers fear US ban The Guardian, June 15th 2007, London.
  10. ^ Alan Davidson (2006). Tom Jaine, Jane Davidson and Helen Saberi. ed. The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280681-5, pp. 387-388
  11. ^ Turner, E. 2005. "Results of a recent analysis of horse remains dating to the Magdalenian period at Solutre, France," pp 70-89. In Mashkour, M (ed.). Equids in Time and Space. Oxford: Oxbow
  12. ^ Rupert Wingfield-Hayes (29 June 2002). "China's taste for the exotic". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/2074073.stm. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
  13. ^ "Vietnam's dog meat tradition". BBC News. 31 December 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/1735647.stm. Retrieved 2007-05-15."Vietnam's dog meat tradition". BBC News. 31 December 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/1735647.stm. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
  14. ^ Desiree Caluza (2006-01-17). "Dog meat eating doesn’t hound Cordillera natives". Philippine Daily Inquirer. http://news.inq7.net/regions/index.php?index=2&story_id=63272&col=36. Retrieved 2006-10-27.
  15. ^ Podberscek, A. L. (2009). "Good to Pet and Eat: The Keeping and Consuming of Dogs and Cats in South Korea" (PDF). Journal of Social Issues 65 (3): 615. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2009.01616.x. http://www.animalsandsociety.org/assets/265_podberscek.pdf.  edit
  16. ^ Francis H. Fay (June 1960) "Carnivorous walrus and some arctic zoonoses". Arctic 13, no.2: 111-122. http://arctic.synergiesprairies.ca/arctic/index.php/arctic/article/viewFile/3691/3666
  17. ^ Schwabe, Calvin W. (1979). Unmentionable cuisine. University of Virginia Press. p. 168. ISBN 9780813911625. http://books.google.com/books?id=SiBntk9jGmoC.
  18. ^ Hanley, Susan B. (1999). Everyday things in premodern Japan: the hidden legacy of material culture. University of California Press. p. 66. ISBN 0520218124. http://books.google.com/?id=f7E5a9CIploC&pg=PA66&dq=dog#v=onepage&q=dog.
  19. ^ Schwabe, Calvin W. (1979). Unmentionable cuisine. University of Virginia Press. p. 173. ISBN 9780813911625. http://books.google.com/books?id=SiBntk9jGmoC.
  20. ^ Alan Davidson (2006). Tom Jaine, Jane Davidson and Helen Saberi. ed. The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280681-5, pp. 491
  21. ^ a b Lawrie, 10.
  22. ^ Lawrie, 14.
  23. ^ a b Lawrie, 11.
  24. ^ Lawrie, 11 et seq.
  25. ^ Lawrie, 13.
  26. ^ Lawrie, 11, citing Ollson, V., Andersson, I., Ranson, K., Lundström, K. (2003) Meat Sci. 64, 287 and noting also that organically reared pigs "compare unfavourably" with conventionally reared ones "in some respects."
  27. ^ Table adapted from Lawrie, 17.
  28. ^ a b Lawrie, 18.
  29. ^ Lawrie, 19.
  30. ^ a b Lawrie, 21.
  31. ^ a b c Lawrie, 22.
  32. ^ a b Lawrie, 23.
  33. ^ Lawrie, 25.
  34. ^ a b Lawrie, 26.
  35. ^ Lawrie, 27.
  36. ^ a b Lawrie, 30.
  37. ^ a b c Lawrie, 29.
  38. ^ Lawrie, 28.
  39. ^ Lawrie, 31.
  40. ^ a b Lawrie, 32.
  41. ^ a b c Lawrie, 33.
  42. ^ Lawrie, 35.
  43. ^ Lawrie, 36 et seq.
  44. ^ a b c Lawrie, 39.
  45. ^ Lawrie, 94–126.
  46. ^ Lawrie, 126.
  47. ^ a b Lawrie, 76.
  48. ^ Lawrie, 75.
  49. ^ Lawrie, 77.
  50. ^ Lawrie, 78.
  51. ^ Lawrie, 79.
  52. ^ a b Lawrie, 82.
  53. ^ a b Lawrie, 93.
  54. ^ a b http://www.beef.org/uDocs/whatyoumisswithoutmeat638.pdf
  55. ^ a b Schurgers, L. J.; Vermeer, C. (2000). "Determination of phylloquinone and menaquinones in food. Effect of food matrix on circulating vitamin K concentrations". Haemostasis 30 (6): 298–307. PMID 11356998.  edit
  56. ^ "Dietary Fiber". Ext.colostate.edu. http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09333.html. Retrieved 2010-05-01. 
  57. ^ "Vegetarian eating - Better Health Channel". Betterhealth.vic.gov.au. http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Vegetarian_eating?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2010-05-01. 
  58. ^ a b Lawrie, 129.
  59. ^ Lawrie, 130.
  60. ^ Lawrie, 134 et seq.
  61. ^ Lawrie, 134.
  62. ^ Lawrie, 137.
  63. ^ a b c Lawrie, 138.
  64. ^ Lawrie, 141.
  65. ^ Lawrie, 87.
  66. ^ Lawrie, 90.
  67. ^ a b Lawrie, 146.
  68. ^ Lawrie, 144.
  69. ^ a b Lawrie, 142.
  70. ^ Lawrie, 155.
  71. ^ Ronald B. Pegg; Fereidoon Shahidi (2004). Nitrite Curing of Meat: The N-Nitrosamine Problem and Nitrite Alternatives. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-917678-50-8. 
  72. ^ "Shattering The Meat Myth: Humans Are Natural Vegetarians". Huffington Post. 2009-06-11. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kathy-freston/shattering-the-meat-myth_b_214390.html. Retrieved 2010-02-21. 
  73. ^ "// Health Issues // Optimal Vegan Nutrition". Goveg.com. http://goveg.com/essential_nutrients.asp#iron. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
  74. ^ a b Cross, Amanda; Leitzmann, MF; Gail, MH; Hollenbeck, AR; Schatzkin, A; Sinha, R (2007). "A Prospective Study of Red and Processed Meat Intake in Relation to Cancer Risk". PLoS Medicine (the Public Library of Science) 4 (12): e325. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040325. PMC 2121107. PMID 18076279. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2121107. 
  75. ^ Nothlings, U.; Wilkens, L. R.; Murphy, S. P.; Hankin, J. H.; Henderson, B. E.; Kolonel, L. N.. "Meat and Fat Intake as Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort Study - Nöthlings et al. 97 (19): 1458 - JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute". JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute (Jnci.oxfordjournals.org) 97 (19): 1458. doi:10.1093/jnci/dji292. http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/97/19/1458?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=pancreatic+red+meat&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT. Retrieved 2010-05-01. 
  76. ^ "Nutrients, Vitamins, Minerals and Dietary Information". Nutristrategy.com. http://www.nutristrategy.com/nutritioninfo2.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-01. 
  77. ^ "What You Eat May Influence Colon Cancer Relapse". American Cancer Society. 2007-08-21. Archived from the original on 2008-04-19. http://web.archive.org/web/20080419131054/http://www.cancer.org/docroot/NWS/content/NWS_1_1x_What_You_Eat_May_Influence_Colon_Cancer_Relapse.asp. Retrieved 2008-07-21. 
  78. ^ Taylor, E F; Burley, V J; Greenwood, D C; Cade, J E. "Meat consumption and risk of breast cancer in the UK Women's Cohort Study". British Journal of Cancer 96 (7): 1139–46. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603689. PMC 2360120. PMID 17406351. http://www.nature.com/bjc/journal/v96/n7/full/6603689a.html. Retrieved 2010-05-01. 
  79. ^ Park, S. Y.; Murphy, S. P.; Wilkens, L. R.; Henderson, B. E.; Kolonel, L. N. (2007). "Fat and meat intake and prostate cancer risk: The multiethnic cohort study". International Journal of Cancer 121 (6): 1339–1345. doi:10.1002/ijc.22805. PMID 17487838.  edit
  80. ^ Rejecting meat 'keeps weight low', BBC News, March 14, 2006.
  81. ^ American Dietetic, A.; Dietitians Of, C. (2003). "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 103 (6): 748–765. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142. PMID 12778049.  edit
  82. ^ Maggie Fox, Meat raises lung cancer risk, too, study finds, Reuters, December 10, 2007; Cross, A. J.; Leitzmann, M. F.; Gail, M. H.; Hollenbeck, A. R.; Schatzkin, A.; Sinha, R. (2007). "A Prospective Study of Red and Processed Meat Intake in Relation to Cancer Risk". PLoS Medicine 4 (12): e325. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040325. PMC 2121107. PMID 18076279. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2121107.  edit
  83. ^ http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.924977v1
  84. ^ Snowdon, D. A.; Phillips, R. L.; Fraser, G. E. (1984). "Meat consumption and fatal ischemic heart disease". Preventive medicine 13 (5): 490–500. PMID 6527990.  edit
  85. ^ major Harvard University study
  86. ^ Sinha, R.; Cross, A. J.; Graubard, B. I.; Leitzmann, M. F.; Schatzkin, A. (Mar 2009). "Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people". Archives of Internal Medicine 169 (6): 562–571. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.6. ISSN 0003-9926. PMC 2803089. PMID 19307518. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2803089.  edit
  87. ^ De Abreu Silva, E. .; Marcadenti, A. . (2009). "Higher red meat intake may be a marker of risk, not a risk factor itself". Archives of Internal Medicine 169 (16): 1538–1539; author 1539 1539. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.278. PMID 19752416.  edit
  88. ^ Salvini, S; Hunter, Dj; Sampson, L; Stampfer, Mj; Colditz, Ga; Rosner, B; Willett, Wc (Dec 1989). "Food-based validation of a dietary questionnaire: the effects of week-to-week variation in food consumption". International journal of epidemiology 18 (4): 858–67. doi:10.1093/ije/18.4.858. ISSN 0300-5771. PMID 2621022.  edit
  89. ^ Rosner, B.; Gore, R. (Nov 2001). "Measurement error correction in nutritional epidemiology based on individual foods, with application to the relation of diet to breast cancer" (Free full text). American journal of epidemiology 154 (9): 827–835. doi:10.1093/aje/154.9.827. ISSN 0002-9262. PMID 11682365. http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11682365.  edit
  90. ^ US Meat and Poultry Is Widely Contaminated With Drug-Resistant Staph Bacteria
  91. ^ Corpet, Denis; Yin, Y; Zhang, X; Rémésy, C; Stamp, D; Medline, A; Thompson, L; Bruce, W et al. (1995). "Colonic protein fermentation and promotion of colon carcinogenesis by thermolyzed casein". Nutr Cancer (Nutr Cancer.) 23 (3): 271–81. doi:10.1080/01635589509514381. PMC 2518970. PMID 7603887. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2518970. 
  92. ^ "National Cancer Institute - Heterocyclic Amines in Cooked Meats". Cancer.gov. 2004-09-15. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/heterocyclic-amines. Retrieved 2010-05-01. 
  93. ^ "Heterocyclic Amines in Cooked Meats - National Cancer Institute". Cancer.gov. 2004-09-15. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/heterocyclic-amines. Retrieved 2010-05-01. 
  94. ^ "PAH - Occurrence in foods, dietary exposure and health effects" (PDF). http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scf/out154_en.pdf. Retrieved 2010-05-01. 
  95. ^ Siegelbaum, D.J. (2008-04-23). "In Search of a Test-Tube Hamburger". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1734630,00.html?imw=Y. Retrieved 2009-04-30. 
  96. ^ Black, Richard (2008--09-03). "Shun meat, says UN climate chief". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7600005.stm. Retrieved 2009-05-14. 
  97. ^ "U.S. could feed 800 million people with grain that livestock eat". News.cornell.edu. 1997-08-07. http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/Aug97/livestock.hrs.html. Retrieved 2010-05-01. 
  98. ^ FAO (2009): FAOSTAT. Rom.

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • méat — méat …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • MEAT — (Heb. בָּשָׂר, basar), the flesh of animals permitted for consumption. (For its meaning as human flesh and symbolic connotation, see flesh .) The Talmud points out (Sanh. 59b) that according to the biblical account the consumption of meat was… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • méat — [ mea ] n. m. • 1575; méate « passage, conduit » dès 1500; a. provenç. meat (XIVe); lat. meatus 1 ♦ Anat. Orifice d un canal. Méat urinaire : orifice externe de l urètre. Méats inférieur, moyen, supérieur, du nez : cavités des fosses nasales… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • meat — W3S2 [mi:t] n [: Old English; Origin: mete food ] 1.) [U and C] the flesh of animals and birds eaten as food ▪ I gave up eating meat a few months ago. ▪ raw meat ▪ a meat pie ▪ a selection of cold meats red meat (=a …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Meat — (m[=e]t), n. [OE. mete, AS. mete; akin to OS. mat, meti, D. met hashed meat, G. mettwurst sausage, OHG. maz food, Icel. matr, Sw. mat, Dan. mad, Goth. mats. Cf. {Mast} fruit, {Mush}.] 1. Food, in general; anything eaten for nourishment, either by …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • meat — (n.) O.E. mete food, item of food (paired with drink), from P.Gmc. *mati (Cf. O.Fris. mete, O.S. meti, O.N. matr, O.H.G. maz, Goth. mats food, M.Du., Du. metworst, Ger. Mettwurst type of sausage ), from PIE *mad i …   Etymology dictionary

  • meat — [ mit ] noun *** 1. ) uncount the flesh of an animal or bird eaten as food a ) count a particular type of meat: You can choose from a selection of meats. 2. ) uncount INFORMAL interesting or important parts of something such as a book, movie, or… …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • meat — MEÁT, meaturi, s.n. 1. (anat.) Canal îngust şi subţire sau orificiul acestuia, aflate în diferite organe. 2. Spaţiu, interstiţiu între celulele unui ţesut vegetal. [pr.: me at] – Din fr. méat, lat. meatus. Trimis de RACAI, 30.09.2003. Sursa: DEX… …   Dicționar Român

  • meat´i|ly — meat|y «MEE tee», adjective, meat|i|er, meat|i|est. 1. of meat; having the flavor of meat: »some choice meaty bits. 2. like meat: »a meaty texture …   Useful english dictionary

  • meat|y — «MEE tee», adjective, meat|i|er, meat|i|est. 1. of meat; having the flavor of meat: »some choice meaty bits. 2. like meat: »a meaty texture …   Useful english dictionary

  • Meat — Personaje de Mortal Kombat Creador(es) John Tobias y Ed Boon Información Sexo Masculino …   Wikipedia Español